General Sir Ralph Darling, GCH was a British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831. He is popularly described as a tyrant, accused of torturing prisoners and banning theatrical entertainment, but he built new roads and extended the boundaries of the colony. Local geographical features named after him include the Darling Darling Harbour in Sydney; the controversy of his Australian tenure somewhat obscures his remarkable early career, in which he rose from obscure origins to high command. Darling seems to have been unique in the British Army of this period, as he progressed from an enlisted man to become a general officer with a knighthood. Born in Ireland, he was the son of a sergeant in the 45th Regiment of Foot who subsequently gained the unusual reward of promotion to officer rank as a lieutenant. Like most of the small number of former non-commissioned officers in this position, Lieutenant Darling performed only regimental administrative duties, he struggled to support his large family on a subaltern's pay.
Ralph Darling enlisted at the age of fourteen as a private in his father's regiment, served in the ranks for at least two years on garrison duty in the West Indies. As an "act of charity" to the family, young Ralph was granted an officer's commission as an ensign on 15 May 1793, without having to make the usual payment; the new officer soon found opportunities to show his ability, alternating front-line activity and high-level administrative duties, in August 1796 he was appointed as military secretary to Sir Ralph Abercromby, the British commander-in-chief in the West Indies. By the time he returned to Great Britain in 1802, still aged only twenty-nine, the sergeant's son and one-time private soldier was a respected lieutenant-colonel. During the Napoleonic Wars, Colonel Darling alternated between periods of regimental command and important administrative appointments, leading the 51st Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Corunna and serving as assistant adjutant general during the Walcheren Expedition, before returning to the headquarters at Royal Horse Guards in London, where he served for a decade as head of British Army recruiting.
In this role, Darling was subsequently promoted to brevet colonel on 25 July 1810, major general on 4 June 1813, deputy adjutant general in 1814. General Darling was able to further the careers of his younger brothers Henry and William, subsequently his nephew Charles. On 13 October 1817, the 46-year-old general married the 19-year-old Eliza Dumaresq, a religious young woman whose father had been a colonel in the British Army and a landowner in Shropshire. In spite of the difference in age and background, the marriage appears to have been a happy one, producing seven children. Between February 1819 and February 1824, General Darling commanded the British troops on Mauritius, before serving as acting governor of the colony for the last three years of his stay. In this role, Darling again exhibited his administrative ability, but he became unpopular in Mauritius: he was accused of allowing a British frigate to breach quarantine and start an epidemic of cholera, he suspended the island's Conseil de Commune when it protested his actions.
Notwithstanding the criticism from some quarters, it was on account of his service in Mauritius that Darling was appointed the seventh Governor of New South Wales in 1824. Darling initiated the construction, from 1826, of the convict-built Great North Road, linking the Hawkesbury settlements around Sydney with those in the Hunter Valley. In 1826 he defined the Nineteen Counties in accordance with a government order from Lord Bathurst, the Secretary of State in the British parliament. Settlers were only permitted to take up land within these counties. From 1831 the granting of free land ceased and the only land, to be made available for sale was within the Nineteen Counties; when Darling was commissioned as governor, the Colony's western boundary – set in 1788 at 135 degrees east longitude – was extended by 6 degrees west to the 129 degrees east longitude. This line of longitude subsequently became the border dividing Western Australia and South Australia. To the south, everything beyond Wilsons Promontory, the southeastern ‘corner’ of the Australian continent, ceased to be under the control of New South Wales and was placed under the authority of the Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land.
He proclaimed Van Diemen's Land as a separate colony on 3 December in 1825. Darling was a professional soldier, military governor of what was still a penal colony under martial law, having lived within the authoritarian structure of the army since childhood, he lacked experience in dealing with civilian society; as a result, he came into conflict with the liberal "emancipists" who wished to introduce greater political and social freedom in New South Wales. Their accusations of tyrannical misrule were publicised by opposition newspapers in England and Australia. In keeping with official policy and the governor's own disciplinarian instincts, Darling's administration strengthened the punitive aspects of transportation. P
Army Gold Medal
The Army Gold Medal known as the Peninsular Gold Medal, with an accompanying Gold Cross, was a British campaign medal awarded in recognition of field and general officers' successful commands in campaigns, predominantly the Peninsular War. It was not a general medal, since it was issued only to officers whose status was no less than that of battalion commander or equivalent. Naval Gold Medals had been awarded since 1794 to captains and admirals who had served in specified successful naval actions, admirals' medals being larger. In 1806 a special gold medal was presented to British Army majors and above who had taken a key part in the Battle of Maida; this medal, 1.5 inches in diameter, shows the profile of King George III on the obverse with a reverse design incorporating Britannia. A general campaign medal for the Napoleonic Wars, awarded to all British troops irrespective of rank, would only be established in 1847; the Army Gold Medal was established in 1810 to reward service at Napoleonic War battles since 1808.
Like the Maida Gold Medal, it was awarded only to majors and above and, like the Naval Gold Medal, it was awarded in two sizes, with the larger to senior officers. When the Army Gold Medal was first established, a new one was issued for each action. In October 1813, to prevent a proliferation of awards to one recipient, an order was created instructing that only one medal be worn, with a ribbon clasp denoting the battle concerned for any further award; the fourth award was to be marked by a Gold Cross, replacing the earlier medals, with the names of each of the four battles on the arms of the cross. Again, clasps for attachment to the ribbon of the cross were presented for any successive awards; the award could be awarded posthumously, sent to the officer's family. The total number awarded were: The highest award was earned by the Duke of Wellington: a Cross with nine bars for a total of 13 actions, it can be viewed on his uniform in the basement at Apsley House. The medal came in three styles, laid out below: The Large Gold Medal, was restricted to general officers.
The medal was 2.12 inches in diameter, mounted in a gold frame, glazed on both sides. Obverse: Britannia with shield and facing left and holding a laurel wreath in her right hand and a palm branch in her left. Behind her, the head of a lion can be seen. Reverse: A laurel wreath surround, with the name of the battle engraved in the centre, although that for Barrosa was die struck; the medal was worn around the neck. The designer was Thomas Wyon The Small Gold Medal was awarded to officers between the rank of major and colonel; the medal was 1.3 inches in diameter, mounted in a gold frame and glazed, of the same design as the Large Medal. It was worn on the left chest from a buttonhole, with the ribbon attached via a wide curved suspender; the Gold Cross was awarded to those. Worn around the neck, it is an ornamental cross pattée 1.5 inches across, with a proud lion at its centre and the four qualifying actions embossed on its arms. The obverse and reverse are the same. Any further actions were marked with a clasp.
The medal was worn around the neck with the ribbon attached via an ornate loop on top of the cross which passes through a smaller simpler ring below a straight suspender. The designer was Thomas Wyon; the Clasps were of a common pattern for all awards, with the name of the battle within a wide laurel wreath frame. The Ribbon for all the awards was broad crimson with blue borders, 1.75 inches wide. This ribbon design had been used for the Maida Gold Medal and would be used for the Waterloo and the Military General Service Medals and the Distinguished Service Order. Naming. All awards had the name of the recipient engraved on the rim. A Gold Collar and Cross was awarded to Viscount Beresford; this cross was of a similar design to the Army Gold Cross, but with a winged figure of Victory at its centre, with suspension from a chain of alternate lions and Union Flag oval medallions. The Gold Collar and Cross was a additional award to the Army Gold Cross. Following the Peninsular War, award of the Gold Medals and Crosses was discontinued when would-be recipients became eligible for Order of the Bath on its restructuring to three classes.
In 1847 the Military General Service Medal was authorised, to be retrospectively awarded to all surviving veterans of the campaigns, irrespective of rank. Holders of the gold medals, crosses or additional clasps were not eligible to claim identical clasps on the MGSM; the eligible battles and campaigns for the MGSM were identical, with the addition of Egypt. The design of the cross is similar to the Victoria Cross and is considered to have provided the inspiration. Awards, both medals and clasps, were made for the following 27 battles and campaigns: The Battle of Maida in 1806 was commemorated by a gold medal of different design. Category:Recipients of the Army Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Army Gold Cross Dorling, H. Taprell and Medals, A. H. Baldwin & Son Duckers, Peter; the Victoria Cross. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-0635-6. Gordon, Lawrence. Joslin, Edward, ed. British Medals. London: Spink & Son Ltd. Joslin and Simpkin, British Battles and Medals, Spink ISBN 0907605257 Leslie, J.
H.. Medals which were awarded to Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery for Service in the Peninsular War - 1808 to 1814. Mussell, J, Medals Yearbook 2015, Token Publishing. ISBN 9781908828248 British Medals: Army Gold Medal British Medals: Army Gold Cross
Largs is a town on the Firth of Clyde in North Ayrshire, about 33 miles from Glasgow. The original name means "the slopes" in Scottish Gaelic. A popular seaside resort with a pier, the town markets itself on its historic links with the Vikings and an annual festival is held each year in early September. In 1263 it was the site of the Battle of Largs between the Scottish armies; the National Mòd has been held here in the past. There is evidence of human activity in the vicinity of Largs which can be dated to the Neolithic era; the Haylie Chambered Tomb in Douglas Park dates from c. 3000 BC. Largs evolved from the estates of North Cunninghame over which the Montgomeries of Skelmorlie became temporal lords in the seventeenth century. Sir Robert Montgomerie built Skelmorlie Aisle in the ancient kirk of Largs in 1636 as a family mausoleum. Today the monument is all. From its beginnings as a small village around its kirk, Largs evolved into a busy and popular seaside resort in the nineteenth century. Large hotels appeared and the pier was constructed in 1834.
It was not until 1895, that the railway made the connection to Largs, sealing the town's popularity. It became a fashionable place to live in and several impressive mansions were built, the most significant of which included'Netherhall', the residence of William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, the physicist and engineer. Largs has historical connections much however, it was the site of the Battle of Largs in 1263, in which parts of a Scottish army attacked a small force of Norwegians attempting to salvage ships from a fleet carrying the armies of King Magnus Olafsson of Mann and the Isles and his liege lord King Haakon IV of Norway, beached during a storm. The Norwegians and islemen had been raiding the Scottish coast for some time, the Scots under Alexander III had been following the fleet, attempting to catch its raiding parties; the outcome of this confrontation is uncertain, as both sides claim victory in their respective chronicles and sagas and the only independent source of the war fails to mention the battle at all.
The battle was followed soon after by the death of the 59-year-old King Haakon in Bishop's Palace on Orkney. Following the king's demise, his more lenient son Magnus VI of Norway agreed the Treaty of Perth in 1266, under which the Hebrides were sold to Scotland, as was the Isle of Man after the demise of Magnus Olafsson; the Largs war memorial was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer. During World War II, the Hollywood Hotel was designated HMS Warren, Headquarters, Combined Training. A conference was held there between 28 June 1943 and 2 July 1943, code name RATTLE, under Lord Louis Mountbatten, it was known as the "Field of the Cloth of Gold" because of the number of high-ranking officers taking part. The decision that the invasion of Europe would take place in Normandy was made at this conference. King Haakon VII of Norway in exile in Britain due to the German occupation of his kingdom, visited Largs in 1944 and was made the town's first honorary citizen. Largs was the first place in the world to introduce a integrated system to activate pedestrian crossings using a series of Neateboxes.
This system allows visually or physically impaired persons to activate the crossing button with no actual requirement to find or push the button, will be of great benefit to the disabled community. Largs has hosted the National Mòd in 1956, 1965 and 2002. Theatres and venues include the Vikingar centre. In 2014, it was rated one of the most attractive postcode areas to live in Scotland. Largs hosts the popular "Largs Live" on the last weekend in June where the towns hosts live music around their pubs and other venues over Friday and Sunday. Despite its diminished status as a holiday resort, much of Largs is still geared towards tourism. There is the award-winning Vikingar Centre at Barrfields, an interactive look into the history of Viking life, but it is best known for'Nardinis', the famous ice cream parlour and restaurant, that dominates the Esplanade and which reopened in late 2008 following clearance from Historic Scotland and major renovation works. St. Columba's Parish Church contains a Heritage Centre.
The church itself is notable for its stained glass windows and Willis organ. Of interest is a neolithic tomb behind Douglas Park. Known as the Haylie Chambered Tomb, it was once covered by a cairn of stones; when it was uncovered in the early twentieth century the tomb was dated to around 3000 to 2000 BC. Skelmorlie Aisle, adjoining the local museum, is in the care of Historic Scotland and is open during the summer. Kelburn Castle, situated between Largs and Fairlie, is the ancestral home of the Boyle family, the hereditary Earls of Glasgow. Kelburn is believed to be the oldest castle in Scotland to have been continuously inhabited by the same family; the de Boyvilles who originated in Caen in Normandy came up after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. The forebears of the modern day Boyles settled at Kelburn around 1140; the Noddsdale Water flows from the north to reach the sea at the north end of Largs, Brisbane House sited in the dale about 1.5 kilometres up the river was the birthplace of the soldier and Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane, whose name was given to the city of Brisbane in Queensland, and, in 1823, to "Brisbane Water" on
George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
Battle of Vitoria
At the Battle of Vitoria a British and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain leading to victory in the Peninsular War. In July 1812, after the Battle of Salamanca, the French had evacuated Madrid, which Wellington's army entered on 12 August 1812. Deploying three divisions to guard its southern approaches, Wellington marched north with the rest of his army to lay siege to the fortress of Burgos, 140 miles away, but he had miscalculated the enemy's strength, on 21 October he had to abandon the Siege of Burgos and retreat. By 31 October he had abandoned Madrid too, retreated first to Salamanca to Ciudad Rodrigo, near the Portuguese frontier, to avoid encirclement by French armies from the north-east and south-east. Wellington spent the winter reinforcing his forces. By contrast, Napoleon retreated numerous soldiers to reconstruct his main army after his disastrous invasion of Russia.
By 20 May 1813 Wellington marched 121,000 troops from northern Portugal across the mountains of northern Spain and the Esla River to outflank Marshal Jourdan's army of 68,000, strung out between the Douro and the Tagus. The French retreated to Burgos, with Wellington's forces marching hard to cut them off from the road to France. Wellington himself commanded the small central force in a strategic feint, while Sir Thomas Graham conducted the bulk of the army around the French right flank over landscape considered impassable. Wellington launched his attack with 57,000 British, 16,000 Portuguese and 8,000 Spanish at Vitoria on 21 June, from four directions; the battlefield centres on the Zadorra River. As the Zadorra runs west, it loops into a hairpin bend swinging to the southwest. On the south of the battlefield are the Heights of La Puebla. To the northwest is the mass of Monte Arrato. Vitoria stands to the east, two miles south of the Zadorra. Five roads radiate from Vitoria, north to Bilbao, northeast to Salinas and Bayonne, east to Salvatierra, south to Logroño and west to Burgos on the south side of the Zadorra.
Jourdan was ill with a fever all day on 20 June. Because of this, few orders were issued and the French forces stood idle. An enormous wagon train of booty clogged the streets of Vitoria. A convoy left during the night, but it had to leave siege artillery behind because there were not enough draft animals to pull the cannons. Gazan's divisions guarded the narrow western end of the Zadorra valley, deployed south of the river. Maransin's brigade was posted at the village of Subijana; the divisions were disposed with Leval on the right, Daricau in the centre, Conroux on the left and Villatte in reserve. Only a picket guarded the western extremity of the Heights of La Puebla. Further back, d'Erlon's force stood in a second line south of the river. Darmagnac's division deployed on Cassagne's on the left. D'Erlon failed to destroy three bridges near the river's hairpin bend and posted Avy's weak cavalry division to guard them. Reille's men formed a third line, but Sarrut's division was sent north of the river to guard the Bilbao road while Lamartinière's division and the Spanish Royal Guard units held the river bank.
Wellington directed Hill's 20,000-man Right Column to drive the French from the Zadorra defile on the south side of the river. While the French were preoccupied with Hill, Wellington's Right Centre column moved along the north bank of the river and crossed it near the hairpin bend behind the French right flank. Graham's 20,000-man Left Column was sent around the north side of Monte Arrato, it drove down the Bilbao road. Dalhousie's Left Centre column cut across Monte Arrato and struck the river east of the hairpin, providing a link between Graham and Wellington. Wellington's plan split his army into four attacking "columns", attacking the French defensive position from south and north while the last column cut down across the French rear. Coming up the Burgos road, Hill sent Pablo Morillo's Division to the right on a climb up the Heights of La Puebla. Stewart's 2nd Division began deploying to the left in the narrow plain just south of the river. Seeing these moves, Gazan sent Maransin forward to drive Morillo off the heights.
Hill moved Col. Henry Cadogan's brigade of the 2nd Division to assist Morillo. Gazan responded by committing Villatte's reserve division to the battle on the heights. About this time, Gazan first spotted Wellington's column moving north of the Zadorra to turn his right flank, he asked Jourdan, now recovered from his fever, for reinforcements. Having become obsessed with the safety of his left flank, the marshal refused to help Gazan, instead ordering some of D'Erlon's troops to guard the Logroño road. Wellington thrust James Kempt's brigade of the Light Division across the Zadorra at the hairpin. At the same time, Stewart was counterattacked by two of Gazan's divisions. On the heights, Cadogan was killed. Wellington suspended his attacks to allow Graham's column time to make an impression and a lull descended on the battlefield. At noon, Graham's column appeared on the Bilbao road. Jourdan realised he was in danger of envelopment and ordered Gazan to pull back toward Vitoria. Graham drove Sarrut's division back across the river, but could not force his way across the Zadorra despite bitter fighting.
Further east, Longa's Spanish troops cut the road to Bayonne. With some help from Kempt's brigade, Picton's 3rd Division from Dalhousie's column crossed t
Governor of New South Wales
The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governors of the Australian states perform constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level; the governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current governor is retired General David Hurley, who succeeded Dame Marie Bashir on 2 October 2014; the office has its origin in the 18th-century colonial governors of New South Wales upon its settlement in 1788, is the oldest continuous institution in Australia. The present incarnation of the position emerged with the Federation of Australia and the New South Wales Constitution Act 1902, which defined the viceregal office as the governor acting by and with the advice of the Executive Council of New South Wales.
However, the post still represented the government of the United Kingdom until, after continually decreasing involvement by the British government, the passage in 1942 of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 and the Australia Act 1986, after which the governor became the direct, personal representative of the uniquely Australian sovereign. The Office of Governor is required by the New South Wales Constitution Act, 1902; the Australian monarch, on the advice and recommendation of the premier of New South Wales, approves the appointment of governor with a commission issued under the royal sign-manual and Public Seal of the State, from until being sworn in by the premier and chief justice referred to as the governor-designate. Besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set formula for the swearing-in of a governor-designate; the constitution act stipulates that: "Before assuming office, a person appointed to be Governor shall take the Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance and the Oath or Affirmation of Office in the presence of the Chief Justice or another Judge of the Supreme Court."
The sovereign will hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct the governor-designate as a Companion of the Order of Australia. The incumbent will serve for at least five years, though this is only a developed convention, the governor still technically acts at Her Majesty's pleasure; the premier may therefore recommend to the queen that the viceroy remain in her service for a longer period of time, sometimes upwards of more than seven years. A governor may resign and three have died in office. In such a circumstance, or if the governor leaves the country for longer than one month, the lieutenant governor of New South Wales, concurrently held by the chief justice of New South Wales since 1872, serves as Administrator of the Government and exercises all powers of the governor. Furthermore, if the lieutenant governor becomes incapacitated while serving in the office of governor or is absent from the state, the next most senior judge of the Supreme Court is sworn in as the administrator.
Between 1788 and 1957, all governors were born outside New South Wales and were members of the Peerage. Historian A. J. P. Taylor once noted that "going out and governing New South Wales became the British aristocracy's'abiding consolation'"; however though the implementation of the Australian Citizenship Act in 1948 established the concept of an independent Australian citizenship, the idea of Australian-born persons being appointed governor of New South Wales was much earlier. Coincidentally the first Australian-born governor, Sir John Northcott on 1 August 1946, was the first Australian-born governor of any state. However, as Northcott was born in Victoria, it was not until Sir Eric Woodward's appointment by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957 that the position was filled by a New South Welshman. Although required by the tenets of constitutional monarchy to be non-partisan while in office, governors were former politicians, many being members of the House of Lords by virtue of their peerage; the first governors were all military officers and the majority of governors since have come from a military background, numbering 19.
Samuels was the first governor in New South Wales history without either a political, public service or military background, being a former justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. The first woman to hold this position is the first Lebanese-Australian governor, Dame Marie Bashir; as Australia shares its monarch with fifteen other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations and the sovereign lives predominantly outside New South Wales' borders, the governor's primary task is to perform the sovereign's constitutional duties on his or her behalf, acting within the principles of parliamentary democracy and responsible government as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and as a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power. For the most part, the powers of the Crown are exercised on a day-to-day basis by elected and appointed individuals, leaving the governor to perform the various ceremonial duties the sovereign otherwise carries out when in the country, it is the governor, required by the Constitution Act 1902, to appoint persons to the Government of New South Wales, who are all theoretically tasked with tendering to the monarch and viceroy guidance on
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman, one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister. His victory against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 puts him in the first rank of Britain's military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin into the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland, he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons, he was a colonel by 1796, saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye in 1803. Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French Empire at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.
Following Napoleon's exile in 1814, he was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which, together with a Prussian Army under Blücher, defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellington's battle record is exemplary. Wellington is famous for his adaptive defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses, he is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, many of his tactics and battle plans are still studied in military academies around the world. After the end of his active military career, Wellington returned to politics, he was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party: from 1828 to 1830, for a little less than a month in 1834. He oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832, he continued as one of the leading figures in the House of Lords until his retirement and remained Commander-in-Chief of the British Army until his death.
Wellesley was born into an aristocratic Anglo-Irish family in Ireland as The Hon. Arthur Wesley, the third of five surviving sons of Anne and Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, his mother was the eldest daughter of The 1st Viscount Dungannon. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy, his biographers follow the same contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born on 1 May 1769, the day before he was baptised. His birthplace is uncertain, he was most born at his parents' townhouse, 24 Upper Merrion Street, now the Merrion Hotel. But his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. Other places have been put forward as the location of his birth, including Mornington House, as his father had asserted, he spent most of his childhood at his family's two homes, the first a large house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle, 3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthur's father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his father's earldom.
He went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whyte's Academy when in Dublin, Brown's School in Chelsea when in London. He enrolled at Eton College, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, his loneliness there caused him to hate it, makes it unlikely that he said "The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton", a quotation, attributed to him. Moreover, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of family funds due to his father's death, forced the young Wellesley and his mother to move to Brussels; until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating, "I don't know what I shall do with my awkward son Arthur."A year Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed becoming a good horseman and learning French, which proved useful. Upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement.
Despite his new promise, he had yet to find a job and his family was still short of money, so upon the advice of his mother, his brother Richard asked his friend the Duke of Rutland to consider Arthur for a commission in the Army. Soon afterward, on 7 March 1787, he was gazetted ensign in the 73rd Regiment of Foot. In October, with the assistance of his brother, he was assigned as aide-de-camp, on ten shillings a day, to the new Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Buckingham, he was transferred to the new 76th Regiment forming in Ireland and on Christmas Day, 1787, was promoted lieutenant. During his time in Dublin his duties were social. While in Ireland, he overextended himself in borrowing due to his occasional gambling, but in his defence stated that "I have known what it was to be in want of money, but I have never got helplessly into debt". On 23 January 1788, he transferred into the 41st Regiment of Foot again on 25 June 1789, still a lieutenant, he transferred to the 12th Regi