Thomas Nast was a German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon". He was a critic of Democratic Representative "Boss" Tweed and the Tammany Hall Democratic party political machine. Among his notable works were the creation of the modern version of Santa Claus and the political symbol of the elephant for the Republican Party. Contrary to popular belief, Nast did not create Uncle Sam, Columbia, or the Democratic donkey, though he did popularize these symbols through his artwork. Nast was associated with the magazine Harper's Weekly from 1859 to 1860 and from 1862 until 1886. Nast was born in military barracks in Landau, Germany, as his father was a trombonist in the Bavarian 9th regiment band. Nast was the last child of Joseph Thomas Nast, he had an older sister Andie. His father held political convictions that put him at odds with the Bavarian government, so in 1846, Joseph Nast left Landau, enlisting first on a French man-of-war and subsequently on an American ship.
He sent his wife and children to New York City, at the end of his enlistment in 1850, he joined them there. Nast attended school in New York City from the age of six to 14, he did poorly at his lessons. In 1854, at the age of 14, he was enrolled for about a year of study with Alfred Fredericks and Theodore Kaufmann, at the school of the National Academy of Design. In 1856, he started working as a draftsman for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, his drawings appeared for the first time in Harper's Weekly on March 19, 1859, when he illustrated a report exposing police corruption. In February 1860, he went to England for the New York Illustrated News to depict one of the major sporting events of the era, the prize fight between the American John C. Heenan and the English Thomas Sayers sponsored by George Wilkes, publisher of Wilkes' Spirit of the Times. A few months as artist for The Illustrated London News, he joined Garibaldi in Italy. Nast's cartoons and articles about the Garibaldi military campaign to unify Italy captured the popular imagination in the U.
S. In February 1861, he arrived back in New York. In September of that year, he married Sarah Edwards, he left the New York Illustrated News to work again for Frank Leslie's Illustrated News. In 1862, he became a staff illustrator for Harper's Weekly. In his first years with Harper's, Nast became known for compositions that appealed to the sentiment of the viewer. An example is "Christmas Eve", in which a wreath frames a scene of a soldier's praying wife and sleeping children at home. One of his most celebrated cartoons was "Compromise with the South", directed against those in the North who opposed the prosecution of the American Civil War, he was known for drawing battlefields in border and southern states. These attracted great attention, Nast was referred to by President Abraham Lincoln as "our best recruiting sergeant". After the war, Nast opposed the Reconstruction policy of President Andrew Johnson, whom he depicted in a series of trenchant cartoons that marked "Nast's great beginning in the field of caricature".
Nast's cartoons had numerous sidebars and panels with intricate subplots to the main cartoon. A Sunday feature could highlight social causes. After 1870, Nast favored simpler compositions featuring a strong central image, he based his likenesses on photographs. In the early part of his career, Nast used a brush and ink wash technique to draw tonal renderings onto the wood blocks that would be carved into printing blocks by staff engravers; the bold cross-hatching that characterized Nast's mature style resulted from a change in his method that began with a cartoon of June 26, 1869, which Nast drew onto the wood block using a pencil, so that the engraver was guided by Nast's linework. This change of style was influenced by the work of the English illustrator John Tenniel. A recurring theme in Nast's cartoons is anti-Catholicism. Nast was baptized a Catholic at the Saint Maria Catholic Church in Landau, for a time received Catholic education in New York City; when Nast converted to Protestantism remains unclear, but his conversion was formalized upon his marriage in 1861.
Nast considered the Catholic Church to be a threat to American values. According to his biographer, Fiona Deans Halloran, Nast was "intensely opposed to the encroachment of Catholic ideas into public education"; when Tammany Hall proposed a new tax to support parochial Catholic schools, he was outraged. His savage 1871 cartoon "The American River Ganges", depicts Catholic bishops, guided by Rome, as crocodiles moving in to attack American school children as Irish politicians prevent their escape, he portrayed public support for religious education as a threat to democratic government. The authoritarian papacy in Rome, ignorant Irish Americans, corrupt politicians at Tammany Hall figured prominently in his work. Nast favored nonsectarian public education that mitigated differences of ethnicity. However, in 1871 Nast and Harper's Weekly supported the Republican-dominated board of education in Long Island in
Sarah Anne Tishkoff is an American geneticist and the David and Lyn Silfen Professor in the Department of Genetics and Biology at the University of Pennsylvania. She serves as a director for the American Society of Human Genetics and is an associate editor at PLOS Genetics, G3, Genome Research, she is a member of the scientific advisory board at the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Tishkoff has been a leading figure in using genetics to advance understanding of modern human diversity. In particular she has made significant contributions to research on human genetic variation in African populations. In 1996, she and colleagues published the first paper to support the Out-of-Africa hypothesis using the nuclear genome, illustrating the extent of diversity among African populations. In 2001, Tishkoff and colleagues were some of the first to show the genomic signature of natural selection in human populations; some of her most cited research is a study on genomic variation around the lactase gene, the first to show coevolution of a cultural and genetic trait.
Tishkoff was able to link evolution of cattle domestication to lactase persistence. Her more recent work includes the largest genomic study across ethnically diverse Africans, the identification of novel genetic variants associated with skin color. Tishkoff is a recipient of a National Institutes of Health Director's Pioneer Award, a David and Lucile Packard Career Award, a Burroughs/Wellcome Fund Career Award, a Penn Integrates Knowledge endowed chair, she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2017. Sarah Tishkoff was born on December 1965 in Los Angeles, California, she moved from Los Angeles to East Lansing, Michigan when she was five, from East Lansing to Klamath Falls, Oregon in her early teens. Her parents were both involved in academia, her father was a professor of hematology and oncology at the University of California, Los Angeles and the Director of the Red Cross for the Midwest of the United States. Her mother was a professor of history at the Oregon Institute of Technology.
Tishkoff attended the University of Berkeley for her undergraduate degree. While in high school, she read Coming of Age in Samoa by Margaret Mead, sparking her initial interest in cultural anthropology. Tishkoff’s career was influenced by several mentors throughout her education. While at UC Berkeley, she took courses in linguistics, cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology, among other subjects. While at UC Berkeley, she was inspired by Allan Wilson’s research using molecular approaches to understand evolutionary change, she was further inspired by many of Wilson’s graduate students, including Vincent Sarich, Mary Claire-King, George Sensabaugh. In particular, while at UC Berkeley she took a course taught by Vincent Sarich, interested in genetics, human development, evolution, worked on comparing proteins in humans with those in chimpanzees, his unique teaching style and controversial comments piqued Tishkoff’s interest in the field, encouraged her to question human origins and the genetic basis of human traits more deeply.
After realizing its importance in conducting her work on human evolutionary history, she added genetics as an additional major at UC Berkeley. Tishkoff cites her experience meeting the Khoisan people at a meeting on Khoisan origins in Cape Town, during her time in Johannesburg, as a transformative event, as the Khoisan people have one of the oldest genetic lineages in the world. During this visit she met with cultural anthropologists and representatives of Khoisan groups. Tishkoff became a professor at the University of Maryland in 2000, went to the field for the first time a year later; this initial four-month-long trip, funded by the David and Lucile Packard Career Award, allowed her to pursue fieldwork that led to research in African population history and the genetics of variable traits and disease. Tishkoff's lab continues taking care to do the research ethically, her lab works to have their African collaborators treated as equal partners in the research, ensures research results are sent back to participants.
Tishkoff is married to Evan Leach. She resides in Pennsylvania. Tishkoff graduated with a Bachelor of Science in genetics and a Bachelor of Arts in anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1989, she went on to receive her Master of Philosophy in human genetics from the Yale School of Medicine in 1992. Tishkoff completed her formal education upon acquiring her PhD in genetics from Yale University in 1996, under the continued advisement of Kenneth Kidd. While working in the Kidd Lab, Tishkoff developed an interest in African genomics and evolution, leading her to write her thesis on the “Patterns of nuclear haplotype frequency variation and linkage disequilibrium in a global sample of human populations”. Shortly after completing her PhD, Tishkoff continued the research started in her thesis, published a paper titled “Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins” in the journal Science. From 1997 to 2000, Tishkoff was a postdoctoral fellow at The Pennsylvania State University.
During this period, Tishkoff was researching links between stable polymorphisms and microsatellites in human populations with Dr. Andrew G. Clark, she was a visiting research fellow in 1997 at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. In 2000, Tishkoff became an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 2005, Tishkoff was promoted to Associate Professor and she held that position until she left the univers
The Daade is the largest tributary of the River Heller, in the district of Altenkirchen in the northeast of the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. It flows through the northeastern part of the Westerwald, it is 16.027 kilometres long and has a catchment area of 53.28 km2. The Daade Valley Railway runs along the Daade from Daaden via Alsdorf to Betzdorf, on the main line from Cologne to Siegen; the villages on the Daade are: Emmerzhausen Daaden Biersdorf Niederdreisbach Schutzbach Alsdorf The tributaries of the Daade are the: Derscherbach Birenbach Friedewalderbach Dreisbach Schutzbach All left tributaries have their sources on the Neunkhausen-Weitefeld Plateau, but cut deep valleys in the Heller Upland. List of rivers of Rhineland-Palatinate Touristik-Information: Grubenwanderweg „Vom Erz zum Eisen im Tal der Daade und Heller“ "Daade Quelle "Sonnenscheins – Börnchen"". Wällipedia. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2017