Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle was a British historian, satirical writer, translator, philosopher and teacher. In his book On Heroes, Hero-Worship, The Heroic in History, he argued that the actions of the "Great Man" play a key role in history, claiming that "the history of the world is but the biography of great men". Other major works include The French Revolution: A History, 3 vols and The History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great, 6 vols. A respected historian, his 1837 The French Revolution was the inspiration for Charles Dickens' 1859 novel A Tale of Two Cities, remains popular today. Carlyle's 1836 Sartor Resartus is a notable philosophical novel. A great polemicist, Carlyle coined the term "the dismal science" for economics, in his essay "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question," which remains controversial, he wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. Once a Christian, Carlyle lost his faith while attending the University of Edinburgh adopting a form of deism. In mathematics, he is known for the Carlyle circle, a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons.

Carlyle was born in Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire. His parents determinedly afforded him an education at Annan Academy, where he was bullied and tormented so much that he left after three years, his father was a member of the Burgher secession Presbyterian church. In early life, his family's strong Calvinist beliefs powerfully influenced the young man. After attending the University of Edinburgh, Carlyle became a mathematics teacher, first in Annan and in Kirkcaldy, where he became close friends with the mystic Edward Irving. In 1819–21, Carlyle returned to the University of Edinburgh, where he suffered an intense crisis of faith and conversion, which provided the material for Sartor Resartus, which first brought him to the public's notice. Carlyle developed a painful stomach ailment gastric ulcers, that remained throughout his life and contributed to his reputation as a crotchety, somewhat disagreeable personality, his prose style, famously cranky and savage, helped cement an air of irascibility.

Carlyle's thinking became influenced by German idealism, in particular, the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. He established himself as an expert on German literature in a series of essays for Fraser's Magazine, by translating German works, notably Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, he wrote a Life of Schiller. In 1826, Thomas Carlyle married fellow intellectual Jane Baillie Welsh, whom he had met through Edward Irving during his period of German studies. In 1827, he applied for the Chair of Moral Philosophy at St Andrews University but was not appointed, they moved to the main house of Jane's modest agricultural estate at Craigenputtock, Scotland. He wrote about his life at Craigenputtock – in particular: "It is certain that for living and thinking in I have never since found in the world a place so favourable." Here Carlyle wrote some of his most distinguished essays and began a lifelong friendship with the American essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson. In 1831, the Carlyles moved to London, settling in lodgings at 4 Ampton Street, Kings Cross.

In 1834, they moved to 5 Cheyne Row, which has since been preserved as a museum to Carlyle's memory. He became known as the "Sage of Chelsea", a member of a literary circle which included the essayists Leigh Hunt and John Stuart Mill. Here Carlyle wrote The French Revolution: A History, a historical study concentrating both on the oppression of the poor of France and on the horrors of the mob unleashed; the book was successful. By 1821, Carlyle focused on making a living as a writer, his first fiction and Jonson, was one of several abortive attempts at writing a novel. Following his work on a translation of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, he came to distrust the form of the realistic novel and so worked on developing a new form of fiction. In addition to his essays on German literature, he branched out into wider-ranging commentary on modern culture in his influential essays Signs of the Times and Characteristics. In the latter, he laid down his abiding preference for the natural over the artificial: "Thus, as we have an artificial Poetry, prize only the natural.

Moreover, at this time he penned articles appraising the life and works of various poets and men of letters, including Goethe and Diderot. His first major work, Sartor Resartus was begun as a satirical article on "the philosophy of clothes," and surprised him by growing into a full-length book, he wrote it in 1831 at the house on his wife Jane's estate and was intended to be a new kind of book: factual and fictional and satirical, speculative and historical. It commented on its own formal structure while forcing the reader to confront the problem of where "truth" is to be found. Sartor Resartus was first published in instalments in Fraser's Magazine from 1833 to 1834; the text presents itself as an unnamed editor's attempt to introduce the British public to Diogenes Teufelsdröckh, a German philosopher of clothes, who is, in fact, a fictional creation of Carlyle's. The Editor is struck with admiration, but for the most part is confounded by Teufelsdröckh's outlandish p

Eleanor Holroyd

Eleanor Anne Holroyd is a New Zealand nursing academic. She is a full professor at the Auckland University of Technology. After a 1998 PhD at titled'Chinese family caregivers: dilemmas at the extremity of public and private obligations' at the University of Hong Kong, she returned to New Zealand and the Auckland University of Technology, as full professor. Chang, Anne M. Janita PC Chau, Eleanor Holroyd. "Translation of questionnaires and issues of equivalence." Journal of Advanced Nursing 29, no. 2: 316–322. Choi, Susanne YP, Eleanor Holroyd. "The influence of power and agency in the negotiation of condom use for female sex workers in mainland China." Culture, Health & Sexuality 9, no. 5: 489–503. Holroyd, Cheung Yue‐kuen, Cheung Sau‐wai, Luk Fung‐shan, Wong Wai‐wan. "A Chinese cultural perspective of nursing care behaviours in an acute setting." Journal of Advanced Nursing 28, no. 6: 1289–1294. Holroyd, Eleanor E. "Chinese cultural influences on parental caregiving obligations toward children with disabilities."

Qualitative Health Research 13, no. 1: 4–19. Holroyd, Sheila Twinn, Peymane Adab. "Socio‐cultural influences on chinese women's attendance for cervical screening." Journal of Advanced Nursing 46, no. 1: 42–52. Holroyd, Fung Kim Lai Katie, Lam Siu Chun, Sin Wai Ha. ""Doing the month": an exploration of postpartum practices in Chinese women." Health Care for Women International 18, no. 3: 301–313. Eleanor Holroyd publications indexed by Google Scholar Publications by Eleanor Holroyd, at ResearchGate


Morbihan is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France. It is named after the Morbihan, the enclosed sea, the principal feature of the coastline, it is noted for its Carnac stones, which predate and are more extensive than the Stonehenge monument in Wiltshire, England. Three major military educational facilities are located in Guer, including École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, the national military academy for officers. Morbihan is one of the original 83 departments created on March 4, 1790 during the French Revolution, it was created from a part of the Duchy of Brittany. In 1945 cadets from École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, France's foremost military academy for officers, were relocated to Camp Coëtquidan in Guer; this has been developed to include the École militaire interarmes, for non-commissioned officers. Morbihan, part of the region of Brittany, is surrounded by the departments of Finistère, Côtes-d'Armor, Ille-et-Vilaine, Loire-Atlantique, the Atlantic Ocean on the southwest.

The Gulf of Morbihan has many islands: 365 according to legend. There are between 30 and 40, depending on how they are counted. There are many islets that are too small for any development. Of these islands, all but two are owned: l'Île-aux-Moines and l'Île-d'Arz. Owners of the others include movie stars, fashion designers, other wealthy "glitterati". In the department of Morbihan, but outside the Gulf, there are four inhabited islands: Belle Île Groix Houat HoëdicMeaban, an island just outside the Port du Crouesty, is an ornithological reserve. Visitors are forbidden there; the largest towns in Morbihan are Lorient. Many residents support maintenance and use of the Breton language, there are numerous advocates of bilingual education; the painter Raymond Wintz depicted locations around the Gulf of Morbihan. As of 2014, the préfet of Morbihan is Jean-François Savy head of the Prefectures of Ardennes and of Hautes-Alpes; the Carnac stones, megalithic alignments of Carnac, are situated in Morbihan. Tourism office of Auray Cantons of the Morbihan department Communes of the Morbihan department Arrondissements of the Morbihan department La Baule - Guérande Peninsula Prefecture website General Council website Morbihan at Curlie Cultural Heritage Tourism website Hiking in Morbihan