Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh
Blickling Hall is a stately home, part of the Blickling estate. It is located in the village of Blickling north of Aylsham in Norfolk and has been in the care of the National Trust since 1940. In the 15th century, Blickling was in the possession of Sir John Fastolf of Caister in Norfolk, who made a fortune in the Hundred Years' War, whose coat of arms is still on display there; the property was in the possession of the Boleyn family, home to Thomas Boleyn Earl of Wiltshire, his wife Elizabeth between 1499 and 1505. Although the exact birth dates of their children are unknown, historians including Eric Ives are confident that all three surviving children were born at Blickling – Mary in about 1500, Anne in about 1501, George in about 1504. A statue and portrait of Anne may be found at Blickling Estate which carry the inscription, "Anna Bolena hic nata 1507", based on earlier scholarship which assigned Anne a year of birth of 1507; the house of Blickling seen today was built on the ruins of the old Boleyn property in the reign of James I, by Sir Henry Hobart, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and 1st Baronet, who bought Blickling from Robert Clere in 1616.
The architect of Hatfield House, Robert Lyminge, is credited with the design of the current structure. The Lord Chief Justice married Dorothy, the daughter of Sir Robert Bell of Beaupre Hall, Outwell/Upwell, Speaker of the House of Commons 1572–1576. A grand display of heraldic material is present throughout the estate. In 1698 the estate passed down Sir John Hobart, the 5th Baronet, created Earl of Buckinghamshire in 1746, he was responsible for creating the ha-ha and building the Doric Temple in the grounds, as well as extending the park by the purchase of adjacent land. His son the second earl remodelled the hall between 1765 and 1785. Although the estate passed down to his youngest daughter Caroline, married to Lord Suffield, the couple died childless and it thus devolved to Caroline's nephew William Kerr, the 8th Marquess of Lothian, who remodelled the west front, it thereafter passed down in the Kerr family. After the death of Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian in December 1940, the Blickling estate passed into the care of the National Trust as part of his bequest.
During World War II the house was requisitioned and served as the Officers' Mess of nearby RAF Oulton. It was at this time that the house and its estate passed to The National Trust, under the terms of the Country Houses Scheme. RAF servicemen and women were billeted within the grounds in Nissen huts, whilst RAF Officers were housed within Blickling itself; the adjacent lake was used by RAF service personnel to practice dinghy drills during the Second World War. The National Trust has created the RAF Oulton Museum on site in tribute to the RAF pilots and ground crew who served in the Second World War, this may be visited for no additional entrance fee. At the end of the war, the house was de-requisitioned; the National Trust again let it to tenants until 1960, when the Trust began the work to restore the house to a style reflecting its history. The house and grounds were opened to the public in 1962 and remain open under the name of "Blickling Estate". In 2015 the National Trust marked the 75th anniversary of Philip Kerr's death with a celebration of his life and times.
Work began in October 2015 using residual warmth from the lake. A raft of tubes, filled with a plant-based glycol, would be sunk into the lake and the liquid pumped into the main boiler-room for conversion to a higher temperature to heat the hall and west wing of the building; the new system would allow the removal of two oil tanks, produce an annual saving of more than 25,000 litres of oil, £16,000. The library at Blickling Estate contains one of the most significant collections of manuscripts and books in England; the most important manuscript associated with the house is the Blickling Homilies, one of the earliest extant examples of English vernacular homiletic writings. The Blickling homilies were first edited and translated in the 19th century by Richard Morris, whose work is still considered definitive. A more recent translation and edition by Richard J. Kelly was panned by scholars and critics upon publication. Another important manuscript at Blickling Hall is the Blickling or Lothian Psalter, an 8th-century illuminated psalter with Old English glosses, now owned by the Pierpont Morgan Library, where it is MS M.776.
The estate covers 4,777 acres and includes: 500 acres of woodland, 450 acres of parkland and 3,500 acres of farmland. Much of it is classified as Grade 2 and 3 agricultural land, managed by the National Trust to provide income to support the house, gardens and woods; the estate is listed Grade II* on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. A house and garden existed at Blickling before the estate was purchased by the Boleyn family in the 1450s, but no records survive to give an indication of their appearance. After Sir Henry Hobart acquired the estate in 1616, he remodelled the gardens to include ponds, wilderness and a parterre. A garden mount– an artificial hill in Blickling's flat landscape, was made to provide views of the new garden. With the accession of Sir John Hobart in 1698 the garden was expanded to add a new wilderness and the temple was constructed. In the latter half of the 18th century John Hobart, 2nd Earl of Buckingham, embarked on works that would radically change the appearance of the gardens.
All traces of formality were removed, arranged clumps of trees were planted to crea
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1485 and again from 1489 to 1514, was an English nobleman and politician. He was the eldest son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by Catharina de Moleyns; the Duke was the grandfather of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howard and the great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I. He served four monarchs as a statesman. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, was born in 1443 at Stoke-by-Nayland, the only surviving son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, the daughter of Sir William Moleyns and his wife Margery, he was educated at Thetford Grammar School. While a young man, he entered the service of King Edward IV as a henchman. Howard took the King's side when war broke out in 1469 with the Earl of Warwick, took sanctuary at Colchester when the King fled to Holland in 1470. Howard rejoined the royal forces at Edward's return to England in 1471, was wounded at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471, he was appointed an esquire of the body in 1473.
On 14 January 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV at the marriage of the King's second son, the young Duke of York, Lady Anne Mowbray. After the death of Edward IV on 9 April 1483, Thomas Howard and his father John supported Richard III. Thomas bore the Sword of State at Richard's coronation and served as steward at the coronation banquet. Both Thomas and his father were granted lands by the new King, Thomas was granted an annuity of £1000. On 28 June 1483, John Howard was created Duke of Norfolk. Surrey was sworn of the Privy Council and invested with the Order of the Garter. In the autumn of that year Norfolk and Surrey suppressed a rebellion against the King by the Duke of Buckingham. Both Howards remained close to King Richard throughout his two-year reign, fought for him at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, where Surrey was wounded and taken prisoner, his father killed. Surrey was attainted in the first Parliament of the new King, Henry VII, stripped of his lands, committed to the Tower of London, where he spent the next three years.
Howard was offered an opportunity to escape during the rebellion of the Earl of Lincoln in 1487, but refused thereby convincing Henry VII of his loyalty. In May 1489 Henry restored him to the earldom of Surrey, although most of his lands were withheld, sent him to quell a rebellion in Yorkshire. Surrey remained in the north as the King's lieutenant until 1499. In 1499 he was recalled to court, accompanied the King on a state visit to France in the following year. In 1501 he was again appointed a member of the Privy Council, on 16 June of that year was made Lord High Treasurer. Surrey, Bishop Richard Foxe, the Lord Privy Seal, Archbishop William Warham, the Lord Chancellor, became the King's "executive triumvirate", he was entrusted with a number of diplomatic missions. In 1501 he was involved in the negotiations for Catherine of Aragon's marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales, in 1503 conducted Margaret Tudor to Scotland for her wedding to King James IV. Surrey was an executor of the will of King Henry VII when the King died on 21 April 1509, played a prominent role in the coronation of King Henry VIII, in which he served as Earl Marshal.
He challenged Thomas Wolsey in an effort to become the new King's first minister, but accepted Wolsey's supremacy. Surrey expected to lead the 1513 expedition to France, but was left behind when the King departed for Calais on 30 June 1513. Shortly thereafter James IV launched an invasion, Surrey, with the aid of other noblemen and his sons Thomas and Edmund, crushed James's much larger force near Branxton, Northumberland, on 9 September 1513 at the Battle of Flodden; the Scots may have lost as many as 10,000 men, King James was killed. The victory at Flodden brought royal rewards. On 1 February 1514 he was created Duke of Norfolk, his son Thomas was made Earl of Surrey. Both were granted lands and annuities, the Howard arms were augmented in honour of Flodden with an escutcheon bearing the lion of Scotland pierced through the mouth with an arrow. In the final decade of his life, Norfolk continued his career as a courtier and soldier. In 1514 he joined Wolsey and Foxe in negotiating the marriage of Mary Tudor to King Louis XII of France, escorted her to France for the wedding.
On 1 May 1517 he led a private army of 1,300 retainers into London to suppress the Evil May Day riots. In May 1521 he presided as Lord High Steward over the trial of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. According to Head, "he pronounced the sentence of death with tears streaming down his face". By the spring of 1522, Norfolk was 80 years of age and in failing health, he withdrew from court, resigned as Lord Treasurer in favour of his son in December of that year, after attending the opening of Parliament in April 1523, retired to his ducal castle at Framlingham in Suffolk where he died on 21 May 1524. His funeral and burial on 22 June at Thetford Priory were said to have been "spectacular and enormously expensive, costing over £1300 and including a procession of 400 hooded men bearing torches and an elaborate bier surmounted with 100 wax effigies and 700 candles", befitting the richest and most powerful peer in England. After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham.
A now-lost monumental brass depicting the 2nd Duke was in the Church of St. Mary at Lambeth. On 30 April 1472, Howard married Elizabeth Tilney, the daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe and widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, slain at Barnet, son and
Francis I of France
Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy, he succeeded his father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, the beginning of French exploration of the New World. Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres.
He was known as François du Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, the Roi-Chevalier for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars; the succession of Charles V to the Burgundian Netherlands, the throne of Spain, his subsequent election as Holy Roman Emperor, meant that France was geographically encircled by the Habsburg monarchy. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold; when this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. Francis d'Orléans was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the only son of Charles d'Orléans, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy and a great-great-grandson of King Charles V of France.
His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his father's cousin the Duke of Orléans King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir; the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married but only through an assembly of nobles were the two engaged. Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through Anne of Brittany. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514. On 1 January 1515, Louis died, Francis inherited the throne, he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France.
Some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading and writing and he became proficient in Hebrew, Italian and Spanish. Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling, he ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and science. His mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son. Although Francis did not receive a humanist education, he was more influenced by humanism than any previous French king. By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, Francis became an enthusiastic patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, not a single sculpture, either ancient or modern.
During Francis' reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre Palace, was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Leonardo da Vinci. While da Vinci painted little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the Mona Lisa, these remained in France after his death. Other major artists to receive Francis' patronage included the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini and the painters Rosso Fiorentino, Giulio Romano, Primaticcio, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis' various palaces, he invited the noted architect Sebastiano Serlio, who enjoyed a fruitful late career in France. Francis commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France. Francis was renowned as a man of letters; when Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtie
The Low Countries, the Low Lands, or also the Netherlands, is a coastal lowland region in northwestern Europe, forming the lower basin of the Rhine and Scheldt rivers, divided in the Middle Ages into numerous semi-independent principalities that consolidated in the countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as today's French Flanders. The regions without access to the sea have linked themselves politically and economically to those with access to form various unions of ports and hinterland, stretching inland as far as parts of the German Rhineland; that is why nowadays some parts of the Low Countries are hilly, like Luxembourg and the south of Belgium. Within the European Union the region's political grouping is still referred to as the Benelux. During the Roman empire the region contained a militarised frontier and contact point between Rome and Germanic tribes. With the collapse of the empire, the Low Countries were the scene of the early independent trading centres that marked the reawakening of Europe in the 12th century.
In that period, they rivalled northern Italy as one of the most densely populated regions of Western Europe. Most of the cities were governed by councils along with a figurehead ruler. All of the regions depended on trade and the encouragement of the free flow of goods and craftsmen. Dutch and French dialects were the main languages used in secular city life; the term Low Countries arose at the Court of the Dukes of Burgundy, who used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, which were part of their realm but geographically disconnected from the Low Countries. Governor Mary of Hungary used both the expressions les pays de par deça and Pays d'Embas, which evolved to Pays-Bas or Low Countries. Today the term is fitted to modern political boundaries and used in the same way as the term Benelux; the name of the country of the Netherlands has the same etymology and origin as the name for the region Low Countries, due to "nether" meaning "low".
In the Dutch language itself De Lage Landen is the modern term for Low Countries, De Nederlanden is in use for the 16th century domains of Charles V, the historic Low Countries, while Nederland is in use for the country of the Netherlands. However, in official use, the name of the Dutch kingdom is still Kingdom of the Netherlands, Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; this name derives from the 19th-century origins of the kingdom which included present-day Belgium. In Dutch, to a lesser extent in English, the Low Countries colloquially means the Netherlands and Belgium, sometimes the Netherlands and Flanders—the Dutch-speaking north of Belgium. For example, a Low Countries derby, is a sports event between Belgium and the Netherlands. Belgium separated in 1830 from the Netherlands; the new country took its name from Belgica, the Latinised name for the Low Countries, as it was known during the Eighty Years' War. The Low Countries were in that war divided in two parts. On one hand, the northern Federated Netherlands or Belgica Foederata rebelled against the Spanish king.
This divide laid the early foundation for the modern states of Belgium and the Netherlands. The region politically had its origins in the Carolingian empire. After the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia, the Low Countries were brought under the rule of various lordships until they came to be in the hands of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy. Hence, a large part of the Low Countries came to be referred to as the Burgundian Netherlands. After the reign of the Valois Dukes ended, much of the Low Countries were controlled by the House of Habsburg; this area was referred to as the Habsburg Netherlands, called the Seventeen Provinces up to 1581. After the political secession of the autonomous Dutch Republic in the north, the term "Low Countries" continued to be used to refer collectively to the region; the region was temporarily united politically between 1815 and 1839, as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, before this split into the three modern countries of the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The Low Countries were part of the Roman provinces of Germania Inferior.
They were inhabited by Germanic tribes. In the 4th and 5th century, Frankish tribes had entered this Roman region and came to run it independently, they came to be ruled by the Merovingian dynasty, under which dynasty the southern part was re-Christianised. By the end of the 8th century, the Low Countries formed a core part of a much expanded Francia and the Merovingians were replaced by the Carolingian dynasty. In 800, the Pope appointed Charlemagne Emperor of the re-established Roman Empire. After the death of Charlemagne, Francia was divided in three parts among his three grandsons; the middle slice, Middle Francia, was ruled by Lothair I, thereby came to be referred to as "Lotharingia" or "Lorraine". Apart from the original coastal County of Flanders, within West Francia, the rest of the Low Countries were within the lowland part of this, "Lower Lorrain
Sir Geoffrey or Jeffery Boleyn was a London merchant and Lord Mayor of London. Geoffrey Boleyn was the son of Geoffrey Boleyn yeoman of Salle and his wife Alice. Geoffrey went to London, was apprenticed to a hatter, became a freeman of the city through the Hatter’s Company in 1428. In 1429 he transferred to the Mercers' Company. Having served as a Sheriff of London in 1446–47, as Member of Parliament for the city in 1449, as alderman from 1452, he was chosen Master of the Mercers' Company for the year 1454, he was Lord Mayor of London in 1457–58, was knighted by King Henry VI. In 1461 he and Geffray Feldyng headed the list of contributors towards a prest of 500 marks granted to the King by the fellowship of the Mercers for the Earl of Warwick to go into the North, he purchased the manor of Blickling in Norfolk from Sir John Fastolf in 1452, Hever Castle in Kent in 1462. He was buried in the church of St Lawrence Jewry in the City of London, his will was proved in July 1463. Groups of five sons and four daughters were presented as mourners on the memorial brasses of the elder Geoffrey and Alice his wife, were still in situ in Salle's parish church in 1730.
The principal figures and inscription still remain. William Boleyn. William was progenitor of the Lincolnshire branch of the family; the antiquary William Stukeley was a descendant on his mother's side. John Boleyn. Thomas Boleyn, prebendary of St. Stephen's, Westminster and sub-dean of Wells Cathedral, Master of Gonville Hall and Master of the College of All Saints, Kent, he was executor to Geoffrey's will. One unknown brother. Cecily Boleyn, died unmarried at Blickling. Three unknown sisters. Boleyn married Anne Hoo, by whom he had five daughters: Sir Thomas Boleyn. Sir William Boleyn, who married Margaret Butler, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond. William and Margaret were the parents of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, father of Queen Anne Boleyn. Isabella who married Henry Aucher. Alice Boleyn b. abt.1438 d. abt. 1480 m. Sir John Fortescue of Punsborne, Herts d. 1500. Anne Boleyn, second daughter, who married Sir Henry Heydon, by whom she had eight children, she died c.
1509. Cecily Boleyn b. abt. 1442. Elizabeth Boleyn b. abt. 1459. Burke gives the arms as: "Argent, a chevron gules,between three bulls heads couped Sable, quarterly with arms of Bracton, three mullets, a chief dauncette or." Simon, parochial chaplain of Salle, Norfolk died 3 August 1482. James of Gunthorpe, died 1493. Thomas of Gunthorpe, Norfolk. Joan, named in her brother Simon's will, she married Alan Roos of Salle: he was receiver of rents for the Salle properties of Margaret Paston. Alan was son of Thomas Roos, a prosperous merchant who built the north transept chapel and who, like the Boleyns of Salle, was a member of the Guild of the Holy Trinity of Coventry, she married Robert Aldrych, who died in 1474. Historian Elizabeth Norton describes the Geoffrey Boleyn. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XI. London: St. Catherine Press. P. 51. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by H. A. Doubleday. X. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 137–142. Hughes, Jonathan.
"Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond and nobleman". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2795. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. ISBN 978-0-8063-1750-2. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Weir, Alison; the Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. P. 145. ISBN 9781446449097. Memorial brasses to Sir Geoffrey's mother and father: Jmc4-Church Explorer http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/BoleynTree.html Lundy, Darryl. "Sir Geoffrey Boleyn". The Peerage.com. P. 326 § 3252. Retrieved 2 May 2008. "Royal Berkshire History". Retrieved 2008-05-02. Boleyn pedigree: History of Gonville and Caius College Will of Geffray Boleyn and Alderman of Saint Lawrence Jewry, City of London