Thomas Bewick was an English wood-engraver and natural history author. Early in his career he took on all kinds of work such as engraving cutlery, making the wood blocks for advertisements, illustrating children's books, he turned to illustrating and publishing his own books, gaining an adult audience for the fine illustrations in A History of Quadrupeds. His career began, he became a partner in the business and took it over. Apprentices whom Bewick trained include John Anderson, Luke Clennell, William Harvey, who in their turn became well known as painters and engravers. Bewick is best known for his A History of British Birds, admired today for its wood engravings the small observed, humorous vignettes known as tail-pieces; the book was the forerunner of all modern field guides. He notably illustrated editions of Aesop's Fables throughout his life, he is credited with popularising a technical innovation in the printing of illustrations using wood. He adopted metal-engraving tools to cut hard boxwood across the grain, producing printing blocks that could be integrated with metal type, but were much more durable than traditional woodcuts.
The result was high-quality illustration at a low price. Bewick was born at Cherryburn, a house in the village of Mickley, near Newcastle upon Tyne on 10 or 11 August 1753, although his birthday was always celebrated on the 12th, his parents were tenant farmers: his father John had been married before his union with Jane, was in his forties when Thomas, the eldest of eight, was born. John rented a small colliery at Mickley Bank, which employed six men. Bewick attended school in the nearby village of Ovingham. Bewick did not flourish at schoolwork, but at a early age showed a talent for drawing, he had no lessons in art. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to Ralph Beilby, an engraver in Newcastle, where he learnt how to engrave on wood and metal, for example marking jewellery and cutlery with family names and coats of arms. In Beilby's workshop Bewick engraved a series of diagrams on wood for Charles Hutton, illustrating a treatise on measurement, he seems thereafter to have devoted himself to engraving on wood, in 1775 he received a prize from the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce for a wood engraving of the "Huntsman and the Old Hound" from Select Fables by the late Mr Gay, which he was illustrating.
In 1776 Bewick became a partner in Beilby's workshop. The joint business prospered, becoming Newcastle's leading engraving service with an enviable reputation for high-quality work and good service. In September 1776 he went to London for eight months, finding the city rude and cruel, much disliking the unfairness of extreme wealth and poverty side by side, he returned to his beloved Newcastle as soon as he could, but his time in the capital gave him a wider reputation, business experience, an awareness of new movements in art. In 1786, when he was financially secure, he married Isabella Elliott from Ovingham, they had four children, Jane and Elizabeth. At that period in his life he was described by the Newcastle artist Thomas Sword Good as "a man of athletic make, nearly 6 feet high and proportionally stout, he possessed great personal courage and in his younger years was not slow to repay an insult with personal chastisement. On one occasion, being assaulted by two pitmen on returning from a visit to Cherryburn, he resolutely turned upon the aggressors, as he said,'paid them both well'."Bewick was noted as having a strong moral sense and was an early campaigner for fair treatment of animals.
He objected to the docking of horses' tails, the mistreatment of performing animals such as bears, cruelty to dogs. Above all, he thought war utterly pointless. All these themes recur in his engravings. For example, he shows wounded soldiers with wooden legs, back from the wars, animals with a gallows in the background. Bewick had at least 30 pupils who worked for him and Beilby as apprentices, the first of, his younger brother John. Several gained distinction as engravers, including John Anderson, Luke Clennell, Charlton Nesbit, William Harvey, Robert Johnson, his son and partner Robert Elliot Bewick; the partners published their History of Quadrupeds in 1790, intended for children but reaching an adult readership, its success encouraged them to consider a more serious work of natural history. In preparation for this Bewick spent several years engraving the wood blocks for Land Birds, the first volume of A History of British Birds. Given his detailed knowledge of the birds of Northumberland, Bewick prepared the illustrations, so Beilby was given the task of assembling the text, which he struggled to do.
Bewick ended up writing most of the text. It may be proper to observe, that while one of the editors of this work was engaged in preparing the Engravings, the compilation of the descriptions was undertaken by the other, however, to the corrections of his friend, whose habits led him to a more intimate acquaintance with this branch of Natural History. – Land Birds, Preface. The book was an immediate success when published – by Beilby and Bewick themselves – in 1797. Just prior to its publication, Bewick published an anthology in 1795 on the stu
The Parti canadien or Parti patriote was a francophone political party in what is now Quebec founded by members of the liberal elite of Lower Canada at the beginning of the 19th century. Its members were made up of liberal professionals and small-scale merchants, including François Blanchet, Pierre-Stanislas Bédard, John Neilson, Jean-Thomas Taschereau, James Stuart, Louis Bourdages, Denis-Benjamin Viger, Daniel Tracey, Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan, Andrew Stuart and Louis-Joseph Papineau; the British Government established two oligarchic governments, or councils, to rule what is today Quebec and Ontario called Lower and Upper Canada. Upper Canada ruled by the Family Lower Canada ruled by the Chateau Clique. Both groups exerted uncontested rule over economic and political life; the councils were corrupt in their nature by strengthening their dominance by personal use of funds which led to infrastructural problems around Upper and Lower Canada, including land distribution, poor road conditions, lack of education funding.
Continuous frustration between the councils and the legislative assemblies over language differences and Lower Canada's discontent for treatment of French problems led to the beginning of the Parti Canadien. English merchants and politicians in Canada pushed for an assemblage of the Canada's, which would lead to the assimilation of the French. Louis-Joseph Papineau rallied the people of Lower Canada to sign a petition against the proposition. Papineau sailed to Britain to present the petition to the British Government and to rally for the rights of the people of Lower Canada, only to have the issue heard with little action to follow; the British Parliament passed the Canada Land and Tenures Act which abolished the feudal and seigneurial systems in British North America. The act left property rights of many land owners in limbo and created much confusion and conflict in Lower Canada where the French Civil Code was in action, thus infuriating the French people of Lower Canada more. In July 1830, word of a liberal revolution in France sparked the youth of Lower Canada as liberalism was non-existent in Canada at the time.
Upper and Lower Canada governments tried and failed to resolve the recent uprising and tension further-distancing the French people of Lower Canada from the English of Upper Canada. Under the leadership of Pierre-Stanislas Bédard, the party campaigned for ministerial responsibility and a responsible government in which the members of the Legislative Council of Quebec would be appointed by the Legislative Assembly's majority party. Although the party controlled the assembly in Lower Canada, at that time the council, which held most of the power, was chosen by an appointed British governor, whom the Parti canadien considered to be corrupt and hostile to the interests of the majority of the population. In 1806 the Parti canadien imitated its political adversaries, the Tory Château Clique, in founding a newspaper named Le Canadien. In 1810 Governor Craig had Bédard and some of his colleagues at the newspaper arrested and imprisoned without trial for a comment published in Le Canadien. In 1811 James Stuart became leader of the Parti canadien in the assembly and, in 1815, reformer Louis-Joseph Papineau was elected Assembly Speaker.
Papineau's reformist ideas gained in authority and popularity as he led the party in its fight against the union of the Canada's proposal in 1822, until the suspension of the Constitutional Act in 1837. In 1826 the party took the name of Parti Patriote, reflecting a much stronger sense of French-Canadian nationalism and a change of strategy; the Patriotes favoured agriculture over commercialism and blocked many economic projects led by their adversaries. The party succeeded in delaying development of British capitalism within the colony, however their positions were seen as unclear, the new strategy was considered too radical by some of its members, most notably John Neilson, who left the party in 1830. In 1834 Papineau and the Parti Patriote created the Ninety-Two Resolutions; the British government ignored the resolutions for over three years until in 1837 it countered the Parti Patriote's requests with ten resolutions of its own, called the Russel Resolutions, while rejecting all proposed ninety-two resolutions made by Papineau and his party.
These resolutions allowed the colony governor to obtain budgetary estimates without vote of the assembly, which brought about verbal and physical violence, led to the Rebellions of 1837. After the rebellions, many patriotes were exiled, hanged, or had their houses set ablaze, which marked the end of the party; however many party members became active members in politics of the new Province of Canada. Le Canadien La Minerve The Canadian Vindicator Le Libéral L'Écho du Pays Ouellet, Fernand. "Bédard, Pierre-Stanislas". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VI. University of Toronto Press. Kolish, Evelyn. "Stuart, Sir James". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VIII. University of Toronto Press. Ouellet, Fernand. "Parti canadien". In Hayne, David. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. X. University of Toronto Press. Roy, Fernande. "Patriotes". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Roy, Fernande. "Parti Canadien". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada; the History of Canada OnLine.
" Background of Discontent", in "History of Ca
SU2 is a suite of open-source software tools written in C++ for the numerical solution of partial differential equations and performing PDE constrained optimization. The primary applications are computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamic shape optimization, but has been extended to treat more general equations such as electrodynamics and chemically reacting flows. SU2 supports continuous and discrete adjoint for calculating the sensitivities/gradients of a scalar field. SU2 is being developed by organized teams around the world; the SU2 Lead Developers are: Dr. Thomas D. Economon; the most active groups developing SU2 are: Prof. Juan J. Alonso's group at Stanford University. Prof. Piero Colonna's group at Delft University of Technology. Prof. Nicolas R. Gauger's group at Kaiserslautern University of Technology. Prof. Alberto Guardone's group at Polytechnic University of Milan. Prof. Rafael Palacios' group at Imperial College London; the SU2 tools suite solution suite includes High-fidelity analysis and adjoint-based design using unstructured mesh technology.
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