World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Delta Upsilon known as DU, is a collegiate men's fraternity founded on November 4, 1834 at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. It is the all-male, college Greek-letter organization founded in North America, it is popularly and informally known as "DU" or "Delta U" and its members are called "DUs". Although found on the campuses of small New England private universities, Delta Upsilon has 76 chapters/colonies across the United States and Canada. A number of its buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2013, Business Insider named Delta Upsilon one of the "17 Fraternities with Top Wall Street Alumni". Notable members include president of the United States James A. Garfield, president of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, Canadian prime minister Lester B. Pearson, Linus Pauling, Joseph P. Kennedy, Lou Holtz, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Charles Evans Hughes, Les Aspin, others. Forty-two brothers of the fraternity have sat in the United States Congress, three in the Parliament of Canada, one in the Imperial House of Peers of Japan, six on the Queen's Privy Council for Canada.
Its members have received six Nobel Prizes, five Olympic gold medals, one Pulitzer Prize, four Medals of Honor, one Lenin Peace Prize, one Presidential Medal of Freedom, seven investitures into the Order of Canada, one investiture each into the Order of St Michael and St George, the Order of Merit, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. Delta Upsilon was founded in 1834, when thirty freshman and junior students at Williams College met in the Freshman Recitation Room at the West College building to form what was called "the Social Fraternity"; the move was in response to the establishment of Kappa Alpha and Sigma Phi at the college and, unlike those fraternities, the Social Fraternity was avowedly anti-secret. Its founding came at the tail-end of the anti-Masonic hysteria that had swept the United States, though the idea that it was part of the popular backlash to Freemasonry has been rejected. Growth of the Social Fraternity was exponential. By 1838 two-thirds of all students at Williams belonged to the society which engaged in militant agitation against the other two fraternities.
One violent incident occurred in 1839 when Oudens assaulted the Kappa Alpha house, driving its occupants to the top of Consumption Hill. More refined conflict took the form of pamphlets and debate. An 1855 debate proposed by Kappa Alpha against the Oudens was called-off after the Social Fraternity appointed James Garfield, an Ouden well known for his rhetorical skills, to represent them. In November 1847 Williams' Social Fraternity met with similar societies, formed at Union College, Hamilton College, Amherst College and formed the "Anti-Secret Confederation". A second meeting of the Anti-Secret Confederation in 1852 saw fraternities from Wesleyan University, Case Western Reserve University, Colby College, the University of Vermont join. At the 1862 convention, the fraternity's mother chapter, declared the purposes of the fraternity had been corrupted and, over the objections of the other chapters, withdrew. Two years it dissolved itself. A chapter would be restored. However, Williams being the first chapter and, self-chartering, this would come in the form of a new chapter and not the revival of the original.
It was permanently erased when Williams College banned all fraternities in 1962. The March 1864 convention of the A. S. C. saw the organization formally change its name to Delta Upsilon, standardize insignia and ritual throughout all its member chapters, establish a centralized administrative structure. In 1879, Delta Upsilon formally disavowed its policy of anti-secrecy, instead adopting a program of what it described as "non-secrecy". According to Delta Upsilon, the reason for this change was because it had been victorious in its battle against secrecy, "the character of the secret societies so altered, that hostility toward them decreased"; this explanation has been more skeptically received by some, with one period observer caustically noting that Delta Upsilon "reveals little more of what it does than the latter ". Others commented that chapter meetings were closed to all but initiated members and the fraternity was now practicing selective pledging and initiation, in contrast to its earliest days at Williams.
Therefore, it was proffered, the description of the fraternity as a "private" society rather than a "non-secret" one might be more accurate. The Harvard Crimson, poetically attributed the official change of position as due to "the sheer exhaustion of those that heretofore have maintained a vigorous tilt at the windmill for exercise's sake, on finding that the windmill stands the attack much better than they". Writing in 2013, Benjamin Wurgraft of the New School for Social Research commented that Delta Upsilon's changes made it "nothing more than another fraternity—a rival for pledges rather than a force for unity". At the turn of the century the fraternity's growth plateaued due, in part, to opposition from a group of chapters to what was seen as the lessening of the fraternity's standards through colonization. In 1898, Delta Upsilon joined the recent trend of fraternity expansion into Canada by chartering a chapter at McGill University in Montreal. However, most expansion in this period came in the form of the annexation of established local fraternities.
Zeta Chi at Baker Univers
In monetary policy of the United States, the term Fedspeak is what Alan Blinder called "a turgid dialect of English" used by Federal Reserve Board chairmen in making wordy and ambiguous statements. The strategy, used most prominently by Alan Greenspan, was used to prevent financial markets from overreacting to the chairman's remarks; the coinage is an intentional parallel to Newspeak of Nineteen Eighty-Four, a novel by George Orwell. Fedspeak when used by Alan Greenspan is called Greenspeak. An alternative definition of Greenspeak is "the coded and careful language employed by U. S. Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan."Edwin le Heron and Emmanuel Carre state that "Nowadays,'Fedspeak' means clear and extensive communication of the Fed's action." Chairman Ben Bernanke and Chairwoman Yellen have effected a major change in Fed communication policy departing from the obfuscation that characterized the previous three decades. In 2014 a new detailed level of Fed communication was dubbed Fedspeak 3.0.
In 2018, Chairman Jerome Powell would begin press conferences with a summary statement in plain English, in contrast to his predecessors who would read lengthy prepared statements loaded with monetary policy jargon. The notion of fed speak originated from the fact that financial markets placed a heavy value on the statements made by Federal Reserve governors, which could in turn lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy. To prevent this, the governors developed a language, termed Fedspeak, in which ambiguous and cautious statements were made to purposefully obscure and detract meaning from the statement. Though previous "Fed" chairmen Arthur Burns and Paul Volcker were known for blowing smoke and figuratively, when appearing before Congress, Alan Greenspan is credited with making Fedspeak a "high-art", it is unclear whether the term Fedspeak was used prior to Greenspan, but with historical hindsight the modern term could be used to describe Burns's and Volcker's method. Although it was believed by some that Alan Greenspan, credited for popularizing Fedspeak, may have used such language unintentionally, he revealed in his 2007 book The Age of Turbulence, that the method of avoiding the issues directly when a clear message was not desired was indeed intentional.
Greenspan states that the confusion, which resulted in conflicting interpretations, was used to prevent unintended jolts to the markets as confusing statements were ignored. He noted that he came upon the dialect while at the Fed: "What I've learned at the Federal Reserve is a new language, called'Fed-speak'. You soon learn to mumble with great incoherence."In an interview with 60 Minutes's Lesley Stahl on September 16, 2007, Stahl stated how "In public, Greenspan was inscrutable whenever congress asked about interest rates. He resorted to an indecipherable delphic dialect known as fedspeak" to which Greenspan responded that "I would engage in some form of syntax destruction which sounded as though I were answering the question, but in fact, had not." When Stahl noted that Greenspan's responses were "impenetrably profound" and that this resulted in "two newspapers getting opposing headlines coming out of the same hearing", Greenspan responded that "I succeeded". In an interview with CNBC's Maria Bartiromo on September 17, 2007, when asked to describe Fedspeak, Greenspan described it as: It's a—a language of purposeful obfuscation to avoid certain questions coming up, which you know you can't answer, saying—'I will not answer or no comment is, in fact, an answer.'
So, you end up with when, say, a Congressman asks you a question, don't wanna say,'No comment', or'I won't answer', or something like that. So, I proceed with four or five sentences which get obscure; the Congressman thinks I goes onto the next one. In an interview with BusinessWeek in August 2012, when asked "about practicing the art of constructive ambiguity", Greenspan replied: As Fed chairman, every time I expressed a view, I added or subtracted 10 basis points from the credit market; that was not helpful. But I nonetheless had to testify before Congress. On questions that were too market-sensitive to answer,'no comment' was indeed an answer, and so you construct what we used to call Fed-speak. I would hypothetically think of a little plate in front of my eyes, the Washington Post, the following morning's headline, I would catch myself in the middle of a sentence. Instead of just stopping, I would continue on resolving the sentence in some obscure way which made it incomprehensible, but nobody was quite sure.
And that became the so-called Fed-speak. It's a self-protection mechanism... when you're in an environment where people are shooting questions at you, you've got to be careful about the nuances of what you're going to say and what you don't say. As of 2011, the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas website still maintains a "Greenspeak" page with dozens of excerpts from Greenspan's past statements as head of the Federal Reserve Bank; each quotation has a pointer to its full context in his speech, is posted without commentary or interpretation. The members of the Board of Governors and the Reserve Bank presidents foresee an implicit strengthening of activity after the current rebalancing is over, although the central tendency of their individual forecasts for real GDP still shows a substantial slowdown, on balance, for the year as a whole. Risk takers have been encouraged by a perceived increase in economic stability to reach out to more distant time horizons, but long periods of relative stability engender unrealistic expectations of it permanence
Swarthmore is a borough in Delaware County, United States. Swarthmore was named "Westdale" in honor of noted painter Benjamin West, one of the early residents of the town; the name was changed to "Swarthmore" after the establishment of Swarthmore College. The borough population was 6,194 as of the 2010 census; the borough was part of Springfield Township, grew up around Swarthmore College, founded in 1864. The advent of passenger rail service from Philadelphia in the 1880s enhanced the desirability of the borough as a commuter suburb, the borough was incorporated in 1893; the Ogden House and Benjamin West Birthplace are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Swarthmore is located in east-central Delaware County at 39°54′6″N 75°20′49″W, it is bordered to the north and southwest by Springfield Township, to the southeast by Ridley Township, to the west by Nether Providence Township. Crum Creek, a south-flowing tributary of the Delaware River, forms the western boundary of the borough.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Swarthmore borough has a total area of 1.40 square miles, all of it land. Swarthmore is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly as the PA 161st Legislative District and the PA 26th Senate District; the former position is held by the latter until 2019 by Tom McGarrigle. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,194 people, 1,963 households, 1,327 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,460.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,081 housing units at an average density of 1,492.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 82.5% White, 7.7% Asian, 5.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander.7% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 1,963 households, out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.4% were non-families.
27.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.06. In the borough the population was spread out, with 20.7% under the age of 18, 15.8% from 20 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. As of 2015, the median income for a household in the borough was $101,686, the median income for a family was $144,570. Males had a median income of $71,750 versus $51,117 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $40,482. About 0.0% of families and 2.3% of the population were below the poverty line. Swarthmore lies within the Wallingford-Swarthmore School District. In 1983, the district was formed via a merger with the Nether Providence School District and Swarthmore-Rutledge School District.
Public school students attend Swarthmore-Rutledge Elementary School, housed in the old Swarthmore High School, for grades K-5, Strath Haven Middle School for grades 6-8, Strath Haven High School for grades 9-12. The borough's only private school is the George Crothers Memorial School, housed in the old Rutgers Avenue School. Notre Dame de Lourdes Catholic School is located adjacent to the borough. For higher education, the borough is home to Swarthmore College, an academically-acclaimed private liberal arts college. Scott Arboretum is located on the campus of Swarthmore College; the Swarthmore Public Library is at 121 Park Avenue in the center of the borough. Swarthmore Station, a SEPTA Regional Rail train station on the Media/Elwyn Line, sits between the college and the town's center. SEPTA Route 109 bus connecting Chester with Upper Darby stops along Chester Road. Charles Andes Edmund Jones, Swarthmore Mayor from 1966-1971 and Pennsylvania State Representative 1971-1974 Mary Gay Scanlon, U. S. Representative, 2018-present Benjamin West Borough of Swarthmore official website Swarthmore Public Library A Healthy Spot titled Swarthmore, a 1944 poem by resident W.
Selbyville is a town in Sussex County, United States. The population was 2,167 at the 2010 census, an increase of 31.7% over the previous decade. It is part of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Selbyville traces its history back to its founding in 1778, it was incorporated in 1902. Selbyville was known as Sandy Branch due to its location on a branch of that name emanating in the Cypress Swamp at the head of the St. Martin's River. A grist mill and saw mill opened there in the late 18th century. In 1842, Sampson Selby began marking packages for delivery to Selby-Ville. By 1918, Selbyville was the major supplier of strawberries for the entire east coast, an industry that remained strong until the 1930s. Today, one of its main employers is Mountaire Farms, a poultry company, which runs a processing plant on Hosier Street; this town is home of the Mumford Sheet Metal Works, which once held the world record for the largest frying pan in 1950. Selbyville is home to Doyle's Restaurant, recognized by the State of Delaware as the oldest operating diner in the State, still has the original 1930's diner attached to the main restaurant, still available for diners to eat at.
Selbyville is located at 38°27′37″N 75°13′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,645 people, 615 households, 439 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,176.9 people per square mile. There were 664 housing units at an average density of 475.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 72.89% White, 15.38% African American, 0.73% Asian, 0.55% Pacific Islander, 9.48% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.09% of the population. There were 615 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the town, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,250, the median income for a family was $41,522. Males had a median income of $25,368 versus $20,660 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,965. About 10.6% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.4% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over. The former home of Senator John G. Townsend, Jr. located at 11 South Main Street at the intersection with West McCabe Street, became the site of the Selbyville Public Library in 1966. A sign on the wall inside the library identifies Senator Townsend's dining room, where former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt dined with the senator in 1946.
Other distinguished visitors at the senator's home included future President Richard Nixon. The home itself was built in 1904; the senator's family donated his house to the library. The library's Board of Commissioners hired Patricia Woods, former school librarian of Sussex Technical High School, to serve as the Selbyville library director in July 2012, she retired after 21 years as librarian for the high school. Under her administration, the school library started operating in a small office without any books and grew into a six-room, award-winning facility. List of towns in Delaware Official website
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo