The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with an amount on display. The edifice is one of the largest museums in the region, as of February 2017, the museum is open to the public. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history and it houses the world’s largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities. The Egyptian government established the museum, built in 1835 near the Ezbekeyah Garden, in 1855 Archduke Maximilian of Austria was given all of the artifacts by the Egyptian government, these are now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. A new museum was established at Boulaq in 1858 in a former warehouse, the building lay on the bank of the Nile River, and in 1878 it suffered significant damage in a flood of the Nile River. In 1891, the collections were moved to a royal palace. They remained there until 1902 when they were moved, for the last time, during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the museum was broken into, and two mummies were destroyed.
Several artifacts were shown to have been damaged. Since 25 objects have been found and those that were restored were put on display in September 2013 in an exhibition entitled Damaged and Restored. There are two floors in the museum, the ground floor and the first floor. On the ground there is an extensive collection of papyrus. The numerous pieces of papyrus are generally small fragments, due to their decay over the past two millennia, several languages are found on these pieces, including Greek, Latin and ancient Egyptian. The coins found on floor are made of many different metals, including gold, silver. The coins are not only Egyptian, but Greek and this has helped historians research the history of Ancient Egyptian trade. Also on the floor are artifacts from the New Kingdom. These artifacts are generally larger than items created in earlier centuries, two special rooms contain a number of mummies of kings and other royal family members of the New Kingdom. In the garden adjacent to the building of the museum a memorial to famous egyptologists of the world is located, the Murder of Tutankhamen, A True Story
Paul Jackson Pollock, known professionally as Jackson Pollock, was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was well known for his style of drip painting. During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety, he was a major artist of his generation, regarded as reclusive, he had a volatile personality, and struggled with alcoholism for most of his life. In 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner, who became an important influence on his career, Pollock died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related single-car accident when he was driving. In December 1956, four months after his death, Pollock was given a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. A larger, more comprehensive exhibition of his work was held there in 1967, in 1998 and 1999, his work was honored with large-scale retrospective exhibitions at MoMA and at The Tate in London. Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming, in 1912, the youngest of five sons and his parents, Stella May and LeRoy Pollock, were born and grew up in Tingley and were educated at Tingley High School.
Pollocks mother is interred at Tingley Cemetery, Ringgold County and his father had been born with the surname McCoy, but took the surname of his adoptive parents, neighbors who adopted him after his own parents had died within a year of each other. Stella and LeRoy Pollock were Presbyterian, they were of Irish and Scots-Irish descent, LeRoy Pollock was a farmer and a land surveyor for the government, moving for different jobs. Stella, proud of her familys heritage as weavers, made, in November 1912, Stella took her sons to San Diego, Jackson was just 10 months old and would never return to Cody. He subsequently grew up in Arizona and Chico, while living in Echo Park, California, he enrolled at Los Angeles Manual Arts High School, from which he was expelled. He had already been expelled in 1928 from another high school, during his early life, Pollock explored Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father. In 1930, following his older brother Charles Pollock, he moved to New York City, bentons rural American subject matter had little influence on Pollocks work, but his rhythmic use of paint and his fierce independence were more lasting.
In the early 1930s, Pollock spent a summer touring the Western United States together with Glen Rounds, an art student. Pollock was introduced to the use of paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. He used paint pouring as one of techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor, from 1938 to 1942 Pollock worked for the WPA Federal Art Project. Henderson engaged him through his art, encouraging Pollock to make drawings, jungian concepts and archetypes were expressed in his paintings
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
The Cloisters is a museum in Upper Manhattan, New York City specializing in European medieval architecture and decorative arts. Its early collection was built by the American sculptor, art dealer and collector George Grey Barnard, Rockefeller extended the collection and in 1931 purchased the site at Washington Heights and contracted the design for a new building that was to become the Cloisters. The museum today is part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and its architectural and artistic works are largely from the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Its four cloisters, the Cuxa, Bonnefont and Saint-Guilhem cloisters, were sourced from French monasteries, between 1934 and 1939 they were excavated and reconstructed in Washington Heights, in a large project overseen by the architect Charles Collens. They are surrounded by a series of chapels and rooms grouped by period and source location. The design and ambiance of the building is intended to evoke in visitors a sense of the Medieval European monastic life through its distinctive architecture, the area around the buildings contains reconstructed early medieval gardens.
Barnards collection was purchased along with a pieces from Rockefellers holdings and these became the foundation and core of the Cloisters collection. The Cloisters and the adjacent 4 acres gardens are situated in Fort Tryon Park, construction took place over a five-year period beginning in 1934. He bought several hundred acres of the New Jersey Palisades and this land is now part of the Palisades Interstate Park. Rockefeller was impacted by the depression of the early 1930s. The Cloisters building was designed by Charles Collens, and incorporated elements from the five cloistered abbeys of Catalan, Occitan, in 1988, the Treasury Gallery within the Cloisters, containing objects used for liturgical celebrations, personal devotions, and secular uses, was renovated. Other galleries were refurbished in 1998 and 1999, the Cloisters is a well-known New York City landmark and has been used as a filming location. In 1948, the filmmaker Maya Deren used its ramparts as a backdrop for her experimental film Meditation on Violence, in the same year, German director William Dieterle used the Cloisters as the location for a convent school in his film Portrait of Jennie.
The 1968 film Coogans Bluff used the sites pathways and lanes for a motorcycle chase. The museum contains architecture elements and settings relocated mostly from four French medieval abbeys, between 1934 and 1939 they were transported and integrated with new buildings, in a project overseen by the architect Charles Collens. The exterior building is influenced by and contains elements from the 13th century church at Saint-Geraud at Monsempron, France and it was primarily designed by Collins, who took influence from Bernards original Cloisters Museum. The exterior contains stone from a number of European sources, and was built from 1935, primarily from limestone and it includes four Gothic windows from the refectory at Sens, and nine arcades from a priory at Firiory. The bulbous Fuentidueña Chapel was especially difficult to fit into the area, the Cuxa Cloisters are located on the south side of the building and structurally and thematically are the museums centerpiece
Grant DeVolson Wood was an American painter best known for his paintings depicting the rural American Midwest, particularly American Gothic, an iconic painting of the 20th century. Grant Wood was born in rural Iowa four miles east of Anamosa in 1891, soon thereafter he began as an apprentice in a local metal shop. A year Wood returned to Iowa, where he taught in a rural one-room schoolhouse, in 1913 he enrolled at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and performed some work as a silversmith. From 1922 to 1928, Wood made four trips to Europe, but it was the work of the 15th-century Flemish artist Jan van Eyck that influenced him to take on the clarity of this technique and to incorporate it in his new works. From 1922 to 1935, Wood lived in the loft of a house in Cedar Rapids. In 1932, Wood helped found the Stone City Art Colony near his hometown to help artists get through the Great Depression and he became a great proponent of regionalism in the arts, lecturing throughout the country on the topic.
As his classically American image was solidified, his days in Paris were expunged from his public image. Wood was married to Sara Sherman Maxon from 1935–38, a little older than Grant, she was born in Iowa in 1887, and friends considered the marriage a mistake for him. Wood taught painting at the University of Iowas School of Art from 1934 to 1941, during that time, he supervised mural painting projects, mentored students, produced a variety of his own works, and became a key part of the Universitys cultural community. It is thought that he was a homosexual, and that there was an attempt to fire him because of a relationship with his personal secretary. Critic Janet Maslin states that his friends knew him to be homosexual, University administration dismissed the allegations and Wood would have returned as professor if not for his growing health problems. In the early hours of February 13,1942, his 51st birthday, when Wood died, his estate went to his sister, Nan Wood Graham, the woman portrayed in American Gothic.
When she died in 1990, her estate, along with Woods personal effects and various works of art, became the property of the Figge Art Museum in Davenport, throughout his life, he hired out his talents to many Iowa-based businesses as a steady source of income. This included painting advertisements, sketching rooms of a house for promotional flyers and, in one case. In addition, his 1928 trip to Munich was to oversee the making of the glass windows he had designed for a Veterans Memorial Building in Cedar Rapids. The window was damaged during the 2008 flood and it is currently in the process of restoration and he again returned to Cedar Rapids to teach Junior High students after serving in the army as a camouflage painter. Wood was one of three artists most associated with the movement, along with Benton and other Regionalist artists, Woods work was marketed through Associated American Artists in New York for many years. Wood is considered the patron artist of Cedar Rapids, and his childhood country school is depicted on the 2004 Iowa State Quarter and it was first exhibited in 1930 at the Art Institute of Chicago, where it is still located
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U. S. president to resign from office. He had previously served as a U. S, Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, after completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government and he subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950 and his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist, and elevated him to national prominence. He was the mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election.
Nixon served for eight years as vice president and he waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for Governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected by defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft. His administration generally transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states and he imposed wage and price controls for a period of ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools and established the Environmental Protection Agency. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race and he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972, when he defeated George McGovern. The year 1973 saw an Arab oil embargo, gasoline rationing, the scandal escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support, and on August 9,1974, he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office.
After his resignation, he was issued a pardon by his successor, in retirement, Nixons work writing several books and undertaking of many foreign trips helped to rehabilitate his image. He suffered a stroke on April 18,1994. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9,1913 in Yorba Linda and his parents were Hannah Nixon and Francis A. Nixon. His mother was a Quaker and his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith, Nixons upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers, Donald, four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in historical or legendary England, for example, was named after Richard the Lionheart. Nixons early life was marked by hardship, and he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood, We were poor. The Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, and the moved to Whittier
Temple of Dendur
The temple was commissioned by Emperor Augustus of Rome and has been exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York since 1978. The temple is constructed from sandstone and measures 25 meters from the front stone gate to its rear as well as 8 meters from its lowest to its highest point, a 30 meters cult terrace overlooks the Nile. From the gate, two flanking walls ran around the temple and isolated the structure from the terrace and the Nile river. Over the temple gate as well as over the entrance to the temple proper and this motif is repeated by the vultures depicted on the ceiling of the entrance porch. On the outer walls, Emperor Augustus is depicted as a pharaoh making offerings to the deities Isis, the subject is repeated in the first room of the temple, where Augustus is shown praying and making offerings. He is called Autotrator, an alteration of autokrator, or autocrat and this misspelling seems to be deliberate, in order to achieve more symmetry in the hieroglyphs. In some other parts of the temple, the emperor is simply called Pharaoh.
The middle room, which was used for offerings, and the sanctuary of Isis at the rear of the temple are undecorated but for reliefs on the door frame, the latter shows Pihor and Pedesi as young gods worshiping Isis and Osiris respectively. The 6.55 by 13 meters temple house is modest, a crypt was built into the rear wall while a rock chamber in the nearby cliffs may have represented the tombs of Pediese and Pihor who were said to have drowned in the Nile river. In the 19th century, graffiti were left on the walls by visitors from Europe. One of the most prominent pieces of graffiti was left by the British naval officer and Rear Admiral Armar Lowry Corry, another inscription was left by the Italian egyptologist Girolamo Segato. The temple was dismantled and removed from its location in 1963. This was accomplished as part of a wider UNESCO project, in order to save significant sites from being submerged by Lake Nasser, the stone blocks of the temple weighed more than 800 tons in total with the largest pieces weighing more than 6.5 tons.
They were packed in 661 crates and transported to the United States by the freighter m/v Concordia Star, in the United States, several institutions made bids for housing the temple, in a competition that was nicknamed the Dendur Derby by the press. Alternative plans proposed re-erecting the temple on the banks of the Potomac River in Washington, these suggestions were dismissed because it was feared that the temples sandstone would suffer from the outdoor conditions. On April 27,1967, the temple was awarded to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the glass on the ceiling and north wall of the Sackler is stippled in order to diffuse the light and mimic the lighting in Nubia. In the Rick Riordan novel The Red Pyramid, protagonists Carter and Sadie Kane flee into the Metropolitan Museum of Art and search for the Temple of Dendur on the orders of their friend Bast. As the scorpion goddess Serqet attacks, the Kanes makes a stand in front of the temple, holding Serqet and her scorpion army off long enough to use the temple to open a portal and escape
Eaglebrook School is an independent junior boarding and day school for boys in grades six through nine. It is located in Deerfield, Massachusetts, on the Pocumtuck Range near Deerfield Academy, Eaglebrook School is accredited by the Association of Independent Schools in New England. Eaglebrook has a student body of approximately 260 boys in grades six, eight, girls may only attend if their parents work or live on campus. Eaglebrook has its own ski area, indoor 25-yard six-lane swimming pool. Whipple Pond, located in the center of campus, is stocked with trout and bass for fishing in the spring, in the winter the pond serves as the water source for snow making. The Chase Learning Center, at the heart of campus, includes classrooms, there are three other classroom buildings for science and arts, including digital photography, woodworking shops, stained glass, stone carving and white photography, and many more. Eaglebrook School was founded in 1922 by Howard Gibbs, a friend of Headmaster Frank Boyden of Deerfield Academy, who graduated from Amherst, envisioned a younger boys boarding school that allowed boys to develop their innate abilities, discover new interests, and gain confidence.
Thurston Chase, an Eaglebrook teacher and Wlliams College graduate, took over the school after Mr. Gibbs unexpected death, student enrollment was expanded, and the school grew to include a gymnasium, tennis courts, a learning center, a science building, and four new dormitories. After Thurston Chases retirement, his son, Stuart Chase, became the headmaster. The school continued to grow as it bought 500 adjacent acres and added new playing fields, a track, a ski area with snow making and chair lift, a swimming pool, and two new dormitories. In 2002, Andrew Chase, son of Stuart and Eaglebrook’s former director of development, the campus has undergone extensive massive upgrades since the mid-1990s. Baines House and the Thurston C, Chase Learning Center have been renovated. The Schwab Family Pool, and the McFadden Rink at Alfond Arena, two new dormitories, Kravis House and Mayer House, were completed in the early 2000s. In 2007, a renovation was undertaken on Flagler House, Halsted House. The Learning Center was renovated at that time.
Eaglebrook is owned by the Allen-Chase Foundation, an educational trust. Andrew Chase is a descendant of the Allen and Chase families, Eaglebrook School – Official site Eaglebrook School – The Association of Independent Schools in New England The Association of Boarding Schools profile Profile – boardingschoolreview. com
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
John Vliet Lindsay was an American politician and broadcaster who was a U. S. congressman, mayor of New York City, candidate for U. S. president, and regular guest host of Good Morning America. During his political career, he served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from January 1959 to December 1965 and he died from Parkinsons disease and pneumonia in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina on December 19,2000. Lindsay was born in New York City on West End Avenue, to George Nelson Lindsay and he grew up in an upper-middle-class family of English and Dutch descent. Lindsays paternal grandfather migrated to the United States in the 1880s from the Isle of Wight, Lindsays father was a successful lawyer and investment banker. Lindsay attended the Buckley School, St. Pauls School and Yale, with the outbreak of World War II, Lindsay completed his studies early and in 1943 joined the United States Navy as a gunnery officer. He obtained the rank of lieutenant, earning five battle stars through action in the invasion of Sicily, in 1949, he began his legal career at the law firm of Webster, Fleischmann, Hitchcock & Chrystie.
Back in New York City, Lindsay met his wife, Mary Anne Harrison, at the wedding of Nancy Bush. A native of Richmond, Virginia and a resident of Greenwich, Harrison was a distant relative of William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison. That same year Lindsay was admitted to the bar, and rose to become a partner in his law firm four years later. Like Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, who redecorated the White House, Mary Lindsay, an educator, renovated Gracie Mansion. She died of cancer at the age of seventy-seven, four years after the passing of her husband, Lindsay began gravitating toward politics as one of the founders of the Youth for Eisenhower club in 1951 and as president of the New York Young Republican club in 1952. He went on to join the United States Department of Justice in 1955 as executive assistant to Attorney General Herbert Brownell, There he worked on civil liberties cases as well as the 1957 Civil Rights Act. While in Congress, Lindsay established a voting record increasingly at odds with his party.
He was a member of a group of liberal and moderate Republicans in the House who voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1965, Lindsay was elected Mayor of New York City as a Republican with the support of the Liberal Party of New York in a three-way race. He defeated Democratic mayoral candidate Abraham D. Beame, City Comptroller, as well as National Review magazine founder William F. Buckley, the unofficial motto of the campaign, taken from a Murray Kempton column, was He is fresh and everyone else is tired. On his first day as mayor, January 1,1966, as New Yorkers endured the transit strike, Lindsay remarked, I still think its a fun city, and walked four miles from his hotel room to City Hall in a gesture to show it. Dick Schaap, a columnist for the New York Herald Tribune, in the article, Schaap sardonically pointed out that it wasnt
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, to the current site nine years later, Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. The university has graduated many notable alumni, two U. S. Presidents,12 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princetons alumni body. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in order to train ministers, the college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governors interest, gov. Jonathan Belcher replied, What a name that would be.
In 1756, the moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England, following the untimely deaths of Princetons first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college, in 1812, the eighth president the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey. Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include such as cross-registration. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the sole building.
The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17,1754, during the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the countrys capital for four months. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, Nassau Halls bell rang after the halls construction, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855, James McCosh took office as the colleges president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. McCosh Hall is named in his honor, in 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides