Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
School of the Art Institute of Chicago
The School of the Art Institute of Chicago is one of America's largest accredited independent schools of art and design. It is located in the Loop in Illinois; the school is associated with the museum of the same name, "The Art Institute of Chicago" or "Chicago Art Institute" refers to either entity. Providing degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels, SAIC has been recognized by U. S. News & World Report as one of the top graduate art programs in the nation, as well as by Columbia University's National Arts Journalism survey as the most influential art school in the United States. Tracing its history to an art students' cooperative founded in 1866, which grew into the museum and school, SAIC has been accredited since 1936 by the Higher Learning Commission, by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design since 1944, by the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design since its founding in 1991. Additionally it is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
Its downtown Chicago campus consists of seven buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the AIC building. SAIC is in an equal partnership with the AIC and share many administrative resources such as design and human resources; the campus, located in the Loop, comprises chiefly three buildings: the Michigan, the Sharp, the Columbus. SAIC owns additional buildings throughout Chicago that are used as student galleries or investments; the institute has its roots in the 1866 founding of the Chicago Academy of Design, which local artists established in rented rooms on Clark Street. It was financed by member dues and patron donations. Four years the school moved into its own Adams Street building, destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; because of the school's financial and managerial problems after this loss, business leaders in 1878 formed a board of trustees and founded the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. They expanded its mission beyond education and exhibitions to include collecting. In 1882, the academy was renamed the Art Institute of Chicago.
The banker Charles L. Hutchinson served as its elected president until his death in 1924. Walter E. Massey served as president from 2010–July 2016; the current president is Elissa Tenny the school's provost. SAIC offers classes in technology. SAIC serves as a resource for issues related to the position and importance of the arts in society. SAIC offers an interdisciplinary Low-Residency MFA for students wishing to study the fine arts and/or writing; as of fall 2018, the student enrollment at SAIC is demographically classified as follows:Total Enrollment: 3,640 Undergraduate students: 2,895 Graduate students: 745 Sex: Female: 74.3% Male: 25.7% International and ethnic origin: International students: 33% United States students: 67%, further subdivided as follows: White: 32.6% Hispanic: 10.4% Asian or Pacific Islander: 8.9% African American: 3.3% American Indian: 0.2% Multiethnic: 2.8% Not Specified: 8.4% Geographic distribution of United States students: Midwest: 41.2% Northeast: 16.5% West: 19.4% South: 22.8% Founded in 1868, the Visiting Artists Program is one of the oldest public programs of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
Formalized in 1951 by Flora Mayer Witkowsky's endowment of a supporting fund, the Visiting Artists Program hosts public presentations by artists and scholars each year in lectures, symposia and screenings. It is an eclectic program that showcases artists' working in all media, including sound, performance, poetry and independent film. Recent visiting artists have included Catherine Opie, Andi Zeisler, Aaron Koblin, Jean Shin, Sam Lipsyte, Ben Marcus, Marilyn Minter, Pearl Fryar, Tehching Hsieh, Homi K. Bhabha, Bill Fontana, Wolfgang Laib, Suzanne Lee, Amar Kanwar among others. Additionally, the Distinguished Alumni Series brings alumni back to the community to present their work and reflect on how their experiences at SAIC have shaped them. Recent alumni speakers include Tania Bruguera, Jenni Sorkin, Kori Newkirk, Maria Martinez-Cañas, Saya Woolfalk, Jun Nguyen-Hatsushiba, Sanford Biggers to name a few. Sullivan Galleries- Located to the 7th floor of the Sullivan Center at 33 S. State Street.
With shows and projects led by faculty or student curators, it is a teaching gallery that engages the exhibition process as a pedagogical model and mode of research. SITE Galleries - Founded in 1994, SITE, once known as the Student Union Galleries, is a student-run organization at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago for the exhibition of student work; the two central tenets of the galleries are to build relationships between different departments and stakeholders throughout the institution and strengthen our role as a teaching gallery within and beyond SAIC. This is accomplished first through providing a consistent space for undergraduate and graduate directors to organize and generate exhibitions that realize the vision of student artists. Furthermore, with strategic programming, SITE supports these exhibitions and engages evolving currents and discourses in our communities; the student-led structure p
Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, anthropology, economics and history of art. His writing, which included essays and poetry, explored such subjects as erotism, mysticism and transgression, his work would prove influential on subsequent schools of philosophy and social theory, including poststructuralism. Georges Bataille was the son of Joseph-Aristide Bataille, a tax collector, Antoinette-Aglaë Tournarde. Born on 10 September 1897 in Billom in the region of Auvergne, his family moved to Reims in 1898, where he was baptized, he went to school in Reims and Épernay. Although brought up without religious observance, he converted to Catholicism in 1914, became a devout Catholic for about nine years, he attended a Catholic seminary briefly. However, he quit in part in order to pursue an occupation where he could support his mother, he renounced Christianity in the early 1920s. Bataille attended the École Nationale des Chartes in Paris, graduating in February 1922.
Though he is referred to as an archivist and a librarian because of his employment at the Bibliothèque Nationale, his work there was with the medallion collections. His thesis at the École des Chartes was a critical edition of the medieval manuscript L’Ordre de chevalerie which he produced directly by classifying the eight manuscripts from which he reconstructed the poem. After graduating he moved to the School of Advanced Spanish Studies in Madrid; as a young man, he befriended, was much influenced by, the Russian existentialist, Lev Shestov. Founder of several journals and literary groups, Bataille is the author of a large and diverse body of work: readings, essays on innumerable subjects, he sometimes published under pseudonyms, some of his publications were banned. He was ignored during his lifetime and scorned by contemporaries such as Jean-Paul Sartre as an advocate of mysticism, but after his death had considerable influence on authors such as Michel Foucault, Philippe Sollers, Jacques Derrida, all of whom were affiliated with the journal Tel Quel.
His influence is felt most explicitly in the phenomenological work of Jean-Luc Nancy, but is significant for the work of Jean Baudrillard, the psychoanalytic theories of Jacques Lacan and Julia Kristeva, recent anthropological work from the likes of Michael Taussig. Attracted to Surrealism, Bataille fell out with its founder André Breton, although Bataille and the Surrealists resumed cautiously cordial relations after World War II. Bataille was a member of the influential College of Sociology which included several other renegade surrealists, he was influenced by Hegel, Marx, Marcel Mauss, the Marquis de Sade, Alexandre Kojève, Friedrich Nietzsche, the last of whom he defended in a notable essay against appropriation by the Nazis. Fascinated by human sacrifice, he founded a secret society, Acéphale, the symbol of, a headless man. According to legend and the other members of Acéphale each agreed to be the sacrificial victim as an inauguration. An indemnity was offered for an executioner, but none was found before the dissolution of Acéphale shortly before the war.
The group published an eponymous review of Nietzsche's philosophy which attempted to postulate what Derrida has called an "anti-sovereignty". Collaborators in these projects included André Masson, Pierre Klossowski, Roger Caillois, Jules Monnerot, Jean Rollin and Jean Wahl. Bataille used various modes of discourse to create his work, his novel Story of the Eye, published under the pseudonym Lord Auch, was read as pure pornography, while interpretation of the work has matured to reveal the same considerable philosophical and emotional depth, characteristic of other writers who have been categorized within "literature of transgression". The imagery of the novel is built upon a series of metaphors which in turn refer to philosophical constructs developed in his work: the eye, the egg, the sun, the earth, the testicle. Other famous novels include the posthumously published My Mother, The Impossible and Blue of Noon, with its incest, necrophilia and autobiographical undertones, is a much darker treatment of contemporary historical reality.
During World War II Bataille produced Summa Atheologica which comprises his works Inner Experience, On Nietzsche. After the war he composed The Accursed Share, which he said represented thirty years' work; the singular conception of "sovereignty" expounded there would become an important topic of discussion for Derrida, Giorgio Agamben, Jean-Luc Nancy and others. Bataille founded the influential journal Critique. Bataille's first marriage was to actress Silvia Maklès, in 1928. Bataille had an affair with Colette Peignot, who died in 1938. In 1946 Bataille married Diane de Beauharnais. In 1955 Bataille was diagnosed with cerebral arteriosclerosis, although he was not informed at the time of the t
Art Institute of Chicago
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States. Recognized for its curatorial efforts and popularity among visitors, the museum hosts 1.5 million guests annually. Its collection, stewarded by 11 curatorial departments, is encyclopedic, includes iconic works such as Georges Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, Pablo Picasso's The Old Guitarist, Edward Hopper's Nighthawks, Grant Wood's American Gothic, its permanent collection of nearly 300,000 works of art is augmented by more than 30 special exhibitions mounted yearly that illuminate aspects of the collection and present cutting-edge curatorial and scientific research. As a research institution, the Art Institute has a conservation and conservation science department, five conservation laboratories, one of the largest art history and architecture libraries in the country—the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries; the growth of the collection has warranted several additions to the museum's original 1893 building, constructed for the World's Columbian Exposition of the same year.
The most recent expansion, the Modern Wing designed by Renzo Piano, opened in 2009 and increased the museum's footprint to nearly one million square feet, making it the second-largest art museum in the United States, after the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Art Institute is associated with the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, a leading art school, making it one of the few remaining unified arts institutions in the United States. In 1866, a group of 35 artists founded the Chicago Academy of Design in a studio on Dearborn Street, with the intent to run a free school with its own art gallery; the organization was modeled after European art academies, such as the Royal Academy, with Academicians and Associate Academicians. The Academy's charter was granted in March 1867. Classes started in 1868; the Academy's success enabled it to build a new home for the school, a five-story stone building on 66 West Adams Street, which opened on November 22, 1870. When the Great Chicago Fire destroyed the building in 1871 the Academy was thrown into debt.
Attempts to continue despite the loss by using rented facilities failed. By 1878, the Academy was $10,000 in debt. Members tried to rescue the ailing institution by making deals with local businessmen, before some abandoned it in 1879 to found a new organization, named the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts; when the Chicago Academy of Design went bankrupt the same year, the new Chicago Academy of Fine Arts bought its assets at auction. In 1882, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts changed its name to the current Art Institute of Chicago and elected as its first president the banker and philanthropist Charles L. Hutchinson, who "is arguably the single most important individual to have shaped the direction and fortunes of the Art Institute of Chicago" Hutchinson was a director of many prominent Chicago organizations, including the University of Chicago, would transform the Art Institute into a world-class museum during his presidency, which he held until his death in 1924. In 1882, the organization purchased a lot on the southwest corner of Michigan Avenue and Van Buren Street for $45,000.
The existing commercial building on that property was used for the organization's headquarters, a new addition was constructed behind it to provide gallery space and to house the school's facilities. By January 1885 the trustees recognized the need to provide additional space for the organization's growing collection, to this end purchased the vacant lot directly south on Michigan Avenue; the commercial building was demolished, the noted architect John Wellborn Root was hired by Hutchinson to design a building that would create an "impressive presence" on Michigan Avenue, these facilities opened to great fanfare in 1887. With the announcement of the World's Columbian Exposition to be held in 1892–93, the Art Institute pressed for a building on the lakefront to be constructed for the fair, but to be used by the Institute afterwards; the city agreed, the building was completed in time for the second year of the fair. Construction costs were met by selling the Michigan/Van Buren property. On October 31, 1893, the Institute moved into the new building.
For the opening reception on December 8, 1893, Theodore Thomas and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra performed. From the 1900s to the 1960s the school offered with the Logan Family the Logan Medal of the Arts, an award which became one of the most distinguished awards presented to artists in the US. Between 1959 and 1970, the Institute was a key site in the battle to gain art and documentary photography a place in galleries, under curator Hugh Edwards and his assistants; as Director of the museum starting in the early 1980s, James N. Wood conducted a major expansion of its collection and oversaw a major renovation and expansion project for its facilities; as "one of the most respected museum leaders in the country", as described by The New York Times, Wood created major exhibitions of works by Paul Gauguin, Claude Monet and Vincent van Gogh that set records for attendance at the museum. He retired from the museum in 2004. In 2006, the Art Institute began construction of "The Modern Wing", an addition situated on the southwest corner of Columbus and Monroe.
The project, designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect Renzo Piano, was completed and opened to the public on May 16, 2009. The 264,000-square-foot building makes the Art Institute the second-largest art museum in the United States; the building houses the museum's world-renowned collections of 20th and 21st century art modern European painting and sculpture, contemporary
Berlin Alexanderplatz station
Berlin Alexanderplatz is a German railway station in the Mitte district of Berlin's city centre. It is one of the busiest transport hubs in the Berlin area; the station is named for the Alexanderplatz on which it is located, near the Fernsehturm and the World clock. Like other long-distance stations, Alexanderplatz is a shopping centre for selling merchandise to travelers. Due to its importance and central location, it is a site where tourists change. Alexanderplatz thereby became beside Nollendorfplatz station the second major hub of the Berlin U-Bahn network. Four Regional-Express and Regionalbahn lines as well as the S-Bahn rapid transit lines S 3, S 5, S 7, S 9 call at the overground station; the adjacent underground station is one of the largest on the Berlin U-Bahn network, with the lines U 2, U 5 and U 8 calling. The station is served by four tram lines, two of which run continuously, as well as five bus lines during the day, one of which runs continuously and three night bus lines. Alexanderplatz is connected through the two tunnel links, from U2 to U5 and U5 to U8.
Alexanderplatz station opened on 7 February 1882 on the Berlin Stadtbahn viaduct from Charlottenburg to Ostbahnhof. In 1926 the station hall spanning two platforms with four tracks was rebuilt in its present plain style. Damaged in World War II, train service at the station was resumed on 4 November 1945, while the reconstruction of the hall continued until 1951; the first U-Bahn station of the present U2 line designed by Alfred Grenander entered service on 1 July 1913. The platforms of the U8 and the U5 opened on 18 April 1930 and 21 December 1930 also built according to Grenander's conception, but in a distinct Modern style; the U2 station was renovated after the Alexanderplatz fire in 1972. The eastern entrances were destroyed on 15 March 1945; the U8 station was a ghost station during the division of Berlin from 13 August 1961 to 1 July 1990. The station master offices were built; the access at Dirksenstraße had to be made accessible again, just like the connecting stairs to the mall and to the platforms of Line E.
Other than that, the intercommunication staircase was built towards Line E so that it goes through the dimly lit platforms. Stainallee was renamed a few months after the closure of the stairs. In all cases, the metro stations had to be recognizable as such on the surface; the U-Bahn logo has been removed in recent years. This station had to undergo renovation works from 17 May to 30 June 1990 before the full reopening on 1 July 1990; the U2 station had undergone renovation work in January 2001 to March 2001. The U5 station underwent renovation works from February 2003 to September 2004, it is a U5 westbound terminus from 1930 to 2019, where it will be replaced by Berlin Hauptbahnhof. The station is served by the following service: Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Erkner – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Regional services RE 2 Wismar – Schwerin – Wittenberge – Nauen – Berlin – Königs Wusterhausen – Lübben – Cottbus Regional services RE 7 Dessau – Bad Belzig – Michendorf – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Wünsdorf-Waldstadt Local services RB 14 Nauen – Falkensee – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport Berlin S-Bahn services S 3 Spandau – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Karlshorst – Köpenick – Erkner Berlin S-Bahn services S 5 Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Lichtenberg – Strausberg Nord Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam – Wannsee – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Lichtenberg – Ahrensfelde Berlin S-Bahn services S 9 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Schöneweide - Flughafen Schönefeld
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012