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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus was an English cleric and influential economist in the fields of political economy and demography. In his 1798 book An Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, humans had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian trap" or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a view, sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe. Malthus wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. Malthus saw population growth as being inevitable whenever conditions improved, thereby precluding real progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man".

As an Anglican cleric, he saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour. Malthus wrote that "the increase of population is limited by the means of subsistence". Malthus criticized the Poor Laws for leading to inflation rather than improving the well-being of the poor, he supported taxes on grain imports. His views became influential and controversial across economic, political and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Alfred Russel Wallace, he remains a much-debated writer. The sixth child of Henrietta Catherine Graham and Daniel Malthus, Robert Malthus grew up in The Rookery, a country house in Westcott, near Dorking in Surrey. William Petersen describes Daniel Malthus as "a gentleman of good family and independent means a friend of David Hume and Jean-Jacques Rousseau"; the young Malthus received his education at home in Bramcote, at the Warrington Academy from 1782. Warrington was a dissenting academy, which closed in 1783. Malthus continued for a period to be tutored by Gilbert Wakefield.

Malthus entered Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784. While there, he took prizes in English declamation and Greek, graduated with honours, Ninth Wrangler in mathematics, his tutor was William Frend. He took the MA degree in 1791, was elected a Fellow of Jesus College two years later. In 1789, he took orders in the Church of England, became a curate at Oakwood Chapel in the parish of Wotton, Surrey. Malthus was a demographer before he was considered an economist, he first came to prominence for An Essay on the Principle of Population. In it, he raised the question of, he affirmed that there were many events and bad, that affected the economy in ways no one had deliberated upon before. The main point of his essay was that population multiplies geometrically and food arithmetically, therefore whenever the food supply increases, population will grow to eliminate the abundance. In the future, there would not be enough food for the whole of humanity to consume and people would starve; until that point, the more food made.

He stated that there was a fight for survival amongst humans and that only the strong who could attain food and other needs would survive, unlike the impoverished population he saw during his time period. Malthus wrote the original text in reaction to the optimism of his father and his father's associates regarding the future improvement of society, he constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin and of the Marquis de Condorcet. His assertions evoked questions and criticism, between 1798 and 1826 he published six more versions of An Essay on the Principle of Population, updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, to convey changes in his own perspectives on the subject. So, the propositions made in An Essay were shocking to the public and disregarded during the 19th century; the negativity surrounding his essay created a space filled with opinions on population growth, connected with either praise or criticism of ideas about contraception and the future of agriculture.

The Malthusian controversy to which the Essay gave rise in the decades following its publication tended to focus attention on the birth rate and marriage rates. The neo-Malthusian controversy, comprising related debates of many years has seen a similar central role assigned to the numbers of children born. On the whole it may be said that Malthus's revolutionary ideas in the sphere of population growth remain relevant to economic thought today and continue to make economists ponder about the future. In 1799, Malthus made a European tour with William Otter, a close college friend, travelling part of the way with Edward Daniel Clarke and John Marten Cripps, visiting Germany and Russia. Malthus used the trip to gather population data. Otter wrote a Memoir of Malthus for the second edition of his Principles of Political Economy. During the Peace of Amiens of 1802 he travelled to France and Switzerland, in a party that included his relation and future wife Harriet. In 1803, he became rector

Raindance Film Festival

Raindance is an independent film festival and film school that operates in major cities including London, Los Angeles, New York, Toronto, Budapest and Brussels. The festival was established in 1992 by Elliot Grove to be the voice of British filmmaking and in 2013 was listed by Variety as one of the world’s top 50'unmissable film festivals'. Raindance showcases features and shorts by filmmakers from around the world to an audience of film executives and buyers, film fans and filmmakers. In 2009 the Raindance Film Festival had 6069 attendees, followed by 4694 in 2010, their website claims 13,500 attendees in 80,000 online followers. 1992 – Raindance is founded. Film training courses are offered. 1993 – The Raindance Film Festival is launched, World premiere of What's Eating Gilbert Grape. 1994 – Pulp Fiction makes its UK debut at Raindance. 1998 – Raindance creates the British Independent Film Awards which celebrate the achievements of independent British filmmaking. 2000 – Christopher Nolan's Memento has its UK premiere at Raindance.

2003 – Raindance launches the world's first 15 Second Shorts Competition with Nokia. 2004 – The Independent Film Trust is launched by Raindance: a charity that supports independent filmmaking and provides bursaries and training for the disadvantaged, from children in inner-city schools to refugees and the mentally ill. 2008 – Raindance Screens Once, which goes on to win the Academy Award for Best Song. 2009 – Down Terrace, Ben Wheatley's first film, debuts at Raindance.2012 – Short films which play at Raindance become eligible for Oscar nominations. 2013 – Raindance launches Raw Talent and produces its film Love. Honour. Obey. 2015 – Raindance launches 360/VR Storytelling training.2016 – Raindance launches the Auteur Award and presents the inaugural prize to Ken Loach. 2016 – Raindance launches the VRX Awards and Showcase.2017 – Raindance hands the 2nd Annual Auteur Award to Guy Ritchie, describing him as a "prominent figure" who breathed "new life into the British film industry" with his "cult crime comedies."

2017 – Raindance celebrated its 25th anniversary.2018 – Raindance hands the 3rd Annual Auteur Award to Terry Gilliam, saying that for four decades, he's been "magicking amazing visual stories from nowhere." Official website Raindance Film Festival on Twitter

Palliser, Palliser & Company

Palliser, Palliser & Company was a Bridgeport and New York City architectural firm and publisher of architectural pattern books. George Palliser, the firm's founder, was born around 1849 in Thirsk, England, he emigrated to Newark, New Jersey in 1868. He worked as a carpenter and builder opening a millwork business. In search of new territory, Palliser moved opening an architectural office, he would specialize in residential work. In 1877 he made his brother, Charles Palliser, a partner in the firm, which became Palliser, Palliser & Company, they remained in Bridgeport until 1882. The Pallisers kept the Bridgeport office open as a branch through the 1880s, but would close it in favor of the New York office. By the 1890s, George Palliser was practicing alone, though the old firm-name of Palliser, Palliser & Company was retained for publications, he died in 1903. The Pallisers published many books of architectural plans; the first was Model Homes for the People in 1876. Copies of the 23-page pattern book were sold for 25 cents a copy and "sent into every State and territory in the Union, many to the provinces."

Other publications included American Cottage Homes, Palliser's Model Homes, Palliser's New Cottage Homes, American Architecture. Palliser designs were built nationwide. Upon choosing a design from one of the firm's many publications, the client would write to the main office and request full plans, as well as necessary alterations; the plans would be sent. A number of buildings built from Palliser, Palliser & Company designs are listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Works include: Several works in Barnum/Palliser Historic District bounded by Myrtle and Park Avenues and Austin Streets, Connecticut, NRHP-listed Several works in Division Street Historic District bounded by State Street, Black Rock and West Avenues, Connecticut, NRHP-listed Benedict-Miller House, 32 Hillside Avenue, Connecticut, NRHP-listed Several works in William D. Bishop Cottage Development Historic District, Cottage Place and Atlantic, Broad and Whiting Streets, Connecticut, NRHP-listed Sheldon Boright House, 122 River Street, Vermont, NRHP-listed Godillot Place, 60, 65 Jesup Road, Connecticut, NRHP-listed A. B. Leavitt House, ME 158, Maine, NRHP-listed George Seybold House, 111 E.

Main Street, Indiana, NRHP-listed Henry Stussi House, 9097 Mendel Road, Minnesota, NRHP-listed Chamberlain-Hunt Academy's original buildings, McComb Hall and Guthrie Hall, built in 1900. Grand Opera House, 2012-2020 Avenue E, Texas, NRHP-listed John C. and Mary Landenberger House, 58 N. Virginia Street, Salt Lake City, Utah, NRHP-listed