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Thomas Crapper

Thomas Crapper was an English businessman and plumber. He founded Thomas Co in London, a sanitary equipment company. Crapper held nine patents, three of them for water closet improvements such as the floating ballcock, he improved the S-bend plumbing trap in 1880 by inventing the U-bend. The firm's lavatorial equipment was manufactured at premises in nearby Marlborough Road; the company owned the world's first bath and sink showroom in King's Road. Crapper received several royal warrants. Manhole covers with Crapper's company's name on them in Westminster Abbey have become one of London's minor tourist attractions. Thomas Crapper was born in Thorne, South Yorkshire in 1836, his father, was a sailor. In 1853, he was apprenticed to his brother George, a master plumber in Chelsea, thereafter spent three years as a journeyman plumber. In 1861, Crapper set himself up as a sanitary engineer, with his own brass foundry and workshops in nearby Marlborough Road. In the 1880s, Prince Edward purchased his country seat of Sandringham House in Norfolk and asked Thomas Crapper & Co. to supply the plumbing, including thirty lavatories with cedarwood seats and enclosures, thus giving Crapper his first Royal Warrant.

The firm received further warrants from Edward as king and from George V both as Prince of Wales and as king. In 1904, Crapper retired, passing the firm to his nephew George and his business partner Robert Marr Wharam. Crapper lived at 12 Thornsett Road, for the last six years of his life and died on 27 January 1910. Crapper's death certificate records, he was buried in the nearby Elmers End Cemetery. In 1966, the Crapper company was sold by owner Robert G. Wharam on his retirement, to their rivals John Bolding & Sons. Bolding went into liquidation in 1969; the company fell out of use until it was acquired by Simon Kirby, a historian and collector of antique bathroom fittings, who relaunched the company in Stratford-upon-Avon, producing authentic reproductions of Crapper's original Victorian bathroom fittings. As the first man to set up public showrooms for displaying sanitary ware, he became known as an advocate of sanitary plumbing, popularising the notion of installation inside people's homes.

He helped refine and develop improvements to existing plumbing and sanitary fittings. As a part of his business, he maintained a foundry and metal shop which enabled him to try out new designs and develop more efficient plumbing solutions. Crapper improved the S-bend trap in 1880; the new U-bend plumbing trap was a significant improvement on the "S" as it could not jam, unlike the S-bend, it did not have a tendency to dry out and did not need an overflow. The BBC nominated the S-bend as one of the 50 Things That Made the Modern EconomyCrapper held nine patents, three of them for water closet improvements such as the floating ballcock, but none for the flush toilet itself. Crapper's advertisements implied. One such advertisement read "Crapper's Valveless Water Waste Preventer One movable part only" though patent 4990 was not his, but that of Albert Giblin in 1898. However, Crapper's nephew, did improve the siphon mechanism by which the water flow starts. A patent for this development was awarded in 1897.

Crapper invented the manhole cover, enabling easy maintenance access, as well as various improvements to plumbing fittings. It has been claimed in popular culture that the slang term for human bodily waste, originated with Thomas Crapper because of his association with lavatories. A common version of this story is that American servicemen stationed in England during World War I saw his name on cisterns and used it as army slang, i.e. "I'm going to the crapper". The word crap is of Middle English origin and predates its application to bodily waste, its most etymological origin is a combination of two older words: the Dutch krappen and the Old French crappe. In English, it was used to refer to chaff and to weeds or other rubbish, its first application to bodily waste, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, appeared in 1846, 10 years after Crapper was born, under a reference to a crapping ken, or a privy, where ken means a house. Thomas Crapper at Thomas Crapper & Co. Ltd. - the plumbing company founded by Thomas Crapper

Panamint Springs, California

Panamint Springs is an unincorporated community in Inyo County, California. It lies at an elevation of 1926 feet. Panamint Springs is located along State Route 190 between Panamint Valley Road; the closest store and gas station to Star Wars Canyon, the community features a motel, campground and the last gas station for many miles in either direction on SR190. Although not official by the Board of Geographic Names, Caltrans calls the SR190/Panamint Valley Road intersection, Panamint Junction; the junction is about 2.5 driving miles east of Panamint Springs. Towne Pass, a landmark when traveling to Death Valley, is 13.9 driving miles east on SR190. Beyond the pass, SR190 descends about 5,000 feet to the dry bed of Lake Manly; the Darwin Falls Wilderness, a U. S. Wilderness Area, is located just west of the settlement; the nearby area features the Darwin Falls, a small but scenic waterfall and creek that are the only year-round water supply in the driest part of North America. The dirt road entryway to the trail to Darwin Falls is located ¼ mile west of the settlement.

NAD27 latitude and longitude for Panamint Springs are 36°20′23″N 117°28′04″W and the feature ID number is 1661186. The elevation is identified as being 1,940 feet AMSL; the ZIP Code is 93545. The community is inside area code 760. Panamint Springs Resort was owned and operated by Buffalo Bill Cody’s cousin, Agnes Cody; the motel was opened in 1937 when the first toll road was constructed traversing the Panamint Valley. A post office operated at Panamint Springs from 1940 to 1946; the similar-sounding ghost town Panamint, California known as Panamint City, is located in Surprise Canyon about 25.8 miles at 127.1 degrees off true north. In the state legislature, Panamint Springs is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 26th Assembly District, represented by Republican Devon Mathis. Federally, Panamint Springs is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. Darwin, California Keeler, California Furnace Creek, California Stovepipe Wells, California Panamint Valley Panamint Range Telescope Peak Aerial photos of area

The Gifts of the Body

The Gifts of the Body is a novel consisting of several interconnected stories. It was written by Rebecca Brown, published by HarperCollins; the several short stories are narrated by a caregiver, tending to several patients who have contracted AIDS. Each story could be considered by itself, or the combined narrative could be viewed as one panorama dealing with either the AIDS or with those who care for those afflicted with the virus; each story is an illness narrative in itself, as it describes the physical and emotional trauma experienced by both the patients and the caregiver. The book contains ten short stories, the titles of each being associated with "gifts" which are various functions of the body, both physical and emotional: sweat, tears, hunger, death, sight and mourning; the caregiver experiences each "gift", as he/she deals with patients who have AIDS, showing the different shared relationships in each case. Each patient is a distinct case, differing in terms of age, financial situation, attitude toward the illness etc. showing the reader that this disease affects all types of people.

The book is written in the "no-frills style". Brown's minimalist style is typified by short words and paragraphs; this last characteristic is important in the context of writing about death or AIDS: Brown steers clear of lengthy, sentimental descriptions, but her "sober sentences pull the maximum emotional effect out of the reader" and make her or him reflect on the conditions of the characters' lives and deaths. The gender of the caregiver is unknown, although it is hinted that it is a young adult, still working on post-high-school education; the caregiver works for Urban Community Services, an organization that seems to be geared towards patients with AIDS. As the caregiver interacts with the patients, the reader witnesses their growing relationships; the caregiver is straightforward blunt, in narrating the story illuminating the resulting emotions. The book shows that the care between her clients is mutual. For instance, the latter comfort the narrator when she learns that one of her close colleagues has been diagnosed with AIDS.

Yet the book refuses to idealize the practice of caring. After all, readers see the narrator put herself aside for the people she cares for, watch her suffer from her strong emotional connection with them. "After a while, this intense involvement becomes untenable for the narrator, who starts to protect herself by creating some distance between her and the people she cares for." Rick is the AIDS patient of the first story. He shares a routine with the caregiver, who visits every Tuesday and Thursday, bringing coffee and cinnamon rolls to share. After Rick would answer the door, always with a "Hello! Just a minute!", the two would talk before the caregiver would clean the house. When the caregiver arrives one day and finds Rick curled up on the couch, not responding, it is obvious that there is something wrong, he is shaking, saying he is cold, although his body is bathed in sweat. The caregiver holds him. Mrs Lindstrom is an old woman which. Aside from the caregiver, Mrs Lindstrom is the most recurring character because of this relationship.

She tries to be independent in taking care of herself, despite her illness, as seen in The Gift of Wholeness when she insists upon making the refreshments despite being out of breath throughout the whole process. She shares a close relationship with her three children her son Joe. In The Gift of Mourning, it is Joe and the caregiver who are at her side in her last moments. Ed is an older man. Ed has been accepted for a room at a local hospice after being on the waiting list for a long time, but when the time comes, he is unsure if he wants to accept it. In The Gift of Tears, he ends up not accepting the room, claiming that he has too much to do before he can move out. However, we find that he ends up in the hospice in The Gift of Mobility where he is respected and known as the man who turned down a room; when the caregiver comes to visit him, he seems to be adjusting well, but as the visits progress, the caregiver learns that Ed can't stand living in the hospice. He ends up leaving the hospice to go to the YMCA, but ends up leaving the Y on the same day, leading the caregiver to not know of his whereabouts.

When the caregiver asks his friends at the hospice how he seemed when he left, they laugh and say "vertical". Carlos is middle aged and of Hispanic descent; the caregiver's interaction with this patient is minimal until bathtime. In the process of getting Carlos undressed, the condom part of his catheter is exposed, much to his embarrassment, but the caregiver remains casual and calm for his sake; the bath calms Carlos. Marty is a young adult whom the caregiver meets while visiting Carlos, as the two had long been close friends. After Carlos' death, the caregiver again encounters Marty but fails to recognize him, his appearance having changed drastically from fat to drastically thin; the two discuss Carlos, it is revealed that Marty played a part in his friend's death because he hated to see him suffer through the pain, telling the caregiver that he "gave him the gift of death." Mike is not on the caregive

Death Cab for Cutie discography

Death Cab for Cutie has released nine studio albums, five extended plays, a demo tape, a digital album, one live album, thirty-two singles, nine music videos, two DVDs. Death Cab for Cutie is an American indie rock group from Bellingham and was formed in 1997 by Ben Gibbard as a side project from Pinwheel. After releasing a demo tape, he added guitarist Chris Walla, bassist Nick Harmer, drummer Nathan Good to the band. Death Cab signed to Barsuk Records and released four extended plays and four studio albums through the label; the fourth album, reached number 97 on the Billboard 200 and was certified gold in the United States. The group issued nine singles and a demo tape through Barsuk. In 2004, the band signed with a subsidiary of the Warner Music Group, their first release on the label, earned a platinum certification and charted at number four in the US. The single "Soul Meets Body" was the band's first to chart on the Billboard Hot 100. Death Cab for Cutie topped the US and Canadian album charts with Narrow Stairs, with help from the Hot 100 single "I Will Possess Your Heart".

Both Plans and Narrow Stairs received critical praise and were nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album. Other projects with Atlantic include a downloadable digital album, two DVDs, five singles. In 2013, a limited edition vinyl boxed set called The Barsuk Years was released on the Artist In Residence label; the 7-LP set, which includes all the band's early works, was produced in a limited run of 1500 units, each individually numbered and signed by the band. This list does not include material that members of Death Cab for Cutie recorded with The Postal Service, ¡All-Time Quarterback! or other side projects. Death Cab for Cutie official web site SOUL MEETS BODY - Death Cab for Cutie Italian Forum

Minsmere River

Minsmere River is a river in the English county of Suffolk which flows into the North Sea at Minsmere. The river is formed from the River Yox at Yoxford before flowing through Middleton and Minsmere, it flows to the south of Minsmere RSPB reserve helping to form many of the wetland habitats at the reserve. The river valley was drained and used as agricultural land in the past; the original course of the river, the Minsmere Old River, runs to the north of the Minsmere New Cut, an artificial drainage channel built in 1812. This reaches the sea at Minsmere Sluice, a tidal sluice which discharges water from the channels into the sea. A number of the drainage channels and river banks have been subject to flooding. Flood defence work has been carried out on the New Cut and associated sluices as well as at Reckford Bridge in Middleton. Between Yoxford and Eastbridge the landscape is classified as valley fens; the narrow valley, which has some peat deposits, is drained through a system of dykes and used as grassland with some areas of mixed woodland.

Suffolk Wildlife Trust maintains a 20 hectares nature reserve at Darsham Marshes along this stretch of the river. Past Eastbridge the landscape is flat along the line of the river; this is known as the Minsmere Level, an area of drained and re-flooded marshland with underlying alluvial geology. The area to the south of the Minsmere New Cut is used a grazing marsh. To the north the wetland areas are flooded and managed as part of the RSPB's habitat management strategy for its Minsmere reserve; the area provides a number of important habitats for bitterns, marsh harriers, hen harriers and Dartford warblers. The wetland areas include flooded lagoons and much of the area is designated as a Ramsar site; the grazing marshes to the south of the Minsmere Levels provide over-wintering grounds for a variety of different waterfowl species. The original site of Leiston Abbey stood to the south of the river on the Minsmere Levels; the remains of a chapel are the only visible remains at the site of the original Premonstratensian abbey, moved to the current site near Leiston in 1363 due to increased flooding of the coastal site.

The chapel was built after the abbey was moved and was used until the dissolution of the monasteries in 1536. It is a scheduled ancient monument. Eastbridge Windpump was one of four drainage mills which stood on the Minsmere Levels alongside the river, it is preserved at the Museum of East Anglian Life in Stowmarket

Streptococcus bovis

Streptococcus bovis, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that in humans is associated with urinary tract infections, endocarditis and colorectal cancer. S. gallolyticus is found in the alimentary tract of cattle and other ruminants, may cause ruminal acidosis or feedlot bloat. It is associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, a frequent complication occurring in patients affected by cirrhosis. Equivalence with Streptococcus equinus has been contested; the S. bovis group includes S. equinus, S. gallolyticus, S. infantarius, other related species. Members of this group are esculin positive, 6.5% salt negative, sorbitol negative and produce acetoin. Isolates from the S. bovis group are most encountered in blood cultures from patients with colon cancer. However, S. bovis. Although infection with S. bovis group organisms occurs with higher frequency in adults than in pediatric patients, these organisms have been reported to cause neonatal sepsis and meningitis. S. bovis is a catalase-negative and oxidase-negative, non-sporulating, Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that grows as pairs or chains of cocci.

It is a member of the Lancefield group D streptococci. Most strains are gamma-hemolytic, but some display alpha-hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates. Strep bovis is a non-enterococci; the main portal of entry for human infection of S. bovis bacteremia is the gastrointestinal tract, but in some cases, entry is through the urinary tract, the hepatobiliary tree, or the oropharynx. S. bovis is a human pathogen, implicated as a causative agent of endocarditis, urinary tract infections, more sepsis and neonatal meningitis. S. Bovis has long been associated with colorectal cancer. A 2011 meta-analysis on the association between S. bovis biotypes and colonic adenomas/carcinomas revealed that patients with S. bovis biotype I infection had a increased risk of having colorcectal cancer, compared to S. bovis biotype II-infected patients. This analysis suggests S. bovis should no longer be regarded as a single bacterial entity in clinical practice. Only Streptococcus gallolyticus infection has an unambiguous association with colonic adenomas/carcinomas that markedly exceeds the prevalence of colonic maligancies in the general population.

Research has not yet determined that S. gallolyticus is a causative agent of colorectal cancer, or if pre-existing cancer makes the lumen of the large intestine more hospitable to its outgrowth. When ruminants consume diets high in starch or sugar, these fermentable carbohydrates promote the proliferation of S. bovis in the rumen. Because S. bovis is a lactic acid bacterium, fermentation of these carbohydrates to lactic acid can cause a dramatic decline in ruminal pH, subsequent development of adverse conditions such as ruminal acidosis or feedlot bloat. DDB 31906Streptococcus Group D Infections at eMedicine