Dean of Canterbury
The Dean of Canterbury is the head of the Chapter of the Cathedral of Christ Church, England. The current office of dean originated after the English Reformation, although Deans had existed before this time; the current Dean is Robert Willis, appointed in 2001 and is the 39th Dean since the Reformation, though the position of Dean and Prior as the religious head of the community is identical so the line is unbroken back to the time of the foundation of the community by Saint Augustine in AD 597. About a century after becoming a monastic foundation late in the 10th century, the Cathedral started to be headed by a prior rather than a dean, it would next have a dean after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: volume 3
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
John Cosin was an English churchman. He was born at Norwich, was educated at Norwich School and at Caius College, where he was scholar and afterwards fellow. On taking orders he was appointed secretary to John Overall, Bishop of Lichfield, domestic chaplain to Richard Neile, Bishop of Durham. In December 1624 he was made a prebendary of Durham, on 9 September 1625 Archdeacon of the East Riding of Yorkshire. In 1630 he received his degree of Doctor of Divinity, he first became known as an author in 1627, when he published his Collection of Private Devotions, a manual stated to have been prepared by command of King Charles I, for the use of Queen Henrietta Maria's maids of honour. This book, together with his insistence on points of ritual in his cathedral church and his friendship with William Laud, exposed Cosin to the hostility of the Puritans. In 1628 Cosin took part in the prosecution of a brother prebendary, Peter Smart, for a sermon against high church practices. On 8 February 1635 Cosin was appointed master of Cambridge.
In October of this year he was promoted to the deanery of Peterborough. A few days before his installation the Long Parliament had met, his petition against the new dean was considered. Articles of impeachment were presented against him two months but he was dismissed on bail. For sending the university plate to the king, he was deprived of the mastership of Peterhouse, he went to France, preached at Paris, served as chaplain to some members of the household of the exiled royal family. At the Restoration he returned to England, was reinstated in the mastership, restored to all his benefices, in a few months raised to the see of Durham – he therefore resigned from the Mastership of Peterhouse on 18 October 1660, he was elected to that See on 5 November. Cosin was responsible for a style of church woodwork unique to County Durham, a sumptuous fusion of gothic and contemporary Jacobean forms; the font cover in Durham Cathedral is a splendid example of this, as are the displays in the churches at Sedgefield and elsewhere.
The Cosin woodwork at Brancepeth has sadly been destroyed by fire. At the convocation in 1661 Cosin played a prominent part in the revision of the prayer-book, endeavoured with some success to bring both prayers and rubrics into better agreement with ancient liturgies, he administered his diocese for eleven years. He died in London in 1672, he had married Frances, the daughter of Marmaduke Blakiston on 15 August 1626 at St Margaret's, Durham. Though a classical high churchman and a rigorous enforcer of outward conformity, Cosin was uncompromisingly hostile to Roman Catholicism, most of his writings illustrate this antagonism. In France he was on friendly terms with Huguenots, justifying himself on the ground that their non-episcopal ordination had not been of their own seeking, at the Savoy conference in 1661 he tried hard to effect a reconciliation with the Presbyterians, he differed from the majority of his colleagues in his strict attitude towards Sunday observance and in favouring, in the case of adultery, both divorce and the remarriage of the innocent party.
Among his writings are a Historia Transubstantiationis Papalis and Collections on the Book of Common Prayer and A Scholastical History of the Canon of Holy Scripture. A collected edition of his works, forming 5 vols of the Oxford Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, was published between 1843 and 1855. Among his notable work was the translation of "Veni Creator Spiritus" included in the 1662 revision of the Book of Common Prayer. 1594–1623: John Cosin Esq. 1623–1624: The Reverend John Cosin 1624–1625: The Reverend Prebendary John Cosin 1625–1630: The Venerable John Cosin 1630–1640: The Venerable Doctor John Cosin 1640–1660: The Very Reverend Doctor John Cosin 1660–1672: The Right Reverend Doctor John Cosin This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cosin, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 213–214. Project Canterbury: The Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology
Pembroke College, Cambridge
Pembroke College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college is the third-oldest college of the university and has over seven hundred students and fellows. Physically, it is one of the university's larger colleges, with buildings from every century since its founding, as well as extensive gardens, its members are termed "Valencians". Pembroke has selective admissions rate and a level of academic performance among the highest of all the Cambridge colleges. Pembroke is home to the first chapel designed by Sir Christopher Wren and is one of the six Cambridge colleges to have educated a British prime minister, in Pembroke's case William Pitt the Younger; the college library, with a Victorian neo-gothic clock tower, is endowed with an original copy of the first encyclopaedia to contain printed diagrams. The college's current master is Baron Smith of Finsbury. Marie de St Pol, Countess of Pembroke founded Cambridge. On Christmas Eve 1347, Edward III granted Marie de St Pol, widow of the Earl of Pembroke, the licence for the foundation of a new educational establishment in the young university at Cambridge.
The Hall of Valence Mary, as it was known, was thus founded to house a body of students and fellows. The statutes were notable in that they both gave preference to students born in France who had studied elsewhere in England, that they required students to report fellow students if they indulged in excessive drinking or visited disreputable houses; the college was renamed Pembroke Hall, became Pembroke College in 1856. Marie was involved with College affairs in the thirty years up to her death in 1377, she seems to have been something of a disciplinarian: the original Foundation documents had strict penalties for drunkenness and lechery, required that all students’ debts were settled within two weeks of the end of term, gave strict limits on numbers at graduation parties. In 2015, the college received a bequest of £34 million from the estate of American inventor and Pembroke alumnus Ray Dolby, thought to be the largest single donation to a college in the history of Cambridge University; the first buildings comprised a single court containing all the component parts of a college – chapel, hall and buttery, master's lodgings, students' rooms – and the statutes provided for a manciple, a cook, a barber and a laundress.
Both the founding of the college and the building of the city's first college Chapel required the grant of a papal bull. The original court was the university's smallest at only 95 feet by 55 feet, but was enlarged to its current size in the nineteenth century by demolishing the south range; the college's gatehouse is the oldest in Cambridge. The original Chapel now forms the Old Library and has a striking seventeenth-century plaster ceiling, designed by Henry Doogood, showing birds flying overhead. Around the Civil War, one of Pembroke's fellows and Chaplain to the future Charles I, Matthew Wren, was imprisoned by Oliver Cromwell. On his release after eighteen years, he fulfilled a promise by hiring his nephew Christopher Wren to build a great Chapel in his former college; the resulting Chapel was consecrated on St Matthew's Day, 1665, the eastern end was extended by George Gilbert Scott in 1880, when it was consecrated on the Feast of the Annunciation. An increase in membership over the last 150 years saw a corresponding increase in building activity.
The Hall was rebuilt in 1875–6 to designs by Alfred Waterhouse after he had declared the medieval Hall unsafe. As well as the Hall, Waterhouse designed a new range of rooms, Red Buildings, in French Renaissance style, designed a new Master's Lodge on the site of Paschal Yard, pulled down the old Lodge and the south range of Old Court to open a vista to the Chapel, designed a new Library in the continental Gothic style; the construction of the new library was undertaken by Kett. Waterhouse was dismissed as architect in 1878 and succeeded by George Gilbert Scott, after extending the Chapel, provided additional accommodation with the construction of New Court in 1881, with letters on a series of shields along the string course above the first floor spelling out the text from Psalm 127:1, "Nisi Dominus aedificat domum…". Building work continued into the 20th century with W. D. Caröe as architect, he added Pitt Building between Ivy Court and Waterhouse's Lodge, extended New Court with the construction of O staircase on the other side of the Lodge.
He linked his two buildings with an arched stone screen, Caröe Bridge, along Pembroke Street in a late Baroque style, the principal function of, to act as a bridge by which undergraduates might cross the Master's forecourt at first-floor level from Pitt Building to New Court without leaving the College or trespassing in what was the Fellows' Garden. In 1926, as the Fellows had become disenchanted with Waterhouse's Hall, Maurice Webb was brought in to remove the open roof, put in a flat ceiling and add two storeys of sets above; the wall between the Hall and the Fellows' Parlour was taken down, the latter made into a High Table dais. A new Senior Parlour was created on the ground floor of Hitcham Building; the remodelling work was completed in 1949 when Murray Easton replaced the Gothic tracery of the windows with a simpler design in the style of the medieval Hall. In 1933 Maurice Webb built a new Master's Lodge in the south-east corner of the College gardens
Simon Patrick was an English theologian and bishop. He was born at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, on 8 September 1626, attended Boston Grammar School, he entered Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1644, after taking orders in 1651 became successively chaplain to Sir Walter St. John and vicar of Battersea, Surrey, he was afterwards preferred to the rectory of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, where he continued to labor during the plague, he was appointed Dean of Peterborough in 1679, Bishop of Chichester in 1689, in which year he was employed, along with others of the new bishops, to settle the affairs of the Church in Ireland. In 1691 he was translated to the see of Ely, which he held until his death on 31 May 1707, he was buried in Ely Cathedral. He had Dalham Hall built, his sermons and devotional writings are numerous, his Commentary on the Historical and Poetical Books of the Old Testament, in 10 vols. going as far as the Song of Solomon, was reprinted in the 1810 Critical Commentary on the Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha, with works Richard Arnald Moses Lowman William Lowth, Daniel Whitby.
Patrick's Friendly Debate between a Conformist and a Nonconformist was a controversial tract, defending the Five Mile Act. It excited considerable feeling at the time of its publication in 1668. Among replies was one from Samuel Rolle as Philagathus, he contributed to a volume of Poems upon Divine and Moral Subjects. The first collected edition of his works appeared at Oxford in 1858, he is the author of the anti-semitic pamphlet, "Jewish Hypocrisie, A Caveat To The Present Generation." This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Patrick, Simon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Rt Rev Simon Patrick Facsimile of Simon Patrick's preface to Hugo Grotius' Truths of Christian Religion. Scanned by Elms College Alumnae Library
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Richard Kidder was an English Anglican churchman, Bishop of Bath and Wells, from 1691 to his death. He was a noted theologian, he was educated at Emmanuel College, where he was a sizar, from 1649, graduating 1652. He became a Fellow there in 1655, vicar of Stranground, Huntingdonshire, in 1659, he was deprived in 1662. He was rector of Rayne Parva, from 1664 to 1674, having conformed to the Act of 1662, he was vicar of St. Martin Outwich, in 1689 a royal chaplain, dean of Peterborough, his A Demonstration of the Messias has been identified as a significant influence on the librettist Charles Jennens, in writing the words for the Messiah of Handel. This book took up suggestions of Joseph Mede on multiple authorship of the Book of Zechariah, he was killed on 26 November. The Christian sufferer supported A Demonstration of the Messias. In which the Truth of the Christian Religion is Proved, Against All the Enemies Thereof. In Three Parts A sermon upon the resurrection A Commentary on the Five Books of Moses: With a Dissertation Concerning the Author Or Writer of the said books and a general argument to each of them The life of the Reverend Anthony Horneck, late preacher at the Savoy The holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments A Discourse Concerning Sins of Infirmity, Wilful Sins, with Another of Restitution Works by or about Richard Kidder in libraries