Seneca is an unincorporated community in Thomas County, in the state of Nebraska in the Great Plains region of the United States. The population was 33 at the 2010 census. Seneca was established on the Chicago and Quincy Railroad in 1888; the location of a division point on the railroad, it was for some years the largest settlement in Thomas County. The population dwindled following the closing of the railroad roundhouse; the Chicago and Quincy Railroad was constructed along the Middle Loup River in the late 1880s. Construction was halted for the winter of 1887–88 in western Thomas County, the town of Seneca was established at that point in January 1888. Seneca became a division point on the railroad, with a depot, rail yard, roundhouse, employing over 70 people. Railroad operations brought a measure of prosperity to the town, promoted its growth. Between 1918 and 1923, the Potash Highway, running from Grand Island to Alliance, was constructed parallel to the Burlington's route; the town boasted a number of retail businesses, including hotels, banks, a lumberyard, a railroad cafe, an automobile dealership.
For some years, it was the largest municipality in Thomas County, reaching a peak population of 476 in 1920. In 1926, the Potash Highway was reconfigured as Nebraska Highway 2. In the early 1940s, a re-alignment to reduce the number of railroad crossings shifted the highway to the south of Seneca; the railroad moved its operations out of the town, eliminating jobs and causing the loss of population and the closing of additional businesses. In about 2013, a dispute arose over the Village Board's passage of an ordinance prohibiting the keeping of horses in the town, it gave rise to a petition to disincorporate Seneca. Seneca is located at 42°02′34″N 100°49′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.13 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 51 people, 26 households, 17 families residing in the village; the population density was 422.8 people per square mile. There were 52 housing units at an average density of 431.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. There were 26 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96 and the average family size was 2.47. The median age in Seneca was 48 years: 19.6% of the residents were under the age of 18. For every 100 females, there were 75.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 64.0 males. As of 2000, the median income for a household in the village was $20,833 and the median income for a family was $21,667. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $20,500 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,803. The village population included 12.1 %. That included 16.7% of the families and 23.1% of residents older than 64, but no one younger than 18.
As of the census of 2010, there were 33 people, 21 households, 10 families residing in the village. The population density was 253.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 46 housing units at an average density of 353.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.0% White. There were 21 households of which 2 had children under the age of 18 living with them, 8 were married couples living together, 1 had a female householder with no husband present, 1 had a male householder with no wife present, 11 were non-families. Eleven of the households were made up of individuals and 8 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older; the average household size was 1.57 and the average family size was 2.10. The median age in the village was 55.3 years. Three of the residents were under the age of 18; the gender makeup of the village was 45.5% male and 54.5% female. "Seneca, Nebraska" story on the RadioLab Podcast
Hooker County, Nebraska
Hooker County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 736, its county seat is Mullen, the county's only community of substantial size. In the Nebraska license plate system, Hooker County is represented by the prefix 93, because it had the smallest number of registered vehicles out of the state's 93 counties when the licensing system was established in 1922. Hooker County was formed in 1889 with construction of a line for Chicago and Quincy Railroad into the territory, it was named for Civil War General Joseph Hooker. The terrain of Hooker County consists of low rolling hills running east-west; the Middle Loup River flows eastward through the upper part of the county. The county has a total area of 721 square miles, of which 721 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. Most of Nebraska's 93 counties observe Central Time. Hooker County is the easternmost of the Nebraska counties to observe Mountain Time. Nebraska Highway 2 Nebraska Highway 97 Carr Lake Jefford Lake As of the 2000 United States Census,<refe="GR2">"American FactFinder".
US Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 January 2008.</ref> There were 783 people, 335 households, 220 families in the county. The population density was 1.0 person per square mile. There were 440 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.72% White, 0.38% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 335 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 3.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.30% were non-families. 33.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.90. The county population contained 24.00% under the age of 18, 4.10% from 18 to 24, 21.60% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 26.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 83.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,868, the median income for a family was $35,114. Males had a median income of $25,234 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,513. About 4.90% of families and 6.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.30% of those under age 18 and 13.10% of those age 65 or over. Mullen Dunwell Hooker County voters are traditionally Republican. In only three national elections since 1900 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hooker County, Nebraska County website
The Sandhills written Sand Hills, is a region of mixed-grass prairie on grass-stabilized sand dunes in north-central Nebraska, covering just over one quarter of the state. The dunes were designated a National Natural Landmark in 1984; the boundaries of the Sandhills are variously defined by different organizations. Depending on the definition, the region's area can be as small as 19,600 mi2 or as large as 23,600 mi2. Dunes in the Sandhills may exceed 330 ft in height; the average elevation of the region increases from about 1,800 ft in the east to about 3,600 ft in the west. The Sandhills sit atop the massive Ogallala Aquifer; the eastern and central sections of the region are drained by tributaries of the Loup River and the Niobrara River, while the western section is composed of small interior drainage basins. The World Wide Fund for Nature designated the Sandhills as an ecoregion, distinct from other grasslands of the Great Plains. According to their assessment, as much as 85% of the ecoregion is intact natural habitat, the highest level in the Great Plains.
This is chiefly due to the lack of crop production: most of the Sandhills land has never been plowed. Paleoclimate proxy data and computer simulations reveal that the Nebraska Sandhills had active sand dunes as as the Medieval Warm Period, when temperatures in the North Atlantic region were about 1 °C warmer than the current climate. Much of the area was a scrub desert, with desert-like conditions extending to several other states. Current global warming may make the grassland climate more unstable, giving way to desert given more fires, mild drought and erosion; the plant-anchored dunes of the Sandhills were long considered an irreclaimable desert. In the 1870s, cattlemen began to discover their potential as rangeland for Longhorn cattle; the fragility of the sandy soil makes the area unsuitable for cultivation of crops. Attempts at farming were made in the region in the late 1870s and again around 1890; the 1904 Kinkaid Act allowed homesteaders to claim 640 acres of land, rather than the 160 acres allowed by the 1862 Homestead Act.
Nearly nine million acres were claimed by "Kinkaiders" between 1910 and 1917. Some of the Kinkaiders farmed the land, but these attempts failed; this included Nebraska's largest black settlement, DeWitty, located in southeast Cherry County until the 1930s. Many of the largest ranches broke up about the same time due to regulations against fencing federal range lands; some development of cropland agriculture in the modern era has occurred through the use of center-pivot irrigation systems. In the 21st century, the Sandhills are a productive cattle ranching area, supporting over 530,000 beef cattle; the population of the region continues to decline as older generations die out and as younger generations move to the cities. A number of small towns remain in the region; the Sandhills, the largest and most intricate wetland ecosystem in the United States, contain a large array of plant and animal life. Minimal crop production has led to limited land fragmentation; the Sandhills are home to 314 vertebrate species including mule deer, white-tail deer, red fox, wild turkeys, skunks, native bat species, many fish species.
The Sandhills' thousands of ponds and lakes replenish the Ogallala Aquifer, which feeds creeks and rivers such as the Niobrara and Loup rivers. These bodies of water are homes for many species of fish; the lakes are sandy-bottomed and provide water for the region's cattle, as well as a habitat for aquatic species. Some lakes in the area support several species of phyllopod shrimp. 720 different species of plants are found in the Sandhills. Most are native, with only 7% exotics — half the percentage of most other prairie systems; the blowout penstemon is an endangered species, found only in the Sandhills and in similar environments in central Wyoming. The blowout penstemon stabilizes the soil where wind erosion exposes the bare sand and creates a blowout, but is choked out when other species begin to recolonize. Grazing and land management practices used by Sandhills ranchers have reduced natural erosion, thus destroying some of the plant's habitat. Many of the plants of the Sandhills are sand-tolerant species from short-grass, mixed-grass, tallgrass prairies.
These plants have helped to stabilize the sand dunes, creating an ecosystem beneficial for other plants and animals. Better land management and grazing practices by the ranchers of the region have led to less erosion over time, which has kept the natural landscape of the area intact. Many species of insect are found in the Sandhills, including dragonflies and mosquitos. There are many types of spiders. Due to the ephemeral nature of both alkaline and freshwater lakes throughout the region, coupled with the wetland marsh areas, mosquito populations increase during the summer months; the Sandhills are part of the Central Flyway for many species of migratory birds, the region's many bodies of water give them places to rest. The ponds and lakes of the region are lay-over points for migratory cranes and many species of ducks. Species found year-round include the western meadowl
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Thedford is a village in Thomas County, United States. The population was 188 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Thomas County. Thedford was established in 1887 when the Chicago and Quincy Railroad was extended to that point, at which time the new town was designated county seat, it was named after Thedford, Canada. Thedford was incorporated as a village in 1914. Thedford is located at 41°58′44″N 100°34′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.23 square miles, all of it land. It is at the junction of U. S. Route 83 and Nebraska Route 2; as of the census of 2010, there were 188 people, 93 households, 52 families residing in the village. The population density was 817.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 118 housing units at an average density of 513.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 93 households of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.1% were non-families.
43.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the village was 44.7 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 211 people, 101 households, 65 families residing in the village; the population density was 865.9 people per square mile. There were 126 housing units at an average density of 517.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.53% White, 0.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.37% of the population. There were 101 households out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.65. In the village, the population was spread out with 17.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 23.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $29,583, the median income for a family was $44,063. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $20,938 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,300. None of the families and 0.9% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 3.4% of those over 64. As of 2009 the municipality has two convenience stores, one bank, one hotel, one restaurant.. Pearson Livestock Equipment Company makes Cattle Chutes in town for an industry. There is a law office, a lumber yard, a Dollar General store and a long time staple of a Grocery Store named Ewoldt’s.
Thedford Public Schools is the local school district. Some of the school activities are combined with a nearby school named Sandhills. Sandhills school is in Nebraska; the combined schools activities mascot is the Sandhills-Thedford Knights. County information
Cherry County, Nebraska
Cherry County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,713, its county seat is Valentine. The county was named for Lt. Samuel A. Cherry, an Army officer, stationed at Fort Niobrara and, killed in South Dakota in 1881. Cherry County is in the Nebraska Sandhills. In the Nebraska license plate system, Cherry County is represented by the prefix 66. Cherry County lies on the north side of Nebraska, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of South Dakota. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 6,009 square miles, of which 5,960 square miles is land and 49 square miles is water, it is by far Nebraska's largest county in land area and larger than the state of Connecticut, or the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined. The county is in Nebraska's Sandhills region. During the Holocene glacial retreat the sand dunes, deposited in their current location by the vast continental glaciers, were exposed and grasses took over.
Bowring Ranch State Historical Park Smith Falls State Park Owing to its size as Nebraska's largest county by area, Cherry County borders 11 counties, more than any other county in Nebraska. Seven of them are in Nebraska and four are in South Dakota; the adjacent counties are: As of the 2000 United States Census, of 2000, there were 6,148 people, 2,508 households, 1,710 families in the county. The population density was 1.02 people per square mile. There were 3,220 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.19% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 3.25% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.5% were of German, 12.6% English, 11.1% Irish and 7.3% American ancestry. There were 2,508 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families.
28.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.98. The county population contained 27.00% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 17.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,268, the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $23,705 versus $17,277 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,943. About 9.60% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.40% of those under age 18 and 14.20% of those age 65 or over. Valentine Brownlee Cherry County residents observe the Central and Mountain time zones; the eastern third of the county, including county seat Valentine, is in the Central Time Zone, while the western two thirds, including Merriman, are in the Mountain Time Zone.
Cherry County voters are reliably Republican. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cherry County, Nebraska Lt. Samuel A. Cherry County website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government