Matthew Boulton was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt. In the final quarter of the 18th century, the partnership installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines, which were a great advance on the state of the art, making possible the mechanisation of factories and mills. Boulton applied modern techniques to the minting of coins, striking millions of pieces for Britain and other countries, supplying the Royal Mint with up-to-date equipment. Born in Birmingham, he was the son of a Birmingham manufacturer of small metal products who died when Boulton was 31. By Boulton had managed the business for several years, thereafter expanded it consolidating operations at the Soho Manufactory, built by him near Birmingham. At Soho, he adopted the latest techniques, branching into silver plate and other decorative arts, he became associated with James Watt when Watt's business partner, John Roebuck, was unable to pay a debt to Boulton, who accepted Roebuck's share of Watt's patent as settlement.
He successfully lobbied Parliament to extend Watt's patent for an additional 17 years, enabling the firm to market Watt's steam engine. The firm installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines in Britain and abroad in mines and in factories. Boulton was a key member of the Lunar Society, a group of Birmingham-area men prominent in the arts and theology. Members included Erasmus Darwin, Josiah Wedgwood and Joseph Priestley; the Society met each month near the full moon. Members of the Society have been given credit for developing concepts and techniques in science, manufacturing and transport that laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution. Boulton founded the Soho Mint, he sought to improve the poor state of Britain's coinage, after several years of effort obtained a contract in 1797 to produce the first British copper coinage in a quarter century. His "cartwheel" pieces were well-designed and difficult to counterfeit, included the first striking of the large copper British penny, which continued to be coined until decimalisation in 1971.
He retired in 1800, though continuing to run his mint, died in 1809. His image appears alongside his partner James Watt on the Bank of England's current Series F £50 note. Birmingham had long been a centre of the ironworking industry. In the early 18th century the town entered a period of expansion as iron working became easier and cheaper with the transition from charcoal to coke as a means of smelting iron. Scarcity of wood in deforested England and discoveries of large quantities of coal in Birmingham's county of Warwickshire and the adjacent county of Staffordshire speeded the transition. Much of the iron was forged in small foundries near Birmingham in the Black Country, including nearby towns such as Smethwick and West Bromwich; the resultant thin iron sheets were transported to factories around Birmingham. With the town far from the sea and great rivers and with canals not yet built, metalworkers concentrated on producing small valuable pieces buttons and buckles. Frenchman Alexander Missen wrote that while he had seen excellent cane heads, snuff boxes and other metal objects in Milan, "the same can be had cheaper and better in Birmingham".
These small objects came to be known as "toys", their manufacturers as "toymakers". Boulton was a descendant of families from around Lichfield, his great-great-great-great grandfather, Rev. Zachary Babington, having been Chancellor of Lichfield. Boulton's father named Matthew and born in 1700, moved to Birmingham from Lichfield to serve an apprenticeship, in 1723 he married Christiana Piers; the elder Boulton was a toymaker with a small workshop specialising in buckles. Matthew Boulton was born in 1728, their third child and the second of that name, the first Matthew having died at the age of two in 1726; the elder Boulton's business prospered after young Matthew's birth, the family moved to the Snow Hill area of Birmingham a well-to-do neighbourhood of new houses. As the local grammar school was in disrepair Boulton was sent to an academy in Deritend, on the other side of Birmingham. At the age of 15 he left school, by 17 he had invented a technique for inlaying enamels in buckles that proved so popular that the buckles were exported to France reimported to Britain and billed as the latest French developments.
On 3 March 1749 Boulton married Mary Robinson, a distant cousin and the daughter of a successful mercer, wealthy in her own right. They lived with the bride's mother in Lichfield, moved to Birmingham, where the elder Matthew Boulton made his son a partner at the age of 21. Though the son signed business letters "from father and self", by the mid-1750s he was running the business; the elder Boulton retired in 1757 and died in 1759. The Boultons had three daughters in the early 1750s. Mary Boulton's health deteriorated, she died in August 1759. Not long after her death Boulton began to woo her sister Anne. Marriage with a deceased wife's sister was forbidden by ecclesiastical law, though permitted by common law. Nonetheless, they married on 25 June 1760 at Rotherhithe. Eric Delieb, who wrote a book on Boulton's silver, with a biographical sketch, suggests that the marriage celebrant, Rev. James Penfold, an impoverished curate, was bribed. Boulton advised another man, seeking to wed his late wife's sister: "I advise you to say nothing of your intentions but to go and snugly to Scotland or some obscure corner of London, suppose Wapping, there take lod
A pump is a device that moves fluids, or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism, consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis; when a casing contains only one revolving impeller, it is called a single-stage pump.
When a casing contains two or more revolving impellers, it is called a double- or multi-stage pump. In biology, many different types of chemical and biomechanical pumps have evolved. Mechanical pumps may be placed external to the fluid. Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valveless pumps. There are two basic types of pumps: centrifugal. Although axial-flow pumps are classified as a separate type, they have the same operating principles as centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe; some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses; the volume is constant through each cycle of operation.
Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a constant flow rate. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump is damaged, or both. A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary; the relief valve can be external. The pump manufacturer has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves; the internal valve is used only as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.
A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid: Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear, shuttle block, flexible vane or sliding vane, circumferential piston, flexible impeller, helical twisted roots or liquid-ring pumps Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston pumps, plunger pumps or diaphragm pumps Linear-type positive displacement: rope pumps and chain pumps These pumps move fluid using a rotating mechanism that creates a vacuum that captures and draws in the liquid. Advantages: Rotary pumps are efficient because they can handle viscous fluids with higher flow rates as viscosity increases. Drawbacks: The nature of the pump requires close clearances between the rotating pump and the outer edge, making it rotate at a slow, steady speed. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds, the fluids cause erosion, which causes enlarged clearances that liquid can pass through, which reduces efficiency. Rotary positive displacement pumps fall into three main types: Gear pumps – a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears Screw pumps – the shape of the internals of this pump is two screws turning against each other to pump the liquid Rotary vane pumps – similar to scroll compressors, these have a cylindrical rotor encased in a shaped housing.
As the rotor orbits, the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing, drawing the fluid through the pump. Reciprocating pumps move the fluid using one or more oscillating pistons, plungers, or membranes, while valves restrict fluid motion to the desired direction. In order for suction to take place, the pump must first pull the plunger in an outward motion to decrease pressure in the chamber. Once the plunger pushes back, it will increase the pressure chamber and the inward pressure of the plunger will open the discharge valve and release the fluid into the delivery pipe at a high velocity. Pumps in this category range from simplex, with one cylinder, to in some cases quad cylinders, or more. Many reciprocating-type pumps are triplex cylinder, they can be either single-acting with suction during one direction of piston motion and discharge on the other, or double-acting with suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps can be powered manually, by air or steam
Watt steam engine
The Watt steam engine, alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine, was the first practical steam engine and was one of the driving forces of the industrial revolution. James Watt developed the design sporadically from 1763 to 1775 with support from Matthew Boulton. Watt's design saved more fuel compared to earlier designs that they were licensed based on the amount of fuel they would save. Watt never ceased developing the steam engine, introducing double-acting designs and various systems for taking off rotary power. Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines, it was many years before new designs began to replace the basic Watt design; the first steam engines, introduced by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, were of the "atmospheric" design. Steam was introduced into a cylinder, cooled by a spray of water; this caused the steam to condense. Atmospheric pressure on the top pushed the piston down. Watt noticed that the water spray cooled the cylinder itself, it required significant amounts of heat to warm it back up to the point where steam could enter the cylinder without condensing again.
Watt addressed this by adding a separate water-filled cylinder, opened once the main cylinder was filled. The steam entered the secondary cylinder and condensed, drawing remaining steam from the main cylinder to continue the process; the end result was the same cycle as Newcomen's design, but without any cooling of the main cylinder, ready for another stroke. Watt worked on the design over a period of several years, introducing the condenser and improvements to every part of the design, notably a lengthy series of trials on ways to seal the piston in the cylinder. All of these changes produced a more reliable design which used half as much coal to produce the same amount of power; the new design was introduced commercially in 1776, with the first example sold to the Carron Company ironworks. Watt continued working to improve the engine, in 1781 introduced a system using a sun and planet gear to turn the linear motion of the engines into rotary motion; this made it useful not only in the original pumping role, but as a direct replacement in roles where a water wheel would have been used previously.
This was a key moment in the industrial revolution, since power sources could now be located anywhere instead of, as needing a suitable water source and topography. Boulton began developing a multitude of machines that made use of this rotary power, developing the first modern industrialized factory, the Soho Foundry, which in turn produced new steam engine designs. Watt's early engines were like the original Newcomen designs in that they used low-pressure steam and most of the action was caused by atmospheric pressure, due to safety concerns. Looking to improve on their performance, Watt began considering the use of higher-pressure steam, as well as designs using multiple cylinders in both the double-acting concept and the multiple-expansion concept; these double-acting engines required the invention of the parallel motion, which allowed the piston rods of the individual cylinders to move in straight lines, keeping the piston true in the cylinder, while the walking beam end moved through an arc, somewhat analogous to a crosshead in steam engines.
In 1698, the English mechanical designer Thomas Savery invented a pumping appliance that used steam to draw water directly from a well by means of a vacuum created by condensing steam. The appliance was proposed for draining mines, but it could only draw fluid up 25 feet, meaning it had to be located within this distance of the mine floor being drained; as mines became deeper, this was impractical. It consumed a large amount of fuel compared with engines; the solution to draining deep mines was found by Thomas Newcomen who developed an "atmospheric" engine that worked on the vacuum principle. It employed a cylinder containing a movable piston connected by a chain to one end of a rocking beam that worked a mechanical lift pump from its opposite end. At the bottom of each stroke, steam was allowed to enter the cylinder below the piston; as the piston rose within the cylinder, drawn upward by a counterbalance, it drew in steam at atmospheric pressure. At the top of the stroke the steam valve was closed, cold water was injected into the cylinder as a means of cooling the steam.
This water created a partial vacuum below the piston. The atmospheric pressure outside the engine was greater than the pressure within the cylinder, thereby pushing the piston into the cylinder; the piston, attached to a chain and in turn attached to one end of the "rocking beam", pulled down the end of the beam, lifting the opposite end of the beam. Hence, the pump deep in the mine attached to opposite end of the beam via ropes and chains was driven; the pump pushed, rather than pulled the column of water upward, hence it could lift water any distance. Once the piston was at the bottom, the cycle repeated; the Newcomen engine was more powerful than the Savery engine. For the first time water could be raised from a depth of over 150 feet; the first example from 1712 was able to replace a team of 500 horses, used to pump out the mine. Seventy-five Newcomen pumping engines were installed at mines in Britain, Holland and Russia. In the next fifty years only a few small changes were made to the engine design.
It was a great advancement. While Newcomen engines brought practical benefits, they were inefficient in terms of the use of energy to power them; the system of alternately sending jets of steam cold water into the cylinder meant that the walls of the cylinder were alte
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
John Smeaton was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed "civil engineer", is regarded as the "father of civil engineering", he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using powdered brick as aggregate. Smeaton was associated with the Lunar Society. Smeaton was born in Austhorpe, England. After studying at Leeds Grammar School he joined his father's law firm, but left to become a mathematical instrument maker, among other instruments, a pyrometer to study material expansion and a whirling speculum or horizontal top. In 1750, his premises were in the Great Turnstile in Holborn, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1753, in 1759 won the Copley Medal for his research into the mechanics of waterwheels and windmills. His 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" addressed the relationship between pressure and velocity for objects moving in air, his concepts were subsequently developed to devise the'Smeaton Coefficient'.
Smeaton's water wheel experiments were conducted on a small scale model with which he tested various configurations over a period of seven years. The resulting increasing efficiency in water power contributed to the Industrial Revolution. Over the period 1759–1782 he performed a series of further experiments and measurements on water wheels that led him to support and champion the vis viva theory of German Gottfried Leibniz, an early formulation of conservation of energy; this led him into conflict with members of the academic establishment who rejected Leibniz's theory, believing it inconsistent with Sir Isaac Newton's conservation of momentum. In his 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" Smeaton developed the concepts and data which became the basis for the Smeaton coefficient, the lift equation used by the Wright brothers, it has the form: L = k V 2 A C l where: L is the lift k is the Smeaton coefficient- 0.005 was the value as determined by Smeaton corrected to 0.0033 by the Wright brothers C l is the lift coefficient A is the area in square feetThe Wright brothers determined with wind tunnels that the Smeaton coefficient value of 0.005 was incorrect and should have been 0.0033.
In modern analysis, the lift coefficient is normalised by the dynamic pressure instead of the Smeaton coefficient. Smeaton is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, identifying the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime. Portland cement led to the re-emergence of concrete as a modern building material due to Smeaton's influence. Recommended by the Royal Society, Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse, he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse. His lighthouse remained in use until 1877 when the rock underlying the structure's foundations had begun to erode. Deciding that he wanted to focus on the lucrative field of civil engineering, he commenced an extensive series of commissions, including: the Calder and Hebble Navigation Coldstream Bridge over the River Tweed Improvements to the River Lee Navigation Smeaton's Pier in St Ives, Cornwall Perth Bridge over the River Tay in Perth Ripon Canal Smeaton's Viaduct, which carries the A616 road over the River Trent between Newark and South Muskham in Nottinghamshire the Forth and Clyde Canal from Grangemouth to Glasgow Langley on Tyne smelt mill, with Nicholas Walton, acting as receivers to the Greenwich Hospital, London Banff harbour Aberdeen bridge Peterhead harbour Nent Force Level Harbour works at Ramsgate Hexham bridge the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal St Austell's Charlestown harbour in Cornwall Smeaton is considered to be the first expert witness to appear in an English court.
Because of his expertise in engineering, he was called to testify in court for a case related to the silting-up of the harbour at Wells-next-the-Sea in Norfolk in 1782. He acted as a consultant on the disastrous 63-year-long New Harbour at Rye, designed to combat the silting of the port of Winchelsea; the project is now known informally as "Smeaton's Harbour", but despite the name his involvement was limited and occurred more than 30 years after work on the harbour commenced. It closed in 1839. Employing his skills as a mechanical engineer, he devised a water engine for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in 1761 and a watermill at Alston, C
Science Museum, London
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London. It was founded in 1857 and today is one of the city's major tourist attractions, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Science Museum does not charge visitors for admission. Temporary exhibitions, may incur an admission fee, it is part of the Science Museum Group, having merged with the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in 2012. A museum was founded in 1857 under Bennet Woodcroft from the collection of the Royal Society of Arts and surplus items from the Great Exhibition as part of the South Kensington Museum, together with what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum, it included a collection of machinery which became the Museum of Patents in 1858, the Patent Office Museum in 1863. This collection contained many of the most famous exhibits of. In 1883, the contents of the Patent Office Museum were transferred to the South Kensington Museum.
In 1885, the Science Collections were renamed the Science Museum and in 1893 a separate director was appointed. The Art Collections were renamed the Art Museum, which became the Victoria and Albert Museum; when Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone for the new building for the Art Museum, she stipulated that the museum be renamed after herself and her late husband. This was applied to the whole museum, but when that new building opened ten years the title was confined to the Art Collections and the Science Collections had to be divorced from it. On 26 June 1909 the Science Museum, as an independent entity, came into existence; the Science Museum's present quarters, designed by Sir Richard Allison, were opened to the public in stages over the period 1919–28. This building was known as the East Block, construction of which began in 1913 and temporarily halted by World War I; as the name suggests it was intended to be the first building of a much larger project, never realized. However, the Museum buildings were expanded over the following years.
The Science Museum now holds a collection of over 300,000 items, including such famous items as Stephenson's Rocket, Puffing Billy, the first jet engine, a reconstruction of Francis Crick and James Watson's model of DNA, some of the earliest remaining steam engines, a working example of Charles Babbage's Difference engine, the first prototype of the 10,000-year Clock of the Long Now, documentation of the first typewriter. It contains hundreds of interactive exhibits. A recent addition is the IMAX 3D Cinema showing science and nature documentaries, most of them in 3-D, the Wellcome Wing which focuses on digital technology. Entrance has been free since 1 December 2001; the museum houses some of the many objects collected by Henry Wellcome around a medical theme. The fourth floor exhibit is called "Glimpses of Medical History", with reconstructions and dioramas of the history of practised medicine; the fifth floor gallery is called "Science and the Art of Medicine", with exhibits of medical instruments and practices from ancient days and from many countries.
The collection is strong in clinical medicine and public health. The museum is a member of the London Museums of Medicine; the Science Museum has a dedicated library, until the 1960s was Britain's National Library for Science and Technology. It holds runs of periodicals, early books and manuscripts, is used by scholars worldwide, it was, for a number of years, run in conjunction with the Library of Imperial College, but in 2007 the Library was divided over two sites. Histories of science and biographies of scientists were kept at the Imperial College Library in London until February 2014 when the arrangement was terminated, the shelves were cleared and the books and journals shipped out, joining the rest of the collection, which includes original scientific works and archives, in Wroughton, Wiltshire; the Imperial College library catalogue search system now informs searchers that volumes held there are "Available at Science Museum Library Swindon Currently unavailable". A new Research Centre with library facilities is promised for late 2015 but is unlikely to have book stacks nearby.
The Science Museum's medical collections have a global coverage. Strengths include Clinical Medicine and Public Health; the new Wellcome Wing, with its focus on Bioscience, makes the Museum a leading world centre for the presentation of contemporary science to the public. Some 170,000 items which are not on current display are stored at Blythe House in West Kensington. Blythe House houses facilities including a conservation laboratory, a photographic studio, a quarantine area where newly arrived items are examined. In November 2003, the Science Museum opened the Dana Centre; the centre is an urban café annexed to the museum. It was designed by MJP Architects. In October 2007, the Science Museum cancelled a talk by the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, James D. Watson, because he claimed that IQ test results showed blacks to have lower intelligence than whites; the decision was criticised by some scientists, including Richard Dawkins, as well as supported by other scientists, including Steven Rose.
Around 450,000 young people visit the Science Museum on educational trips or benefit from i
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate