Thomas Cole

Thomas Cole was an English-born American painter known for his landscape and history paintings. One of the major 19th-century American painters, he is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century. Cole's work is known for its romantic portrayal of the American wilderness. Born in Bolton le Moors, Lancashire, in 1801, Cole emigrated with his family to the United States in 1818, settling in Steubenville, Ohio. At the age of 22, Cole moved to Philadelphia and in 1825, to Catskill, New York, where he lived with his wife and children until 1848. Cole found work early on as an engraver, he was self-taught as a painter, relying on books and by studying the work of other artists. In 1822, Cole started working as a portrait painter and on shifted his focus to landscape. In New York, Cole sold five paintings to George W. Bruen, who financed a summer trip to the Hudson Valley where the artist produced landscapes featuring the Catskill Mountain House, the famous Kaaterskill Falls, the ruins of Fort Putnam, two views of Cold Spring.

Returning to New York, he displayed five landscapes in the window of William Colman's bookstore. This garnered Cole the attention of John Trumbull, Asher B. Durand, William Dunlap. Among the paintings was a landscape called View of Fort Ticonderoga from Gelyna. Trumbull was impressed with the work of the young artist and sought him out, bought one of his paintings, put him into contact with a number of his wealthy friends including Robert Gilmor of Baltimore and Daniel Wadsworth of Hartford, who became important patrons of the artist. Cole was a painter of landscapes, but he painted allegorical works; the most famous of these are the five-part series, The Course of Empire, which depict the same landscape over generations—from a near state of nature to consummation of empire, decline and desolation—now in the collection of the New-York Historical Society and the four-part The Voyage of Life. There are two versions of the latter, one at the National Gallery in Washington, D. C. the other at the Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute in Utica, New York.

Among Cole's other famous works are The Oxbow, The Notch of the White Mountains, Daniel Boone at his cabin at the Great Osage Lake, Lake with Dead Trees, at the Allen Memorial Art Museum. He painted The Garden of Eden, with lavish detail of Adam and Eve living amid waterfalls, vivid plants, deer. In 2014, friezes painted by Cole on the walls of his home, decorated over, were discovered. Cole influenced his artistic peers Asher B. Durand and Frederic Edwin Church, who studied with Cole from 1844 to 1846. Cole spent the years 1829 to 1832 and 1841 to 1842 abroad in England and Italy. Cole is best known for his work as an American landscape artist. In an 1836 article on "American Scenery," he described his complex relationship with the American landscape in esthetic and spiritual terms, he produced thousands of sketches of varying subject matter. Over 2,500 of these sketches can be seen at The Detroit Institute of Arts. In 1842, Cole embarked on a Grand Tour of Europe in an effort to study in the style of the Old Masters and to paint its scenery.

Most striking to Cole was Europe's tallest active volcano, Mount Etna. Cole was so moved by the volcano's beauty that he produced several sketches and at least six paintings of it; the most famous of these works is A View from Mount Etna from Taormina, a 78-by-120-inch oil on canvas. Cole produced a detailed sketch View of Mount Etna which shows a panoramic view of the volcano with the crumbling walls of the ancient Greek theater of Taormina on the far right. Cole was a poet and dabbled in architecture, a not uncommon practice at the time when the profession was not so codified. Cole was an entrant in the design competition held in 1838 to create the Ohio Statehouse in Columbus, Ohio, his entry won third place, many contend that the finished building, a composite of the first and third-place entries, bears a great similarity to Cole's entry. After 1827 Cole maintained a studio at the farm called Cedar Grove, in the town of Catskill, New York, he painted a significant portion of his work in this studio.

In 1836, he married Maria Bartow of Catskill, a niece of the owner's, became a year-round resident. Thomas and Maria had five children. Cole's sister, Sarah Cole, was a landscape painter. Additionally, Cole held many friendships with important figures in the art world including Daniel Wadsworth, with whom he shared a close friendship. Proof of this friendship can be seen in the letters that were unearthed in the 1980s by the Trinity College Watkinson Library. Cole wrote Wadsworth in July 1832: "Years have passed away since I saw you & time & the world have undoubtedly wrought many changes in both of us; the fourth highest peak in the Catskills is named Thomas Cole Mountain in his honor. Cedar Grove known as the Thomas Cole House, was declared a National Historic Site in 1999 and is now open to the public. List of paintings by Thomas Cole This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cole, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press.


Lord Charles Montagu

Lord Charles Greville Montagu was the last Royal Governor of the Province of South Carolina from 1766 to 1773, with William Bull II serving terms in 1768 and 1769-1771. He was the commander of the Duke of Cumberland's Regiment during the American Revolution. Charles was the second son of 3rd Duke of Manchester. Charles attended Oxford University in 1759 and married Ms. Elizabeth Balmer in 1765, he was a Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire from 1762-1765. His attempts to enforce the 1765 Stamp Act made him unpopular with the local colonials as governor, led to his departure during the American Revolution, he tried to be favorable with the colonials and American rebels, having pardoned some of the Regulators. However, it was not enough. During the American Revolutionary War, Montagu began recruiting American prisoners for the Duke of Cumberland's Regiment to fight for the British war with Spanish forces, who were on the colonists side. Charles was captured recruiting soldiers on British prison ships in New York but was released by General Nathanael Greene.

Charles tried to convince American General William Moultrie to join his regiment, but failed. Charles and his recruits made up the Duke of Cumberland's army regiment, the outfit was discharged in 1783. Charles made it to Nova Scotia, with his family, his Duke of Cumberland's Regiment settled Guysborough. He is buried in the crypt of St Paul's Church in Halifax, his tomb states that he died on 1784, still in his 40s. He was remembered as a good and brave man, loyal to his King and Country. Namesake of Montagu Street, South Carolina Montagu's regiment is the namesake of Cumberland Street, South Carolina List of colonial governors of South Carolina Weir, Robert M. "Montagu, Lord Charles Greville." Walter Edgar, ed. South Carolina Encyclopedia. University of South Carolina Press, 2006. Robert Scott Davis Jr. Lord Montagu's Mission to South Carolina in 1781: American POWs for the King's Service in Jamaica; the South Carolina Historical Magazine Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 89–109 Charles Greville Montagu, 1741-1783

Mosinee, Wisconsin

Mosinee is a city in Marathon County, United States. It is part of Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 3,988 at the 2010 census. The traditional inhabitants of the area were the Potawatomi and the Menominee. However, the name is the Hochunk Mōsį́nį, the "Cold Country," from mō, an old form of mą, meaning "earth, land, country"; the Ojibwe ceded the territory to the United States in 1837 when they sold most of their land in what would become Wisconsin, though they were guaranteed the right to continue hunting and gathering wild rice on the ceded lands. The Potawatomi gave up their land claims in Wisconsin in 1833, the Menominee ceded territory in this area in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars; these treaties coincided with the establishment of the first sawmill in the area by a white settler, John L. Moore, in 1836, enabled white settlement to begin in the area. Lumber became the most important industry and drew other businesses and settlers to the town, which at the time was known as Little Bull Falls.

After the closing of Fort Winnebago in 1845, a number of Métis families moved to Little Bull Falls, in 1857 the town was renamed in honor of an Ojibwe chief from the Wisconsin River Band. Deforestation led to the collapse of the lumber industry in the early 20th century, but it was replaced by the paper industry. In the neighboring Menominee language the town is called Mōsāpnīw, "he dwells alone there", a close approximation of the eponymous chief's name. On May 1, 1950, local residents acting as Communist invaders seized control of Mosinee; the action was a part of an elaborate pageant organized by the Wisconsin Department of the American Legion. The "Communists" dragged Mayor Ralph E. Police Chief Carl Gewiss out of their beds. Mayor Kronenwetter surrendered at 10:15 AM in the town's new "Red Square" with a pistol to his back; the police chief was reported to have resisted and was "liquidated". Roadblocks were set up around Mosinee, the library was "purged", prices of goods were inflated for the duration of the coup, local restaurants served Russian black bread and potato soup for lunch.

As he arrived at a rally to restore democracy to the community the night of May 1 Mayor Kronenwetter suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and never regained consciousness. He died five days on May 6, 1950 at age 49; the mayor's doctor said the excitement and exertion contributed to his collapse. Franklin Baker, commander of the local American Legion post, said, "It was a terrible coincidence."Local minister Will La Brew Bennett, 72, during the Communist invasion, demonstrated to the media how he would hide his Bible in the church organ if the Communists invaded and was herded with other residents into a barbed-wire ringed "concentration camp" near "Red Square", was found dead in his bed hours after the mayor's death on May 7, 1950. Mosinee is located at 44°47'30" North, 89°42'19" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.54 square miles, of which, 7.77 square miles is land and 0.77 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,988 people, 1,660 households, 1,110 families residing in the city.

The population density was 513.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,791 housing units at an average density of 230.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.6% White, 0.3% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population There were 1,660 households of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.1% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 39.1 years. 25% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,063 people, 1,635 households, 1,111 families residing in the city.

The population density was 522.2 people per square mile. There were 1,711 housing units at an average density of 219.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.79% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.69% of the population. There were 1,635 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together and 32.0% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $46,109, the median income for a family was $51,776. Males had a median income of $34,494 versus $25,572 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,700. About 2.8% of f