James Hay, 15th Earl of Erroll
James Hay, 15th Earl of Erroll was a Scottish nobleman and the son of William Boyd, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock. Born James Boyd, the eldest son of William Boyd, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock and Lady Anne Livingston at Falkirk on 26 April 1726, he was known from 1728 to 1746, while his father was Earl of Kilmarnock, by the courtesy title of Lord Boyd. During the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion his father, the Earl, sided with the Young Pretender, despite both James and his brother William holding commissions under George II. Remaining loyal to the Hanoverians, James served at the Battle of Culloden, fighting on the opposite side to his father. During the rout following the Jacobite defeat, the Earl was captured and taken into the government camp and bareheaded, where he was recognised by James, who placed his own hat upon his father's head; this was the last time they were to meet, as the Earl was transported to London where he was tried for treason and executed the following year. In 1751 however, although the Earldom was abolished, James was permitted to inherit the Kilmarnock estates.
These included Dean Castle, the former family seat, gutted by a fire in 1735. Trying to recoup some of his father's debts, James sold the ruined castle to the 13th Earl of Glencairn. On 19 August 1758 he succeeded his maternal great-aunt, Mary Hay, 14th Countess of Erroll as the 15th Earl of Erroll changing his surname from Boyd to Hay, as he and his descendants were henceforth known. Along with the title Earl of Erroll he held the ceremonial hereditary office of Lord High Constable of Scotland. Between 1770 and 1774 he served as a Representative Peer in the House of Lords, he died on 3 July 1778 at Callendar House, aged fifty-two. In 1749, he married Rebecca Lockhart, the daughter of Alexander Lockhart, Lord Covington, by whom he had one daughter: Lady Mary Hay, married John Scott of Balcomie in 1770, divorced in 1771. In 1762, he married Isabella Carr, daughter of Sir William Carr, they had twelve children: George Hay, 16th Earl of Erroll William Hay, 17th Earl of Erroll Hon. James Hay Lady Charlotte Hay, married Rev. William Holwell in 1797 Lady Isabella Anne Hay Lady Augusta Hay, married George Boyle, 4th Earl of Glasgow Lady Harriet Jane Hay Lady Margaret Hay, married Charles Cameron in 1789 Lady Maria Elizabeth Hay, married Rev. George Moore in 1795 Lady Frances Hay Lady Flaminia Hay, married Capt. George James in 1809 Lady Jemima Hay
Parliament of Great Britain
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London; this lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801. Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, Acts of Union ratifying the Treaty were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain; the Acts dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new parliament, referred to as the'Parliament of Great Britain', based in the home of the former English parliament. All of the traditions and standing orders of the English parliament were retained, as were the incumbent officers, members representing England comprised the overwhelming majority of the new body.
It was not considered necessary to hold a new general election. While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, new legislation was thereafter to be enacted by the new parliament. After the Hanoverian King George I ascended the British throne in 1714 through the Act of Settlement of 1701, real power continued to shift away from the monarchy. George was a German ruler, spoke poor English, remained interested in governing his dominions in continental Europe rather than in Britain, he thus entrusted power to a group of his ministers, the foremost of whom was Sir Robert Walpole, by the end of his reign in 1727 the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented. George I's successor, his son George II, continued to follow through with his father's domestic policies and made little effort to re-establish monarchical control over the government, now in firm control by Parliament. By the end of the 18th century the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, dominated by the English aristocracy, by means of patronage, but had ceased to exert direct power: for instance, the last occasion on which the Royal Assent was withheld was in 1708 by Queen Anne.
At general elections the vote was restricted to freeholders and landowners, in constituencies that had changed little since the Middle Ages, so that in many "rotten" and "pocket" boroughs seats could be bought, while major cities remained unrepresented, except by the Knights of the Shire representing whole counties. Reformers and Radicals sought parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the British government became repressive against dissent and progress towards reform was stalled. George II's successor, George III, sought to restore royal supremacy and absolute monarchy, but by the end of his reign the position of the king's ministers — who discovered that they needed the support of Parliament to enact any major changes — had become central to the role of British governance, would remain so after. During the first half of George III's reign, the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, which itself was dominated by the patronage and influence of the English nobility.
Most candidates for the House of Commons were identified as Whigs or Tories, but once elected they formed shifting coalitions of interests rather than dividing along clear party lines. At general elections the vote was restricted in most places to property owners, in constituencies which were out of date and did not reflect the growing importance of manufacturing towns or shifts of population, so that in the rotten and pocket boroughs seats in parliament could be bought from the rich landowners who controlled them, while major cities remained unrepresented. Reformers like William Beckford and Radicals beginning with John Wilkes called for reform of the system. In 1780, a draft programme of reform was drawn up by Charles James Fox and Thomas Brand Hollis and put forward by a sub-committee of the electors of Westminster; this included calls for the six points adopted by the Chartists. The American Revolutionary War ended in the defeat of a foreign policy seeking to forcibly restore the thirteen American colonies to British rule which King George III had fervently advocated, in March 1782 the king was forced to appoint an administration led by his opponents which sought to curb royal patronage.
In November 1783 he took the opportunity to use his influence in the House of Lords to defeat a bill to reform the British East India Company, dismissed the government of the day, appointed William Pitt the Younger to form a new government. Pitt had called for Parliament to begin to reform itself, but he did not press for long for reforms the king did not like. Proposals Pitt made in April 1785 to redistribute seats from the "rotten boroughs" to London and the counties were defeated in the House of Commons by 248 votes to 174. In the wake of the French Revolution of 1789, Radical organisations such as the London Corresponding Society sprang up to press for parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the government took extensive repressive measures against feared domestic unrest aping the democratic and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution and progress toward reform was stalled for decades. In 1801, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was created when the Kingdom of Great Britain was merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800.
List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain List of Parliaments of Great Britain First Parliament of Great Br
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
Sir James Montgomery, 1st Baronet
Sir James Montgomery, 1st Baronet Stanhope FRSE was a Scottish advocate, country landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1766 to 1775. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Montgomery was born at Magbie Hill in Peeblesshire in October 1721, the second son of William Montgomery, Sheriff-Depute of Peeblesshire, of Coldcoat or Magbie Hill, Peeblesshire, his mother was Barbara Rutherford, daughter of Robert Rutherford of Bowland, Midlothian. In Edinburgh he resided at Queensberry House on the Royal Mile and was its last resident as a private house. Here he famously had a black servant named "Hannibal". After schooling at the parish school at West Linton, Montgomery studied law at the University of Edinburgh, was called to the Scottish bar on 19 February 1743. In 1748, after heritable jurisdictions had been abolished, he was appointed the first sheriff of Peebles under the new system. On 30 April 1760, thanks to the influence of his friend Robert Dundas newly appointed lord president, he succeeded Sir Thomas Miller, Lord Glenlee as Solicitor General for Scotland jointly with Francis Garden.
In 1764, he became sole solicitor-general, in 1766 Lord Advocate in succession to Miller, to whose parliamentary seat for the Dumfries Burghs he succeeded also. But at the general election of 1768, Montgomery was returned for Peeblesshire, a seat which he retained till he was raised to the bench. A learned lawyer and an improving landlord, he was peculiarly fitted to deal with the question of entails, which had now become pressing, owing to the extent to which details fettered the practical management of land; the existing statute was Sir George Mackenzie's Act of 1685, since it passed 485 deeds of entail had been registered under it. The public demanded a reform. Montgomery accordingly introduced a measure in March 1770, which passed into law and enlarged the powers of the heir of an entail in respect of leasing and improving the entailed lands, provided for the exchange of land in spite of an entail. Though he remained in parliament, Montgomery took little further interest in its proceedings after the passage of his bill.
In June 1775, he was created Lord Chief Baron of the Scottish Exchequer, in 1781 he was elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. In July 1801, he was created a Baronet. Montgomery was, like his father, skilled in farming, in 1763 bought a half-reclaimed estate of Lord Islay's in Peeblesshire called Blair Bog, but afterwards'The Whim,' which became his favourite residence. In 1767, he bought for £40,000 Stanhope and Stobo with its feudal barony in Peeblesshire, part of the estates of Sir David Murray, confiscated for their owner's complicity in the prebellion of 1745, he thenceforward chiefly resided in the country, where his good methods of farming and the improvements which he promoted, notably the Peebles and Edinburgh road in 1770, gained for him the title of'The Father of the County.'Montgomery died at Stobo on 2 April 1803 and is buried in Stobo churchyard. Montgomery married Margaret Scot and heiress of Robert Scot of Killearn, Stirlingshire. Montgomery was succeeded in his baronetcy by James, his second son, afterwards Lord Advocate, his first-born son, William, a lieutenant-colonel in the 43rd foot, having predeceased him.
Montgomery and his wife, Margaret Scott, are buried in a walled-off part of the cemetery at Stobo Kirk near Peebles, with an unusual wall lining of yew hedge. His home had been the nearby Stobo Castle, which he purchased in 1767 for the sum of £40,500. Montgomery was grandfather to James Francis Montgomery; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John Andrew. "Montgomery, James William". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Seymour and Randall, John. Stobo Kirk. A Guide to the Building and its History. Peebles: John Randall. Stobo Through Time
Court of Session
The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland and constitutes part of the College of Justice. The Court of Session sits in Parliament House in Edinburgh and is both a trial court and a court of appeal. Decisions of the Court can be appealed to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, with the permission of either the Inner House or the Supreme Court; the Court of Session and the local sheriff courts of Scotland have concurrent jurisdiction for all cases with a monetary value in excess of £100,000. However, the majority of complex, important, or high value cases are brought in the Court of Session. Cases can be remitted to the Court of Session from the sheriff courts, including the Sheriff Personal Injury Court, at the request of the presiding sheriff. Legal aid, administered by the Scottish Legal Aid Board, is available to persons with little disposable income for cases in the Court of Session; the court is a unitary collegiate court, with all judges other than the Lord President of the Court of Session and the Lord Justice Clerk holding the same rank and title—Senator of the College of Justice and Lord or Lady of Council and Session.
The Lord Lord President is chief justice of the Court, head of the judiciary of Scotland. There are 35 Senators, in addition to a number of temporary judges; the Senators sit in the High Court of Justiciary, where the Lord President is called the Lord Justice General, Senators are known as Lords Commissioners of Justiciary. The Court is divided into the Inner House of 12 Senators, an appeal court, the Outer House, a court of first instance; the Inner House is further divided into 2 divisions of 6 Senators: the 1st Division is presided over by the Lord President, the 2nd Division is presided over by the Lord Justice Clerk. Cases in the Inner House are heard before a bench of 3 Senators, through more complex or importance cases are presided over by 5 Senators. On rare occasions the whole Inner House has presided over a case. Cases in the Outer House are heard by a single Senator sitting as a Lord Ordinary with a jury of twelve; the Court is administered by the Scottish Courts and Tribunals Service, the most senior clerk of court is the Principal Clerk of Session and Justiciary.
The Court was established in 1532 by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland, was presided over by the Lord Chancellor of Scotland and had equal numbers of clergy and laity. The judges were all appointed from the King's Council; as of May 2017, the Lord President was Lord Carloway, appointed on 19 December 2015, the Lord Justice Clerk was Lady Dorrian, appointed on 13 April 2016. The Lords of Council and Session had been part of the King's Council, but after receiving support in the form of a papal bull of 1531, King James V established a separate institution—the College of Justice or Court of Session—in 1532, with a structure based on that of the Parlement of Paris; the Lord Chancellor of Scotland was to preside over the court, to be composed of fifteen lords appointed from the King's Council. Seven of the lords had to be churchmen. An Act of Parliament in 1640 restricted membership of the Court to laymen only, by withdrawing the right of churchmen to sit in judgement; the number of laymen was increased to maintain the number of Lords in the Court.
The Courts Act 1672 allowed for five of the Lords of Session to be appointed as Lords Commissioners of Justiciary, as such becomes judges of the High Court of Justiciary. The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court of Scotland; the Lord Justice General, the president of the High Court, had appointed deputes to preside in his absence. From 1672 to 1887, the High Court consisted of the Lord Justice General, Lord Justice Clerk, five Lords of Session; the Court of Session is explicitly preserved "in all time coming" in Article XIX of the Treaty of Union between England and Scotland, subsequently passed into legislation by the Acts of Union in 1706 and 1707 respectively. Several significant changes were made to the Court during the 19th century, with the Court of Session Act 1810 formally dividing the Court of Session into the Outer House and Inner House Cases in the Outer House were to be heard by Lords Ordinary who either sat alone or with a jury of twelve. Cases in the Inner House were to be heard by three Lords of Council and Session, but significant or complicated cases were to be heard by five or more judges.
A further separation was made in 1815, by the Jury Trials Act 1815, with the creation of a lesser Jury Court to allow certain civil cases to be tried by jury. In 1830 the Jury Court, along with the Admiralty and Commissary Courts, was absorbed into the Court of Session following the enactment of the Court of Session Act 1830. In 1834 the remuneration and working conditions was a matter of public discussion and debate in the House of Commons. On 6 May 1834 Sir George Sinclair addressed the House of Commons to plead for an increase in the salaries for the Senators, noting that "a Civil Judge in the Supreme Court in Scotland received only £2,000" and the masters in the Court of Chancery were paid £2,500. A Select Committee was appointed to investi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Royal Society of Edinburgh
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland, it was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows; the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines – science & technology, humanities, social science and public service. At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies. Though there were several that treated the arts and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731. Maclaurin was unhappy with the specialist nature of the Medical Society, in 1737 a new, broader society, the Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and Natural Knowledge was split from the specialist medical organisation, which went on to become the Royal Medical Society.
The cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. With the help of University of Edinburgh professors like Joseph Black, William Cullen and John Walker, this society transformed itself into the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783 and in 1788 it issued the first volume of its new journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; as the end of the century drew near, the younger members such as Sir James Hall embraced Lavoisier's new nomenclature and the members split over the practical and theoretical objectives of the society. This resulted in the founding of the Wernerian Society, a parallel organisation that focused more upon natural history and scientific research that could be used to improve Scotland's weak agricultural and industrial base. Under the leadership of Prof. Robert Jameson, the Wernerians first founded Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, thereby diverting the output of the Royal Society's Transactions.
Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, the RSE's members published brilliant articles in two different journals. By the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society contained many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences. From the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotland's eminent scientists, but the arts and humanities, it still continues to promote original research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the society's first female president, taking up her position in October; the Royal Society has been housed in a succession of locations: 1783–1807 – College Library, University of Edinburgh 1807–1810 – Physicians' Hall, George Street. The Royal Medals are awarded annually, preferably to people with a Scottish connection, who have achieved distinction and international repute in either Life Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences or Business and Commerce.
The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation. Past winners include: The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical and Informatics Sciences, it is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, who has contributed to wider society by the accessible dissemination of research and scholarship. Winners are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland; the award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, a famous mathematical physicist and engineer, Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world; the Keith medal has been awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It is awarded alternately for papers on Environmental Sciences; the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, the first Treasurer of the Society.
The Makdougall Brisbane Prize has been awarded biennially, preferably to people working in Scotland, with no more than fifteen years post-doctoral experience, for particular distinction in the promotion of scientific research and is awarded sequentially to research workers in the Physical Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Biological Sciences. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the long-serving fourth President of the Society. The'Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize Lectureship' is a quadrennial award to re