The oldest of the four United States Library of Congress buildings, the Thomas Jefferson Building was built between 1890 and 1897. It was known as the Library of Congress Building and is located on First Street SE, between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street in Washington, D. C; the Beaux-Arts style building is known for its classicizing facade and elaborately decorated interior. Its design and construction has a tortuous history; the building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. John L. Smithmeyer and Paul J. Pelz won the competition for the architectural plans of the library in 1873; the start of the project was delayed by congressional debates until a vote in 1886. In 1888, Smithmeyer was dismissed and Pelz became the lead architect. Pelz was himself dismissed in 1892 and replaced by Edward Pearce Casey, the son of Brig. Gen. Thomas Lincoln Casey, Chief of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, who at the time was in charge of the building's construction. While Smithmeyer was instrumental in securing the commission, Pelz appears to have been the main designer of the building and oversaw most of the exterior work.
Casey is credited for the completion of the interiors and the artistic supervision of the building's unique decorative program. The Library opened to the public in 1897 and the finishing work was completed in 1898; the Thomas Jefferson Building, containing some of the richest public interiors in the United States, is a compendium of the work of classically trained American sculptors and painters of the "American Renaissance", in programs of symbolic content that exhibited the progress of civilization, personified in Great Men and culminating in the American official culture of the Gilded Age. The central block is broadly comparable to the Palais Garnier in Paris, a ambitious expression of triumphant cultural nationalism in the Beaux-Arts style that had triumphed at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893. On the exterior, sculptured portrait heads that were considered typical of the world's races were installed as keystones on the main storey's window arches; the second-floor portico of the front entrance facing the U.
S. Capitol features nine prominent busts of Great Men as selected by Ainsworth Rand Spofford in accordance with Gilded Age ideals. From left to right when one faces the building, they are Demosthenes, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Washington Irving, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Babbington Macaulay, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Sir Walter Scott and Dante Alighieri; the sculptors were Jonathan Scott Hartley and Frederick W. Ruckstull; the Court of Neptune Fountain centered on the entrance front invites comparison with the Trevi Fountain. The copper dome gilded, was criticized at the structure's completion, as too competitive with the national Capitol Building. Needing more room for its increasing collection, the Library of Congress under Librarian Ainsworth Rand Spofford suggested to the Congress that a new building be built to serve as the American national library. Prior to this the Library existed in a wing of the Capitol Building; the new building was needed because of the growing Congress, but partly because of the Copyright Law of 1870, which required all copyright applicants to send to the Library two copies of their work.
This resulted in a flood of books, maps, music and photographs. Spofford had been instrumental in the enactment of this law. After Congress approved construction of the building in 1886, it took eleven years to complete; the building opened to the public on November 1, 1897, met with wide approval and was seen as a national monument. The building name was changed on June 13, 1980 to honor former U. S. President Thomas Jefferson, a key figure in the establishment of the Library in 1800. Jefferson offered to sell his personal book collection to Congress in September 1814, one month after the British had burned the Capitol in the War of 1812. Prior to the 2000s, the Jefferson Building was linked to the Capitol Building by a purpose built book tunnel; this housed an electric "book conveying apparatus" that could transport volumes between the two buildings at 600 feet per minute. A portion of the book tunnel was destroyed to make room for the underground Capitol Visitor Center, which opened in 2008.
Senate and Supreme Court pages attended school together in the Capitol Page School located on the attic level above the Great Hall. Upon the separation of the programs, the schools split. Senate Pages now attend school in the basement of their dormitory; the House Page Program was closed in August 2011. A small suite in the northwest corner of the attic level remains home to the official office of the Poet Laureate of the United States; the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Auditorium, which opened in October, 1925, has been home to more than 2,000 concerts of classical chamber music, but also of jazz, folk music, special presentations. Some performances make use of the Library's extensive collection of musical instruments and manuscripts. Most of the performances are open to the public. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge was a wealthy patron of the arts and was no relation to Calvin Coolidge, coincidentally, was President of the United States at the time the Coolidge auditorium was established. More than fifty American painters and sculptors produced commissi
Tom Jones was an American racing driver, born in Dallas, Texas. He entered his own Cooper T82 in the 1967 Canadian Grand Prix. After a promising practice performance, he suffered electrical problems during qualifying and only set one slow lap time; the stewards denied him a place on the grid on the grounds that he was "too slow" though he had been competitive in practice runs. Until quite Jones was considered one of Formula One's great obscurities, but it has since emerged that he raced on and off throughout the 1970s in various series before retiring in 1980, he ran a metal fabrication company in Cleveland. Jones died in Eastlake, Ohio on 29 May 2015, his old Cooper T82 still survives and its current owner competes with it in historic racing series. "Biography at F1 Rejects". Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2015
Mo Said She Was Quirky is a novel by James Kelman first published in 2012 This novel is Kelman's first, set in London, his first to feature a female principal character. The novel is about Helen a 27-year-old Glaswegian, who works in a casino. Helen has one daughter, from a previous relationship, she lives with her boyfriend Mo, whose family is from Pakistan. At the start of the story, Helen is taking a taxi-ride home from work, she sees. The novel follows Helen for the next 24 hours of her life. Writing in The Guardian, Adam Mars-Jones highlights what he sees as a lack of concrete details provided in Kelman's writing, which he likens to "The semi-arid ecology of Beckett's novels". Boyd Tonkin of The Independent writes that Helen's casino workplace is "both a metaphor for winner-takes-all metropolitan life and keenly observed real workplace", he continues, "Kelman brings gentle humour and profound compassion to his tale of getting by in an unjust time and place"