Newport is a city and unitary authority area in south east Wales, on the River Usk close to its confluence with the Severn Estuary, 12 miles northeast of Cardiff. At the 2011 census, it was the third largest city in Wales, with a population of 145,700; the city forms part of the Cardiff-Newport metropolitan area, with a population of 1,097,000. Newport has been a port since medieval times, when the first Newport Castle was built by the Normans; the town outgrew the earlier Roman town of Caerleon upstream, gained its first charter in 1314. It grew in the 19th century, when its port became the focus of coal exports from the eastern South Wales Valleys; until the rise of Cardiff from the 1850s, Newport was Wales' largest coal-exporting port. Newport was the site of the last large-scale armed insurrection in Britain, the Newport Rising of 1839 led by the Chartists. In the 20th century, the docks declined in importance, but Newport remained an important manufacturing and engineering centre, it was granted city status in 2002.
Newport was the venue for the 2014 NATO summit. Bronze Age fishermen settled around the fertile estuary of the River Usk and the Celtic Silures built hillforts overlooking it. In AD 75, on the edge of their empire, the Roman legions built a Roman fort at Caerleon to defend the river crossing. According to legend, in the late 5th century Saint Gwynllyw, the patron saint of Newport and King of Gwynllwg founded the church which would become Newport Cathedral; the church was in existence by the 9th century and today has become the seat of the Bishop of Monmouth. The Normans arrived from around 1088–1093 to build the first Newport Castle and river crossing downstream from Caerleon and the first Norman Lord of Newport was Robert Fitzhamon; the settlement of'Newport' is first mentioned as novo burgus established by Robert, Earl of Gloucester in 1126. The name was derived from the original Latin name Novus Burgus, meaning new town; the city can sometimes be found labelled as Newport-on-Usk on old maps.
The original Welsh language name for the city, Casnewydd-ar-Wysg means'New castle-on-Usk' and this refers to the twelfth-century castle ruins near Newport city centre. The original Newport Castle was a small motte-and-bailey castle in the park opposite Newport Cathedral, it was buried in rubble excavated from the Hillfield railway tunnels that were dug under Stow Hill in the 1840s and no part of it is visible. Around the settlement, the new town grew to become Newport, obtaining its first charter in 1314 and was granted a second one, by Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford in 1385. In the 14th century friars came to Newport where they built an isolation hospital for infectious diseases. After its closure the hospital lived on in the place name "Spitty Fields". "Austin Friars" remains a street name in the city. During the Welsh Revolt in 1402 Rhys Gethin, General for Owain Glyndŵr, forcibly took Newport Castle together with those at Cardiff, Abergavenny, Caerphilly and Usk. During the raid the town of Newport was badly burned and Saint Woolos church destroyed.
A third charter, establishing the right of the town to run its own market and commerce came from Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham in 1426. By 1521, Newport was described as having "....a good haven coming into it, well occupied with small crays where a great ship may resort and have good harbour." Trade was thriving with the nearby ports of Bristol and Bridgwater and industries included leather tanning, soap making and starch making. The town's craftsmen included bakers, brewers and blacksmiths. A further charter was granted by James I in 1623. During the English Civil War in 1648 Oliver Cromwell's troops camped overnight on Christchurch Hill overlooking the town before their attack on the castle the next day. A cannonball dug up from a garden in nearby Summerhill Avenue, dating from this time, now rests in Newport Museum; as the Industrial Revolution took off in Britain in the 19th century, the South Wales Valleys became key suppliers of coal from the South Wales Coalfield, iron. These were transported down local rivers and the new canals to ports such as Newport, Newport Docks grew as a result.
Newport became one of the largest towns in Wales and the focus for the new industrial eastern valleys of South Wales. By 1830 Newport was Wales' leading coal port, until the 1850s it was larger than Cardiff; the Newport Rising in 1839 was the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain. John Frost and 3,000 other Chartists marched on the Westgate Hotel at the centre of the town; the march was met with an attack by militia, called to the town by the Mayor, Thomas Phillips: at least 20 marchers were killed and were buried in Saint Woolos churchyard. John Frost was sentenced to death for treason, but this was commuted to transportation to Australia, he returned to Britain in his life. John Frost Square, in the centre of the city, is named in his honour. Newport had a Welsh-speaking majority until the 1830s, but with a large influx of migrants from England and Ireland over the following decades, the town and the rest of Monmouthshire came to be seen as "un-Welsh", a view compounded by ambiguity about the status of Monmouthshire.
In the 19th century, the St George Society of Newport asserted. It was at a meeting in Newport, attended by future Prime Minister David Lloyd Geor
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Great Smoky Mountains National Park is an American national park and a UNESCO World Heritage Site that straddles the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which are a division of the larger Appalachian Mountain chain. The border between Tennessee and North Carolina runs northeast to southwest through the centerline of the park. Great Smoky Mountains is the most visited national park in the United States with over 11.3 million recreational visitors in 2016. The Appalachian Trail passes through the center of the park on its route from Maine to Georgia; the park was chartered by the United States Congress in 1934 and dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940; the park encompasses 522,419 acres, making it one of the largest protected areas in the eastern United States. The main park entrances are located along U. S. Highway 441 at the towns of Gatlinburg and Cherokee, North Carolina. Great Smoky Mountains was the first national park whose land and other costs were paid for in part with federal funds.
Before the arrival of European settlers, the region was part of the homeland of the Cherokees. Frontiers people began settling the land in early 19th century. In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, beginning the process that resulted in the forced removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River to what is now Oklahoma. Many of the Cherokee left, but some, led by renegade warrior Tsali, hid out in the area, now the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; some of their descendants now live in the Qualla Boundary to the south of the park. As white settlers arrived, logging grew as a major industry in the mountains, a rail line, the Little River Railroad, was constructed in the late-19th Century to haul timber out of the remote regions of the area. Cut-and-run-style clearcutting was destroying the natural beauty of the area, so visitors and locals banded together to raise money for preservation of the land; the U. S. National Park Service wanted a park in the eastern United States, but did not have much money to establish one.
Though Congress had authorized the park in 1926, there was no nucleus of federally owned land around which to build a park. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. contributed $5 million, the U. S. government added $2 million, private citizens from Tennessee and North Carolina pitched in to assemble the land for the park, piece by piece. Mountain homesteaders and loggers were evicted from the land. Farms and timbering operations were abolished to establish the protected areas of the park. Travel writer Horace Kephart, for whom Mount Kephart was named, photographers Jim Thompson and George Masa were instrumental in fostering the development of the park. Former Governor Ben W. Hooper of Tennessee was the principal land purchasing agent for the park, established on 15 June 1934. During the Great Depression, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, other federal organizations made trails, fire watchtowers, other infrastructure improvements to the park and Smoky Mountains, it was a site for filming of parts of Disney's hit 1950s TV series, Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier.
This park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve in 1976, was certified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983, became a part of the Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve in 1988. A 75th anniversary re-dedication ceremony was held on 2 September 2009. Among those in attendance were all four US Senators, the three US Representatives whose districts include the park, the governors of both states, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. Tennessee native and actress Dolly Parton attended and performed; the majority of rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are Late Precambrian rocks that are part of the Ocoee Supergroup. This group consists of metamorphosed sandstones, phyllites and slate. Early Precambrian rocks are not only the oldest rocks in the park but the dominant rock type in sites such as the Raven Fork Valley and upper Tuckasegee River between Cherokee and Bryson City, they consist of metamorphic gneiss and schist. Cambrian sedimentary rocks can be found among the bottom of the Foothills to the northwest and in limestone coves such as Cades Cove.
One of the most visited attractions in the mountains is Cades Cove, a window or an area where older rocks made out of sandstone surround the valley floor of younger rocks made out of limestone. The oldest rocks in the Smokies are the Precambrian gneiss and schists which were formed over a billion years ago from the accumulation of marine sediments and igneous rock. In the Late Precambrian, the primordial ocean expanded and the more recent Ocoee Supergroup rocks formed from the accumulation of eroding land mass onto the continental shelf. In the Paleozoic Era, the ocean deposited a thick layer of marine sediments which left behind sedimentary rock. During the Ordovician Period, the collision of the North American and African tectonic plates initiated the Alleghenian orogeny that created the Appalachian range. During the Mesozoic Era rapid erosion of softer sedimentary rocks re-exposed the older Ocoee Supergroup formations. Elevations in the park range from about 875 feet to 6,643 feet at the summit of Clingmans Dome.
Within the park a total of sixteen mountains reach higher than 5,000 feet. The wide range of elevations mimics the latitudinal changes found throughout the entire eastern United States. Indeed, ascending the mountains is comparable to a trip from Tennessee to Canada. Plants and animals common
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Nurseries may supply plants for agriculture, for forestry and for conservation biology; some of them specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry; some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season. Nurseries can grow plants on container fields, in tunnels or greenhouses. In open fields, nurseries grow ornamental trees and herbaceous perennials the plants meant for the wholesale trade or for amenity plantings.
On a containerfield nurseries grow small trees and herbaceous plants destined for sales in garden centers. Nurseries grow plants in greenhouses, a building of glass or in plastic tunnels, designed to protect young plants from harsh weather (especially frost. While allowing access to light and ventilation, modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature and light and semi-automated watering and feeding; some have fold-back roofs to allow "hardening-off" of plants without the need for manual transfer to outdoor beds. Most nurseries remain high standard. Although some processes have been mechanised and automated, others have not, it remains unlikely that all plants treated in the same way at the same time will arrive at the same condition together, so plant care requires observation and manual dexterity. A UK nurseryman has estimated; the largest UK nurseries have moved to minimize labour costs by the use of computer controlled warehousing methods: plants are pallet allocated to a location and grown on there with little human intervention.
Picking requires selection of a batch and manual quality control before dispatch. In other cases, a high loss rate during maturation is accepted for the reduction in detailed plant maintenance costs. Business is seasonal, concentrated in spring and fall. There is no guarantee that there will be demand for the product - this will be affected by temperature, cheaper foreign competition, among other things. Annuals are sold in trays, peat pots, or plastic pots. Perennials and woody plants are sold either in pots, bare root or balled and burlapped, in a variety of sizes, from liners to mature trees. Balled and Burlap trees are dug either by hand or by a loader that has a tree spade attachment on the front of the machine. Although container grown woody plants are becoming more and more popular due to the versatility, B & B is still used throughout the industry. Plants may be propagated by seeds, but desirable cultivars are propagated asexually; the most common method is by cuttings. These can be taken from shoot tips or parts of stems from older stems.
Herbaceous perennials are often propagated by root cuttings or division. For plants on a rootstock grafting or budding is used. Older techniques like layering are sometimes used for crops. With the objective of fitting planting stock more ably to withstand stresses after outplanting, various nursery treatments have been attempted or developed and applied to nursery stock. Buse and Day, for instance, studied the effect of conditioning of white spruce and black spruce transplants on their morphology and subsequent performance after outplanting. Root pruning and fertilization with potassium at 375 kg/ha were the treatments applied. Root pruning and wrenching modified stock in the nursery by decreasing height, root collar diameter, shoot:root ratio, bud size, but did not improve survival or growth after planting. Fertilization reduced root growth in black spruce but not of white spruce. Seedlings vary in their susceptibility to injury from frost. Damage can be catastrophic. Frost hardiness may be defined as the minimum temperature at which a certain percentage of a random seedling population will survive or will sustain a given level of damage.
The term LT50 is used. Determination of frost hardiness in Ontario is based on electrolyte leakage from mainstem terminal tips 2 cm to 3 cm long in weekly samplings; the tips are frozen thawed, immersed in distilled water, the electrical conductivity of which depends on the degree to which cell membranes have been ruptured by freezing releasing electrolyte. A −15 °C frost hardiness level has been used to determine the readiness of container stock to be moved outside from the greenhouse, −40 °C has been the level determining readiness for frozen storage. In an earlier technique, potted seedlings were placed in a freezer chest and cooled to some level for some specific duration.
Banff is a town within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located in Alberta's Rockies along the Trans-Canada Highway 126 km west of Calgary and 58 km east of Lake Louise. At 1,400 to 1,630 m above sea level, Banff is the community with the second highest elevation in Alberta, after Lake Louise; the Town of Banff was the first municipality to incorporate within a Canadian national park. The town is a member of the Calgary Regional Partnership. Banff is one of Canada's most popular tourist destinations. Known for its mountainous surroundings and hot springs, it is a destination for outdoor sports and features extensive hiking, biking and skiing destinations within the area. Sunshine Village, Ski Norquay and Lake Louise Ski Resort are the three nearby ski resorts located within the national park. Banff was first settled in the 1880s, after the transcontinental railway was built through the Bow Valley. In 1883, three Canadian Pacific Railway workers stumbled upon a series of natural hot springs on the side of Sulphur Mountain.
In 1885, Canada established a federal reserve of 26 km2 around the Cave and Basin hot springs, began promoting the area as an international resort and spa as a way to support the new railway. In 1887, the reserve area was increased to 673 km2 and named "Rocky Mountain Park"; this was the beginning of Canada's National Park system. The area was named Banff in 1884 by George Stephen, president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, recalling his birthplace in Banff, Scotland; the Canadian Pacific built a series of grand hotels along the rail line and advertised the Banff Springs Hotel as an international tourist resort. The Banff townsite was developed near the railway station as a service centre for tourists visiting the park, it was administered by the Government of Canada's national parks system until 1990 when the Town of Banff became the only incorporated municipality within a Canadian national park. An Internment camp was set up at Banff and Castle Mountain in Dominion Park from July 1915 to July 1917.
The prisoners of the internment camp were used as free labour to build the infrastructure of the national park. In 1985, the United Nations declared Banff National Park, as one of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, a World Heritage Site. Banff remains one of the most popular tourist destinations in Canada. One of the most notable figures of Banff was Norman Luxton, known as "Mr. Banff", he published the Crag and Canyon newspaper, built the King Edward Hotel and the Lux Theatre, founded the Sign of the Goat Curio Shop, which led to the development of the Luxton Museum of Plains Indians, now the Buffalo Nations Museum. He and his family helped organize the Banff Winter Carnival. In 1976, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature adopted the name Banff for a crater on Mars, after the town in Alberta; the crater is at latitude 17.7 ° longitude 30.8 ° west. Its diameter is 5 km, it is surrounded by mountains, notably Mount Rundle, Sulphur Mountain, Mount Norquay, Cascade Mountain.
The town is above Bow Falls near the confluence of the Bow Spray River. Soils are calcareous and imperfectly to poorly drained in their natural state with textures from fine sandy loam to silty clay loam. Banff experiences a subarctic climate. Winter temperatures range from an average low of −13.3 °C to an average high of −0.2 °C. Summer temperatures in the warmest month are pleasant with an average high of 21.6 °C and an average low of 7.3 °C. Snow has been recorded in all months of the year; the annual snowfall averages 191.0 cm. The highest temperature recorded was 34.8 °C on August 10, 2018 during a great heat wave. The population of the Town of Banff according to its 2017 municipal census is 8,875, a change of 5.4% from its 2014 municipal census population of 8,421. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Banff recorded a population of 7,851 living in 2,543 of its 2,729 total private dwellings, a 3.5% change from its 2011 population of 7,584. With a land area of 4.77 km2, Banff had a population density of 1,645.9/km2 in 2016.
In the 2011 Census, the Town of Banff had a population of 7,584 living in 2,565 of its 2,850 total dwellings, a 13.2% change from its 2006 population of 6,700. With a land area of 4.88 km2, it had a population density of 1,554.1/km2 in 2011. Parks Canada enforces requirements that individuals must meet in order to reside in the town, in order "to ensure that a broad supply of housing types are available for those who work and raise families in the community". There are a number of popular mountains located adjacent to the townsite which include Mount Rundle. Mount Norquay has a ski slope as well as mountain biking trails on the Stoney Squaw portion. A popular tourist attraction, the Banff Gondola, is available to ascend Sulphur Mountain where a boardwalk beginning from the upper terminal takes visitors to Sanson Peak. Sulphur Mountain is the location of one of Banff's most popular attractions, the Banff Upper Hot Springs. Lake Minnewanka located six minutes north of the townsite is a popular day use area with a variety of activities.
Mountain biking and fishing are all activities allowed in this part of the park. A popular Lake Cruise, motor boat rentals and a small food concession are available at the m
Belle Vue Park
Belle Vue Park is a large Victorian public park in the west side of the city of Newport in South Wales. It was awarded a prestigious Green Flag Award on July 17, 2008 The land on which the park stands was a gift to Newport from Godfrey Morgan, 1st Viscount Tredegar in 1891 to provide a public park for its citizens. An open competition to design and construct the park was won by Thomas Mawson. Mawson's winning design was, in fact, designed for the neighbouring field, the site of the Newport and Monmouthshire Hospital, after Mawson misunderstood directions on his first visit to Newport; the mistake wasn't realised until the first site visit. Belle Vue Park was Thomas Mawson's first win in an open competition, he went on to become one of the foremost landscape architects of his time, responsible for the design of many gardens in his adopted Lake District, including Holker Hall and Rydal Hall as well as Dyffryn Gardens near Cardiff. In November 1892 Lord Tredegar performed the ceremony of cutting the first sod.
The final cost of the park is recorded as £19,500. Belle Vue Park has many features typical of a Victorian public park, including the conservatories and pavilion and rockeries. Additional features were added to the park throughout the years; the Gorsedd Stone Circle was erected in 1896, for the National Eisteddfod, held in Belle Vue Park in 1897. The bowling greens were opened in 1904 and a Tea House added in 1910; the bandstand and original series of cascades were restored in 2006. Belle Vue Tearooms is run by Cotyledon BMCIC, a Machen-based community interest company that operates rural markets across South East Wales including a monthly food and craft market at Belle Vue Park; the tearooms are open daily from 10am - 4pm serving drinks and meals showcasing produce from the market traders. Weddings can be held at the bandstand. Belle Vue Park contains a number of rare specimens. In early Spring the Himalayan Magnolias produce huge goblet-shaped pink flowers and the branches of the Judas Trees can be seen covered with clusters of rose-lilac flowers in May.
In June and July the Tulip Tree produces its distinctive orange tulip-shaped flowers. Autumn brings glorious leaf colour to many of the shrubs. Of particular note are the clear yellow leaves of Ginkgo biloba, one of only four deciduous conifers that can be seen growing in the British Isles today, the glorious crimson leaves of the Liquidambar, a native of the eastern United States. Source: Newport City Council Countryside & Parks — Belle Vue Park Friends of Newport Ornamental Parks
Hampstead known as Hampstead Village, is an area of London, England, 4 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Part of the London Borough of Camden, it is known for its intellectual, artistic and literary associations and for Hampstead Heath, a large, hilly expanse of parkland, it has some of the most expensive housing in the London area. The village of Hampstead has more millionaires within its boundaries than any other area of the United Kingdom; the name comes from the Anglo-Saxon words ham and stede, which means, is a cognate of, the Modern English "homestead". Early records of Hampstead can be found in a grant by King Ethelred the Unready to the monastery of St. Peter's at Westminster, it is referred to in the Domesday Book as being in the hundred of Ossulstone; the growth of Hampstead is traced back to the 17th century. Trustees of the Well started advertising the medicinal qualities of the chalybeate waters in 1700. Although Hampstead Wells was most successful and fashionable, its popularity declined in the 1800s due to competition with other fashionable London spas.
The spa was demolished in 1882. Hampstead started to expand following the opening of the North London Railway in the 1860s, expanded further after the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway opened in 1907 and provided fast travel to central London. Much luxurious housing was created during the 1870s and 1880s, in the area, now the political ward of Frognal & Fitzjohns. Much of this housing remains to this day. In the 20th century, a number of notable buildings were created including: Hampstead Underground station, the deepest station on the Underground network Isokon building Hillfield Court 2 Willow Road Swiss Cottage Central Library Royal Free Hospital Cultural attractions in the area include the Freud Museum, Keats House, Kenwood House, Fenton House, the Isokon building, Burgh House, the Camden Arts Centre; the large Victorian Hampstead Library and Town Hall was converted and extended as a creative industries centre. On 14 August 1975 Hampstead entered the UK Weather Records with the Highest 155-min total rainfall at 169 mm.
As of November 2008 this record remains. The average price of a property in Hampstead was £1.5 million in 2018. Hampstead became part of the County of London in 1889 and in 1899 the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead was formed; the borough town hall on Haverstock Hill, the location of the Register Office, can be seen in newsreel footage of many celebrity civil marriages. In 1965 the metropolitan borough was abolished and its area merged with that of the Metropolitan Borough of Holborn and the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras to form the modern-day London Borough of Camden. Hampstead is part of the Kilburn constituency, formed at the 2010 general election, it was part of the Hampstead and Highgate constituency. Since May 2015 the area has been represented on Camden Council by Conservative Party councillors Tom Currie, Oliver Cooper and Stephen Stark; the area has a significant tradition of educated liberal humanism referred to as "Hampstead Liberalism". In the 1960s, the figure of the Hampstead Liberal was notoriously satirised by Peter Simple of the Daily Telegraph in the character of Lady Dutt-Pauker, an immensely wealthy aristocratic socialist whose Hampstead mansion, Marxmount House, contained an original pair of Bukharin's false teeth on display alongside precious Ming vases, neo-constructivist art, the complete writings of Stalin.
Michael Idov of The New Yorker stated that the community "was the citadel of the moneyed liberal intelligentsia, posh but not stuffy." As applied to an individual, the term "Hampstead Liberal" is not synonymous with "champagne socialist" but carries some of the same connotations. The term is rather misleading; as of 2018, the component wards of Hampstead have mixed representation. Hampstead Town and Frognal and Fitzjohns wards elects 3 Conservative councillors, Swiss Cottage elects 3 Labour councillors, while Belsize is represented by 2 Liberal Democrat and 1 Conservative councillor. Swiss Cottage is a competitive Conservative and Labour marginal, Frognal and Fitzjohns is a safe Conservative ward. Hampstead Town has seen a number of tightly-fought Conservative and Liberal Democrat contests, the ward has had mixed representation in recent decades. In the most recent election, the highest scoring candidates for each of the three parties in Belsize were within 200 votes of each other. To the north and east of Hampstead, separating it from Highgate, is London's largest ancient parkland, Hampstead Heath, which includes the well-known and legally-protected view of the London skyline from Parliament Hill.
The Heath, a major place for Londoners to walk and "take the air", has three open-air public swimming ponds. The bridge pictured is known locally as'The Red Arches' or'The Viaduct', built in fruitless anticipation of residential building on the Heath in the 19th century. Local activities include major open-air concerts on summer Saturday evenings on the slopes below Kenwood House and poetry readings, fun fairs on the lower reaches of the Heath, period harpsichord recitals at Fenton House, Hampstead Scientific So