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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes, in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, which expounded an influential formulation of social contract theory. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, geometry, the physics of gases, theology and general philosophy. Thomas Hobbes was born in Westport, now part of Malmesbury in Wiltshire, England, on 5 April 1588. Born prematurely when his mother heard of the coming invasion of the Spanish Armada, Hobbes reported that "my mother gave birth to twins: myself and fear." His childhood is completely unknown, his mother's name is unknown. His father, Thomas Sr. was the vicar of Westport. Thomas Hobbes, the younger, had a brother Edmund, about two years older, a sister. Hobbes' father, according to John Aubrey, Hobbes' biographer, was uneducated and "disesteemed learning".

Thomas Sr. was involved in a fight with the local clergy outside his church, forcing him to leave London. The family was left in the care of Thomas Sr.'s older brother, Francis, a wealthy glove manufacturer with no family. Hobbes Jr. was educated at Westport church from age four, passed to the Malmesbury school, to a private school kept by a young man named Robert Latimer, a graduate of the University of Oxford. Hobbes was a good pupil, between 1601 and 1602 he went up to Magdalen Hall, the predecessor college to Hertford College, where he was taught scholastic logic and physics; the principal John Wilkinson was a Puritan, he had some influence on Hobbes. Before going up to Oxford, Hobbes translated Euripides' Medea from Greek into Latin verse. At university, Hobbes appears to have followed his own curriculum. Leaving Oxford, Hobbes completed his B. A. degree by incorporation at St John's College, University of Cambridge in 1608. He was recommended by Sir James Hussey, his master at Magdalen, as tutor to William, the son of William Cavendish, Baron of Hardwick, began a lifelong connection with that family.

William Cavendish was elevated to the peerage on his father's death in 1626, holding it for two years before his death in 1628, his son William, became the 3rd Earl of Devonshire. Hobbes served as a secretary to both men; the 1st Earl's younger brother, Charles Cavendish, had two sons. The elder son, William Cavendish 1st Duke of Newcastle, was a leading supporter of Charles I during the civil war financing an army for the king, having been governor to the Prince of Wales, Charles James, Duke of Cornwall, it was to this William Cavendish. Hobbes became a companion to the younger William and they both took part in a grand tour of Europe between 1610 and 1615. Hobbes was exposed to European scientific and critical methods during the tour, in contrast to the scholastic philosophy that he had learned in Oxford. In Venice, Hobbes made the acquaintance of Fulgenzio Micanzio, an associate of Paolo Sarpi, a Venetian scholar and statesman, his scholarly efforts at the time were aimed at a careful study of classic Greek and Latin authors, the outcome of which was, in 1628, his great translation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, the first translation of that work into English from a Greek manuscript.

It has been argued that three of the discourses in the 1620 publication known as Horea Subsecivae: Observations and Discourses represent the work of Hobbes from this period. Although he associated with literary figures like Ben Jonson and worked as Francis Bacon's amanuensis, translating several of his Essays into Latin, he did not extend his efforts into philosophy until after 1629. In June 1628, his employer Cavendish the Earl of Devonshire, died of the plague and Christian, the widowed countess dismissed Hobbes. Hobbes soon found work as a tutor to Gervase Clifton, the son of Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet spent in Paris until 1631. Thereafter, he again found work with the Cavendish family, tutoring William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire, the eldest son of his previous pupil. Over the next seven years, as well as tutoring, he expanded his own knowledge of philosophy, awakening in him curiosity over key philosophic debates, he visited Galileo Galilei in Florence while he was under house arrest upon condemnation, in 1636, was a regular debater in philosophic groups in Paris, held together by Marin Mersenne.

Hobbes's first area of study was an interest in the physical doctrine of motion and physical momentum. Despite his interest in this phenomenon, he disdained experimental work as in physics, he went on to conceive the system of thought to the elaboration. His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise, a systematic doctrine of body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, at least as motion or mechanical action was understood, he singled out Man from the realm of Nature and plants. In another treatise, he showed what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation, knowledge and passions whereby Man came into relation with Man, he considered, in his crowning treatise, how Men were moved to enter into society, argued how this must be regulated if people were not to fall back into "brutishness and misery". Thus he proposed to unite the separate phenomena of Body and the State. Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country riven with discontent, which disrupted him from t

Drosera pedicellaris

Drosera pedicellaris is a pygmy species of the sundew genus. It was described in 2002 by Allen Lowrie; the plant forms a ground-hugging rosette, up to 1.5 centimetres tall and with a diameter of up to 1.8 centimetres. Like all pygmy sundews, it is able to reproduce asexually by producing gemmae in autumn; the plant has up to twenty leaves, which are semi-erect in the rosette's centre and horizontal at the plant margin. The hairy petioles are 4–5 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide at the base and narrowing to 0.1 mm. width before the lamina. The lamina has a diameter of about one millimetre. In October / November the plant produces one to three cymes with thin bracteoles on filiform inflorescences, rising up to five centimetres high and bearing up to twenty flowers; these have five white petals with each up to 3.5 millimetres long. The pollen is orange; the flowers have an unusually long pedicel, the ellipsoid seeds are 0.5 millimetres long. There are only two known populations of Drosera pedicellaris, both southwest of Geraldton near Three Springs in Western Australia.

It grows on beige sand heath, accompanied by low shrubs. As nothing is known about possible further sites and the species itself requires further research, it has been declared as Priority One - Poorly Known Taxa by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation; this plant is found in the stirling ranges east of Perth city in Western Australia. Drosera pedicellaris is part of the large group of the so-called "pygmy sundews", which form the genus' section Bryastrum, it is related to Drosera parvula. The epithet pedicellaris refers to the plant's unmistakably long pedicel. Much of the content of this article comes from pedicellaris the equivalent German-language Wikipedia article. Lowrie, A. Drosera pedicellaris, a new species from south-west Western Australia. 2002, in: Nuytsia 15: 59–62. Info of Flora of Western Australia

Terje Dahl

Terje Dahl was a Norwegian jockey and horse trainer who competed from the 1950s. Dahl won about 300 races in European countries and achieved 13 championnats in steeplechase racing in Norway and Sweden; as horse trainer he achieved ten championnats at Øvrevoll between 1974 and 1986. His horses recorded 948 victories at Øvrevoll, his most successful horse was Noble Dancer, which he trained for two seasons, is regarded the all-time best Thoroughbred horse in Norway. Noble Dancer's victories at Øvrevoll included Oslo Cup 1975 and 1976, other races; the horse was moved to US, where it was trained by Thomas Joseph Kelly, competed with success in top level races. His results included victories in Hialeah Turf Cup Handicap, San Luis Rey Handicap, United Nations Stakes, ending his career after a leg injury in October 1979, having earned a total of $945,893. A son of Gudrun Dahl, Dahl grew up in the borough of Heggeli in Oslo, he married singer Kirsti Sparboe in 1989, having lived together since 1979. He died on 10 February 2017, 81 years old.

A race at Øvrevoll has been named after him