The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
The Crypt School
The Crypt School is a grammar school with academy status for boys and girls located in the city of Gloucester. The school was founded in 1539 by Joan Cooke with money inherited from her husband John. John Cooke was a wealthy brewer and mercer of Gloucester, one of the City's earliest aldermen, serving as sheriff in 1494 and 1498, he held the office of mayor four times, in 1501, 1507, 1512 and 1518. He was a great benefactor of the City, his will started the process in motion for the establishment of a grammar school in Gloucester, the scheme was given effect by his wife Joan who survived him by 17 years, dying in 1545. It was Joan therefore; the school remains today the most ancient in Gloucester. A full account of the couple and their good works is contained within the book by Roland Austin published in 1939 "Crypt School". A contemporaneous portrait of the pair, John in his mayoral robe, shaking hands in union, is held within the collection of Gloucester City Council. In the school's 500-year history it has been sited in three different locations within the city of Gloucester.
The original school was part of St Mary de Crypt Church in Southgate Street and the schoolroom can still be seen there. In 1889, the school moved to Greyfriars, known better as Friar's Orchard, in 1943, to its present site at Podsmead; the site on which the modern school is situated is land given to the school by Joan Cooke in 1539. Despite attempts to change the school, notably in the 1960s with the move to comprehensive schools, the Crypt remains a selective boys grammar school. In 1987, there was the admission of girls in the sixth form entering in at the age of 16. Since April 2011, the school has been an academy independent of local authority control; the school will be co-educational by 2018. In May 2018, the school announced plans to create a primary school, linked to the secondary school being built on the current Podsmead site; the new primary school would be a free school. Facilities at the school include: Largest non-commercial stage in Gloucestershire Sixth Form Centre Sports hall Pavilion Tennis courts 3 full-size rugby pitches 2 football pitches 2 cricket fields Alumni of the school are known as Old Cryptians.
Michael Wrenford Hooper, Bishop of Ludlow from 2002–9 John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury John Paddock, Dean of Gibraltar Robert Raikes and founder of Sunday School Movement George Whitefield, a leader of the Methodist movement James Frederick Wood, Archbishop of Philadelphia between 1860–83 James Roose-Evans, theatre director and priest John Gordon A'Bear, international rugby union player with the British and Irish Lions, Gloucester's youngest captain. Grahame Parker, cricketer Wayne Thomas, professional footballer Percy Stout, English international in rugby union Ernest Baldwin, professor of Biochemistry at University College London from 1950–69 Peter Bayley, professor of English at the University of St Andrews from 1978–85, the first Principal of Collingwood College, Durham in 1972 Derek Brewer, professor of English at the University of Cambridge from 1983–90, Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge from 1977–90, President of the English Association from 1982–3 and 1987–90 Thomas Edward Brown, poet and head-master H. D. F. Kitto and Professor of Greek at the University of Bristol from 1944–62 Capel Bond, organist Ian Dench, best known as the guitarist from EMF Michael John Hurd, composer William Henley and editor Anthony Calf, actor Harold Collison, Baron Collison CBE, General Secretary of the National Union of Agricultural and Allied Workers from 1953–69 Andrew Henderson, Ambassador to Algeria since 2007 Robin Day, journalist and political commentator James Bruton, member of Parliament for Gloucester for the Unionist Party in 1918 and 1922.'Carmen Cryptiense', written in April 1926 with words by D. Gwynne Williams and music by C. Lee Williams.
Official website Old Cryptians Club for former pupils and teachers. The London Old Cryptians Club
Hugh Stowell Brown
Hugh Stowell Brown was a Manx Christian minister and renowned preacher. Hugh Stowell Brown was a preacher and social reformer in Liverpool in the nineteenth century, his public work among the poor brought him great renown. On his death a statue was raised to him, one of only three Liverpool clergymen to receive that honour, his brother was the Manx poet Thomas Edward Brown. He was born at Douglas, Isle of Man, on 10 August 1823, was second son of Robert Brown, his wife Dorothy. Thomas Edward Brown was his younger brother; the father, Robert Brown, was at one time master of the grammar school in Douglas, in 1817 became chaplain of St. Matthew's chapel in that town. An evangelical of extreme views, he never read the Athanasian Creed, took no notice of Ash Wednesday or Lent. In 1832, he became curate of Kirk Braddan, succeeding as vicar on 2 April 1836, he learned Manx in order to preach in it, supported a family of nine on less than £200 a year. His boys spent the summers in collecting his tithes of hay and corn, intermittently walking five miles to Douglas grammar school, but Hugh's early education consisted chiefly in reading four or five hours daily to his father, who became blind.
Robert Brown was found dead by the roadside on 28 November 1846, buried next day at Kirk Braddan. He wrote twenty-two Sermons on various Subjects and London, 1818, 8vo. Hugh was apprenticed when fifteen to a land surveyor, employed in tithe commutation and ordnance surveys in Cheshire and York. In 1840, he entered the Birmingham Railway's works at Wolverton, Buckinghamshire. While earning from four to eight shillings a week he began to study Greek, chalking his first exercises on a fire-box. After three years, part of the time spent in driving a locomotive between Crewe and Wolverton, he returned home and entered King William's College at Castletown to study for the church; when his training was complete he felt unable to subscribe to the ordination service, resolved to return to his trade. About November 1847, he was accepted by that congregation as their minister, he was twenty-four. There he remained until his death. To his Sunday afternoon lecture, established in 1854 in the Concert Hall, Brown drew from two to three thousand working men, whom his own early experiences, added to great power and plainness of speech, with abundant humour, powerfully influenced.
He anticipated the post office by opening a workman's savings bank, to which over £80,000 was entrusted before it was wound up. In 1873, he visited the States. Brown was president in 1878 of the Baptist Union, his addresses were an appeal for a better educated nonconformist ministry. He thought at one time of retiring from Liverpool to open a hall at Oxford or Cambridge, to be affiliated to one of the colleges, he was in favour of abandoning denominational colleges, the students to take their arts degrees at existing universities. He was an active member of the Baptist Missionary Society, for many years president of the Liverpool Peace Society and chairman of the Seaman's Friend Association. Brown died after a few days' illness from apoplexy on 24 February 1886 at 29 Falkner Square and was buried on 28 February at the Liverpool Necropolis. Brown married, first, in 1848, Alice Chibnall Sirett, the mother of all his children, died in 1863. P, she died on 25 March 1884. Soon after his death a statue of Hugh Stowell Brown was paid for by public subscription.
The Statue was unveiled on Tuesday 15 October 1889 in the churchyard at the front of Myrtle Street Baptist Church opposite the Philharmonic Hall. In 1939, Myrtle Street church was closed and subsequently demolished, the site became a car park; the statue was moved to Princes Road/Avenue, close to Princes Park gates, Liverpool on Saturday 25 September 1954. The statue was removed around the time that the William Huskisson was toppled from its pedestal in 1988, it had suffered extensive damage lay forlornly in the stable yard at Croxteth Hall in Liverpool until in early 2014. As part of the planning stipulations for the development of student apartments on Hope Street an agreement between the Nordic Construction and Liverpool City Council was made to restore the statue and erect it on Hope street at the entrance to the apartments and opposite the Philharmonic pub; the restoration itself was coordinated via Nick Roberson of Roberson Stone Carving and Stewart Darlow of Nordic Construction to ensure the project was kept as original as possible.
The extensive restoration began with cleaning the once white marble. This included removal of lichen and moss and extensive steam cleaning; the hands and frock coat damage were replaced using matching Italian marble and original photographic reference to replicate the lost detail. This left the nose and ears which were restored using marble dust and lime in accordance with current accepted restoration practice. On 10 September 2015 the 7.5 tonne restored statue and plinthwere erected not far from their original location on Hope Street. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, Charlotte Fell. "Brown, Hugh Stowell". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. A Memorial Volume. Routledge and Sons. 1888. "Rev. Hugh Stowell Brown, Campaign", Liverpool Monument
Douglas, Isle of Man
Douglas is the capital and largest town of the Isle of Man, with a population of 27,938. It is located at the mouth of the River Douglas, on a sweeping bay of two miles; the River Douglas forms part of main commercial port. Douglas was a small settlement until it grew as a result of links with the English port of Liverpool in the 18th century. Further population growth came in the following century, resulting during the 1860s in a staged transfer of the High Courts, the Lieutenant Governor's residence, the seat of the legislature, Tynwald, to Douglas from the ancient capital, Castletown; the town is the Island's main hub for business, legal services, transport and entertainment. The annual Isle of Man TT motorcycle races finish in Douglas. In the absence of any archaeological data, the origins of the town may be revealed by analysis of the original street and plot pattern; the discovery of a bronze weapon in central Douglas, the large Ballaquayle Viking treasure hoard on the outskirts, both in the 1890s, hint at the early importance of the site now occupied by Douglas.
Scholars agree that the name of the town derives from Early Celtic'Duboglassio' meaning'black river'. Douglas is twice referred to in the monastic Chronicle of the Kings of Man and the Isles: first in 1192, when the monks of St Mary's Abbey at Rushen were transferred there for a four-year stay; these may be references to the site of the Nunnery, a little upstream from the port. The first detailed documentation shows that in 1511 there were only thirteen resident households in the settlement clustered north of the harbour; this suggests. Current speculation links the store buildings with the Irish Sea herring fishery, the import/export trade. In 1681 Thomas Denton described Douglas as "the place of greatest resort" on the Isle of Man, by 1705 a clear picture of the early town emerges, with hints that its residential and military defence functions were growing in importance alongside the port facility; the town thrived in the next 60 years, as imposing merchants' houses, large warehouses, quays and a pier were built to accommodate the burgeoning "running trade": one of the stimuli for the town's expansion.
Other forms of trade grew, after the Revestment Act 1765, Douglas began to reap the benefits of transatlantic trade, due in part to co-operation at a local level with Liverpool. Legitimate merchants who rose to prominence over the period included the Murreys, the Moores, the Bacons; the town's prosperity was facilitated by the low cost of living, the favourable legal status enjoyed by English debtors and half-pay officers. The initial growth and development of the town owed much to its natural harbour, since expanded and improved. Over the 18th century, the town's population rose from about 800 in 1710 to nearly 2,500 in 1784. Throughout the 19th century, the town's demographics followed the same trends as the United Kingdom, due to the Industrial Revolution; the number of holiday visitors grew from the early 19th century, from around 1870 onwards, the town was transformed into a leading holiday resort. But there were unsanitary conditions, poor quality housing; the open sewage and smell from the harbour at low tide all contributed to the town's uncleanliness.
Oil and gas lamps first appeared in the late 1820s and 1830s, the first hospital to join the Dispensary was built in 1850, in 1832 the scenic Tower of Refuge was built in Douglas Bay to offer shelter and provisions for sailors awaiting rescue. Douglas in the first half of the 19th century suffered from the destitution of its population and the many epidemics, in particular cholera; the rise of Douglas as the social and economic stronghold was recognised in 1869, when it became the home of the island's parliament and therefore the capital, an honour held by Castletown, a smaller town in the south of the island. Douglas's political landscape changed in the 19th century, in spite of the conservatism of some townsfolk: in 1844, for example, at a public meeting, the idea of a town council was rejected in favour of retaining the system of Town High Bailiffs. However, an Act passed that decade, which did not include opt-out clauses, was accepted, in 1860, Douglas elected its first town council, predominantly middle class in its makeup.
The Town Commissioners could tackle the town's problems with greater efficiency, by 1869 the sewage problem had been resolved. The Commissioners worked to alter the anachronistic architecture of Douglas, built during the era of fishing and trading, no longer amenable or safe for tourists; the proportion of the total Manx population living in Douglas was expanding, with 35% living there by 1891. The Victorian and modernisation of the town was achieved at the expense of the original maze-like layout of the oldest streets; these were cleared away in the new street schemes and slum clearances of the 1870s to 1920s. The town's infrastructure was radically altered for tourists' convenience, in 1878 the Loch Promenade was construc
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, in the South West of England, of which it is the county town. Gloucester lies close to the Welsh border, on the River Severn, between the Cotswolds to the east and the Forest of Dean to the southwest. Gloucester was founded in AD 97 by the Romans under Emperor Nerva as Colonia Glevum Nervensis, was granted its first charter in 1155 by King Henry II. Economically, the city is dominated by the service industries, has a strong financial and business sector, it was prominent in the aerospace industry. The origins of the name Gloucester are related to its name in modern Welsh; the name'caerloyw' is composed of two parts: caer and'loyw', a linguistic mutation of'gloyw', meaning bright or shining. The name Gloucester thus means "bright fort". There are various appellations of the city's name in history, such as Caer Glow, Gleucestre as an early British settlement is not confirmed by direct evidence. However, Gloucester was the Roman municipality of Colonia Nervia Glevensium, or Glevum, built in the reign of Nerva.
Parts of the walls can be traced, a number of remains and coins have been found, though inscriptions are scarce. In Historia Brittonum, a fabled account of the early rulers of Britain, Vortigern's grandfather, Gloiu, is given as the founder of Gloucester. Part of the foundations of Roman Gloucester can be seen today in Eastgate Street, while Roman tombstones and a range of other Roman artefacts can be seen in Gloucester City Museum. After the withdrawal on the Roman Empire in the late 4th Century the town returned to the control of Celtic Dubonni tribe. By the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Gloucester is shown as part of Wessex from the Battle of Deorham in 577. At some point after this battle, along with the rest of Gloucestershire excluding the Forest of Dean, Gloucester was part of the minor kingdom of the Hwicce. In 628, as a result of the Battle of Cirencester, the kingdom of the Hwicce became a client or sub-kingdom of Mercia. From about 780, the Hwicce region was no longer a kingdom in its own right and was under full Mercian control until, along with the rest of Mercia, it submitted to Alfred the Great in about 877-883.
The name Gloucester derives from the Anglo-Saxon for fort preceded by Celtic name, which derived from the Roman stem Glev-. Claudia Castra is mentioned in the 18th Century as possible Latin name related to the city. Gloucester was captured by the Saxons in 577, its situation on a navigable river, the foundation in 681 of the abbey of St Peter by Æthelred, favoured the growth of the town. In the early 10th century the remains of Saint Oswald were brought to a small church in Gloucester, bringing many pilgrims to the town; the core street layout is thought to date back to the reign of Ethelfleda in late Saxon times. In 1051 Edward the Confessor held court at Gloucester and was threatened there by an army led by Godwin, Earl of Wessex, but the incident resulted in a standoff rather than a battle. A unique coin, dated to 1077–80, was discovered, just north of the city, in November 2011, it features its place of minting. The Portable Antiquities Scheme said that, until the coin was discovered, there had been no known examples of William I coins minted in Gloucester in this period.
After the Norman Conquest, William Rufus made Robert Fitzhamon the first baron or overlord of Gloucester. Fitzhamon had a military base at Cardiff Castle, for the succeeding years the history of Gloucester was linked to that of Cardiff. During the Anarchy, Gloucester was a centre of support for the Empress Matilda, supported in her claim to the throne by her half-brother, Fitzhamon's grandson, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester. After this period of strife ended with the ascent of her son Henry to the throne Henry II of England, Henry granted Robert possession of Cardiff Castle, it passed to Mathilda's son Robert Curthose and his son, William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester; the story of the Anarchy is vividly told in a series of nineteenth-century paintings by William Burges at the Castle. King Henry II granted Gloucester its first charter in 1155, which gave the burgesses the same liberties as the citizens of London and Winchester. A second charter of Henry II gave them freedom of passage on the River Severn.
The first charter was confirmed in 1194 by King Richard I. The privileges of the borough were extended by the charter of King John, which gave freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and from pleading outside the borough. In 1216 King Henry III, aged only ten years, was crowned with a gilded iron ring in the Chapter House of Gloucester Cathedral. Gloucester's significance in the Middle Ages is underlined by the fact that it had a number of monastic establishments, including St Peter's Abbey founded in 679, the nearby St Oswald's Priory, Gloucester founded in the 880s or 890s, Llanthony Secunda Priory, founded 1136 as a retreat for a community of Welsh monks, the Franciscan Greyfriars community founded in 1231, the Dominican Blackfriars community founded in 1239, it has some early churches including St Mary de Lode Church, Gloucester near the Cathedral and the Norman St Mary de Crypt Church, Gloucester in Southgate Street. Additionally, there is e
John Percival (bishop)
John Percival was the first headmaster of Clifton College, where he made his reputation as a great educator. In his 17 years at Clifton numbers rose to 680, he accepted the presidency of Trinity College. It was from Trinity that he went to Rugby to become headmaster of Rugby School before becoming Bishop of Hereford. Percival was born in Brough Sowerby, near Kirkby Stephen, Westmorland and was brought up on his uncle's farm after the death of his mother when he was young, he was educated at Appleby grammar school, before winning a scholarship to The Queen's College, Oxford in 1854. He obtained first-class degrees in classics and mathematics and was elected to a fellowship by the college in 1858. Recuperating from overwork in Pau, France in the following winter, he met Louisa Holland, whom he married in 1862. Together they had eight children; the most notable of their children was Launcelot Jefferson Percival, an international rugby player, Deputy Clerk of the Closet to King George VI. Another son was lieutenant-colonel Arthur Jex-Blake Percival, who died in Belgium in the early days of WWI. Percival was ordained deacon in 1860 and was offered a position as a master at Rugby School by the headmaster, Frederick Temple.
In 1862, Percival was appointed the first headmaster of Clifton College in Bristol, on Temple's recommendation. Percival made this new school into a leading public school and he was involved with other educational work in the city, helping to found Clifton High School for Girls. and University College, Bristol. Percival became President of Trinity College, Oxford in January 1879. Although he was not always happy as a college head, he was involved in the wider work of the university, chairing the committee that established Somerville Hall in 1879 and promoting the university's adult education work. In May 1887, Percival became headmaster of Rugby School. During his time as headmaster, he pursued a vigorous moral crusade, his leadership soon improved the prestige of the school. He attacked "idleness" and "loafing" and, concerned about "impurity", insisted that boys' football shorts should be worn below the knee and secured with elastic, he acquired the nickname "Percival of the knees" as a result.
In 1888, Percival's appointment of Marie Bethell Beauclerc to teach shorthand to classes of one hundred boys was the first appointment of a female teacher in an English boys' public school and the first time shorthand had been taught in any such school. Lord Rosebery, the Prime Minister, nominated Percival to be Bishop of Hereford in January 1895. Whilst Queen Victoria was opposed to the idea, since Percival was known to favour the disestablishment of the Church in Wales, Rosebery prevailed; the Congé d'élire authorising Percival's appointment passed the Great Seal of the Realm on 18 February 1895. Percival's time in Hereford was affected by the death of his wife in 1896, he had difficulties in administering the large rural diocese where his radical political views were unpopular. Graham Neville characterises him as a'Low-church Political Liberal'.. He attracted criticism when he invited nonconformists to take holy communion at Hereford Cathedral to mark the coronation of George V, he had more success on a national level, elected as the President of the Educational Science section of the British Association, championed the cause of adult education in particular – he chaired the first meeting of the Workers' Educational Association in 1903.
Percival hoped for the Archbishopric of York. Percival died the following year, he was buried in the chapel crypt of Clifton College. Works by John Percival at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Percival at Internet Archive