Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, was an English nobleman and politician. Although hailing from a family with strong Catholic leanings, he was raised a Protestant, he was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, held many high offices during her reign. Norfolk was the son of Earl of Surrey, he commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage, his father predeceased his grandfather, so Norfolk inherited the Dukedom of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk in 1554. He was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, Lady Elizabeth Howard, he was trusted with public office despite his family's history and leanings towards Catholicism. While still young, Norfolk was Queen's Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise.
He negotiated the February 1560 Treaty of Berwick by which the Congregation invited English assistance, after the Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in July of that year he was able to return to the court. Norfolk commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was the Principal of the commission at York in 1568 to hear evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots presented by Regent Moray, including the casket letters. Having married and lost three wives by 1567, despite having presided at the York commission, Norfolk schemed to marry Mary, Queen of Scots. William Maitland of Lethington favoured the proposed union, Mary herself consented to it, but Norfolk was unwilling to take up arms. While he delayed Elizabeth ordered his arrest in October 1569 and imprisoned him. Following his release in August 1570, after some hesitation, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England.
The plot was revealed to the queen's minister Lord Burghley, after a 1571 trial, Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at the Church of St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London. Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was restored to his sons; the title of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations to his great-great-grandson Thomas Howard. Thomas Howard's first wife was Mary FitzAlan, who after the death of her brother Henry in 1556 became heiress to the Arundel estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, she died after a year of marriage, having given birth to a son: Philip Howard, who became the 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that modern Dukes of Norfolk derive their surname of'FitzAlan-Howard' and their seat in Arundel. Though her funeral effigy is found at Framlingham church, Mary FitzAlan was not buried there but first at the church of St. Clement Danes, Temple Bar and under the direction of her grandson's will, at Arundel.
Norfolk next married another heiress, Margaret Audley, widow of Sir Henry Dudley and daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden. Margaret's children by her marriage to Norfolk were: 1st Earl of Suffolk. After Margaret's death in 1563, Norfolk married Elizabeth Leyburne, widow of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gillesland and daughter of Sir James Leyburn. Norfolk's three sons by his first two wives, Philip and William, married Anne and Elizabeth Dacre; the Dacre sisters were the daughters of Elizabeth Leyburne by her marriage to Thomas Dacre and were, stepsisters to Norfolk's sons. Following the death of his third wife, Norfolk made an effort in 1569 to marry Queen of Scots; the marriage, of course, never happened, Norfolk was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth and executed for this. Thomas Howard appears as a character in the Philippa Gregory novels The Virgin's Lover and The Other Queen, in the novel I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles. A fictionalized version of the 4th Duke of Norfolk appears as a villain, played by Christopher Eccleston, in the 1998 film Elizabeth.
Another version of the Duke is in the BBC mini-series The Virgin Queen, played by Kevin McKidd. In the Channel 4 documentary Elizabeth presented by David Starkey, the Duke is portrayed by actor John Gully. Dukes of Norfolk family tree John George Howard, a Toronto architect who claims to be related to the Duke. Edwards, Francis; the marvellous chance: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, the Ridolphi plot, 1570-1572. ISBN 0-246-64474-5. "Murdin, William: Collection of State Papers, 1571-1596". London. 1759. Papers from Norfolk's treason trial 1568-1572. Williams, Neville. Thomas Howard, Fourth duke of Norfolk. ASIN B0007DRE5Y. William Cooke Taylor, ed.. Thomas Howard: Fourth Duke of Norfolk; the Benedictine Brethren of Glendalough. ISBN 1-4254-6159-X. "Howard, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511; the aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion and research. The college's alumni include the winners of ten Nobel Prizes, seven prime ministers and twelve archbishops of various countries, at least two princes and three Saints; the Romantic poet William Wordsworth studied at the college, as did William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, the two abolitionists who led the movement that brought slavery to an end in the British Empire. Prince William was affiliated with St John's while undertaking a university-run course in estate management in 2014. St John's College is well known for its choir, its members' success in a wide variety of inter-collegiate sporting competitions and its annual May Ball. In 2011, the college celebrated its quincentenary, an event marked by a visit of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The site was occupied by the Hospital of St John the Evangelist founded around 1200. By 1470 Thomas Rotherham Chancellor of the university, extended to it the privileges of membership of the university; this led to St. John's House, as it was known, being conferred the status of a college. By the early 16th century the hospital was suffering from a lack of funds. Lady Margaret Beaufort, having endowed Christ's College sought to found a new college, chose the hospital site at the suggestion of John Fisher, her chaplain and Bishop of Rochester. However, Lady Margaret died without having mentioned the foundation of St John's in her will, it was the work of Fisher that ensured that the college was founded, he had to obtain the approval of King Henry VIII of England, the Pope through the intermediary Polydore Vergil, the Bishop of Ely to suppress the religious hospital, by which time held only a Master and three Augustinian brethren, convert it to a college. The college received its charter on 9 April 1511.
Further complications arose in obtaining money from the estate of Lady Margaret to pay for the foundation and it was not until 22 October 1512 that a codicil was obtained in the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In November 1512 the Court of Chancery allowed Lady Margaret's executors to pay for the foundation of the college from her estates; when Lady Margaret's executors took over they found most of the old Hospital buildings beyond repair, but repaired and incorporated the Chapel into the new college. A kitchen and hall were added, an imposing gate tower was constructed for the College Treasury; the doors were to be closed each day at dusk. Over the course of the following five hundred years, the college expanded westwards towards the River Cam, now has twelve courts, the most of any Oxford or Cambridge College; the first three courts are arranged in enfilade. The college has retained its relationship with Shrewsbury School since 1578, when the headmaster Thomas Ashton assisted in drawing up ordinances to govern the school.
Under these rulings, the borough bailiffs had power to appoint masters, along with Ashton's old college, St John's, having an academic veto. Since the appointment of Johnian academics to the Governing Body, the historic awarding of'closed' Shrewsbury Exhibitions, has continued; the current Master of St. John’s, Chris Dobson, has remained an ex officio Governor of Shrewsbury since 2007. St John's College first admitted women in October 1981, when K. M. Wheeler was admitted to the fellowship, along with nine female graduate students; the first women undergraduates arrived a year later. St John's distinctive Great Gate follows the standard contemporary pattern employed at Christ's College and Queens' College; the gatehouse is adorned with the arms of the foundress Lady Margaret Beaufort. Above these are displayed her ensigns, the Red Rose of Lancaster and Portcullis; the college arms are flanked by curious creatures known as yales, mythical beasts with elephants' tails, antelopes' bodies, goats' heads, swivelling horns.
Above them is a tabernacle containing a socle figure of St John the Evangelist, an Eagle at his feet and symbolic, poisoned chalice in his hands. The fan vaulting above is contemporary with tower, may have been designed by William Swayne, a master mason of King's College Chapel. First Court is entered via the Great Gate, is architecturally varied. First Court was converted from the hospital on the foundation of the college, constructed between 1511 and 1520. Though it has since been changed, the front range is still much as it appeared when first erected in the 16th century; the south range was refaced between 1772–6 in the Georgian style by the local architect, James Essex, as part of an abortive attempt to modernise the entire court in the same fashion. The most dramatic alteration to the original, Tudor court, remains the Victorian amendment of the north range, which involved the demolition of the original mediaeval chapel and the construction of a new, far larger set of buildings in the 1860s.
These included the Chapel, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, which includes in its interior some pieces saved from the original chapel. It is the tallest building in Cambridge; the alteration of the north range necessitated the restructuring of the connective sections of First Court.
Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, it threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, most of the buildings of the City authorities, it is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but was traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded; this reasoning has been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1,250 °C; the Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner on Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, spread west across the City of London.
The major firefighting technique of the time was to create firebreaks by means of demolition. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm that defeated such measures; the fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires; the fears of the homeless focused on the French and Dutch, England's enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. On Tuesday, the fire spread over most of the City, destroying St Paul's Cathedral and leaping the River Fleet to threaten King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Coordinated firefighting efforts were mobilising; the social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming. Evacuation from London and resettlement elsewhere were encouraged by Charles II, who feared a London rebellion amongst the dispossessed refugees. Despite several radical proposals, London was reconstructed on the same street plan used before the fire.
By the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants. However, due to the Great Plague of London during the last winter, its population was lower than before it. John Evelyn, contrasting London to the Baroque magnificence of Paris, called it a "wooden and inartificial congestion of Houses", expressed alarm about the fire hazards posed by the wood and the congestion. By "inartificial", Evelyn meant unplanned and makeshift, the result of organic growth and unregulated urban sprawl. London had been a Roman settlement for four centuries and had become progressively more crowded inside its defensive city wall, it had pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch and Southwark, had reached far enough to include the independent City of Westminster. By the late 17th century, the City proper—the area bounded by the City wall and the River Thames—was only a part of London, covering some 700 acres, home to about 80,000 people, or one sixth of London's inhabitants.
The City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs where most Londoners lived. The City was as now, the commercial heart of the capital, was the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes; the aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the slum suburbs, or in the exclusive Westminster district, the site of King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Wealthy people preferred to live at a convenient distance from the traffic-clogged, unhealthy City after it was hit by a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the Plague Year of 1665; the relationship was tense between the City and the Crown. The City of London had been a stronghold of republicanism during the Civil War, the wealthy and economically dynamic capital still had the potential to be a threat to Charles II, as had been demonstrated by several republican uprisings in London in the early 1660s; the City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War, could remember how Charles I's grab for absolute power had led to that national trauma.
They were determined to thwart any similar tendencies in his son, when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers that Charles made of soldiers and other resources. In such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite. By the time that Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was out of control; the City was medieval in its street plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, cobbled alleys. It had experienced several major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632. Building with wood and roofing with thatch had been prohibited for centuries, but these cheap materials continued to be used; the only major stone-built area was the wealthy centre of the City, where the mansions of the merchants and brokers stood on spacious lots, surroun
West Bergholt known as Bergholt Sackville, is a large rural village and civil parish in Essex, lying near the border with Suffolk, close to the ancient town of Colchester. With a history going back to medieval times the village is now part of the Colchester Borough Council seat of West Bergholt and Eight Ash Green. In 2008 the village won the Class 2 category, was placed third overall in the RCCE Best Kept Village in Essex competition; the village lies around a triangle formed by Colchester Road, Chapel Road and Lexden Road. Around the village lie numerous farms and large areas of woodland, including Hillhouse Wood, always known locally as Bluebell Wood, purchased by the Woodland Trust with the help of local people. Many walks exist through the wood, a migrant population of various breeds of deer can sometimes be seen. Elmer's was the butchers shop. Digby's was the name of the general store, now the East of England Co-operative Society. Mr Digby's son drove a local bus service to Colchester. Prehistoric, Iron-Age, Roman material from West Bergholt Hall, St. Mary's church, nearby sites suggest that the area may have been continuously settled.
Scattered finds in the parish include several Palaeolithic axes from the heath, Iron-Age and Roman pottery and coins. There are large areas of undated cropmarks to the south of Hill House farm. An archaeological dig carried out in 1977 found evidence of a Bronze Age cemetery just to the south of Chitts Hill Bridge; the dig found seven circular ditches, believed to be former central mounds, which contained cremation burials in urns, some upright. Ten cremations were found without urns and five were of children. Neolithic flints were discovered, representing scrapers and cutting flakes; the pottery found dated the site to between 1500 and 1000 BC. The Normans reached the village in 1067, after their conquest of 1066; the village had been named Bergholta by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning "wood on a hill". The village already had a church, in the form of a wooden single-celled building on the site of the current "Old Church", although was one of the least populous parishes in Lexden Hundred in the Middle Ages.
The combined total of free tenants, unfree tenants, slaves was 27 in 1066 and 32 in 1086. In 1377 only 105 inhabitants paid the poll tax; until the arrival of the Normans the village was split between two landowners: Leofwin Croz, Lord of the Manor, Alfays Goding. They were replaced byNorman barons, Roger de Poitou and Richard fitz Gilbert.. Roger de Poitou rebelled against the King Henry I in 1102, was banished to Normandy and his lands were removed. Richard fitz Gilbert was aligned with King Henry, was allowed to retain his land; the village changed its name to Bergholt Sackville in 1119 after Robert Sackville, son of Herband de Sackville, became Lord of the Manor. The Sackville family came to England during the time of the Norman Conquest and Robert was a member of the Royal Court and close friend of King Henry fighting for him at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106, he was a religious man who became the first official rector of St. Mary's Church and donated a 240-acre estate in the village to St John's Abbey of Colchester.
This estate was run by the Almery Priest, who gave the profits from the running of the Almery Farm to the poor of the village. Over the years there has been a confusion in the name of this farm and it has now become known as Armoury Farm. After the dissolution of the monasteries by King Henry VIII the estate was sold to Richard Duke in 1544, one of the civil servants responsible for administrating land seized by the King. However, the estate was brought back into the Sackville family by John Sackville in 1544. Bergholt has not always managed to maintain good relations with the Crown. During the Reign of King John, Jordon Sackville got on the wrong side of the King and had all of his land removed, including the Bergholt Manor though his father and previous Lord of the Manor, Geoffrey Sackville, was knighted by John. However, fortune landed on Jordon's side, as when King Henry III came to the throne in 1216 Jordon was granted all his land back. Although his grandson called Jordon, assisted in the Barons' Revolt against King Henry III, claiming that he was not fit to rule the country in his 60s and was taken prisoner at the Battle of Evesham in 1265.
However, as the King was a friend of his grandfather, he was pardoned after a year. Jordon's heir, Andrew Sackville whose sonne and heire, named An|drew Sackuill, was under age at the time of his father's death and was placed under the King's Ward, was imprisoned in Dover Castle. By the special command of the King, he married an Honourable Ladie of the household to Queen, whereby he not only gained the King's favour, but the greatest part of his inheritance, gaining the family's land in East Sussex, he died before Bergholt Hall passed to his son, another Andrew de Sackville. The second Andrew held the manor until his death in 1316 and was succeeded by his son, a third Andrew de Sackville, who, in 1347, was given free warden in Bergholt by Edward III, allowing him to kill game in his manor, he died in 1370, Bergholt Hall passed to his widow Maud. During Andrew's reign as Lord of the Manor Bergholt had become one of the poorest parishes in the Lexden Hundred by 1327 with the highest individual taxpayer be assessed being 7s.
1/2 d, this was before the boom in the cloth industry. Maud married Edmund de la Pole, brother of Michael de la Po
Charles IX of France
Charles IX was King of France from 1560 until his death in 1574 from tuberculosis. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II in 1561. Charles was the twelfth king from the House of Valois, the fifth from the Valois-Orléans branch, the fourth from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre, a major Protestant nobleman, in the line of succession to the French throne, in a last desperate bid to reconcile his people. Facing popular hostility against this policy of appeasement, Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris for the royal wedding at the instigation of his mother Catherine de' Medici; this event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement, though religious civil warfare soon began anew.
Charles sought to take advantage of the disarray of the Huguenots by ordering the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold. Much of his decision making was influenced by his mother Catherine de' Medici, a fervent Roman Catholic who sought peace between Catholics and Protestants, but after the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre supported the persecution of Huguenots. Charles died of tuberculosis without legitimate male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III, he was born Charles Maximilian, third son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, in the royal chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Styled since birth as Duke of Angoulême, he was created Duke of Orléans after the death of his older brother Louis, his parents' second son, who had died in infancy on 24 October 1550; the royal children were raised under the supervision of the governor and governess of the royal children, Claude d'Urfé and Françoise d'Humières, under the orders of Diane de Poitiers.
On 14 May 1564, Charles was presented the Order of the Garter by Henry Carey. His father died in 1559, was succeeded by his elder brother, King Francis II. After Francis's short rule, the ten-year-old Charles was proclaimed king on 5 December 1560; when Francis II died, the Privy Council appointed his mother, Catherine de' Medici, as governor of France, with sweeping powers, at first acting as regent for her young son. On 15 May 1561, Charles was consecrated in the cathedral at Reims. Antoine of Bourbon, himself in line to the French throne and husband to Queen Joan III of Navarre, was appointed Lieutenant-General of France. Charles' reign was dominated by the French Wars of Religion, which pitted various factions against each other; the Huguenots, the French adherents of Calvinism, had a considerable following among the nobility, while their enemies organised into the Catholic League, were led by the House of Guise, a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine. Queen Catherine, though nominally a Catholic tried to steer a middle course between the two factions, attempting to keep the peace and augment royal power.
The factions had engaged in violence before Charles' accession: in 1560 a group of Huguenot nobles at Amboise had planned to try to abduct King Francis II and arrest the Catholic leaders Francis, Duke of Guise, his brother Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. The plot was found out ahead of time, the Guises were prepared, executing hundreds of Huguenots; this was followed by cases of Catholic reprisals. The regent Catherine tried to foster reconciliation at the Colloquy at Poissy and, after that failed, made several concessions to the Huguenots in the Edict of Saint-Germain in January 1562. Nonetheless, war broke out when some retainers of the House of Guise, hoping to avenge the attempt of Amboise. In Wassy, France on 1 March 1562, Duke of Guise and his troops attacked and killed or wounded over 100 Huguenot worshipers and citizens; the tragedy is identified as the first major event in the French Wars of Religion. Louis of Bourbon, Prince of Condé, brother of the Lieutenant-General and the suspected architect of the Amboise conspiracy, had prepared for war and, taking Wassy as the pretext, assumed the role of a protector of Protestantism and began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire Valley.
In return, the monarchy revoked the concessions given to the Huguenots. After the military leaders of both sides were either killed or captured in battles at Rouen and Orléans, the regent mediated a truce and issued the Edict of Amboise; the war was followed by four years of an uneasy "armed peace", during which Catherine tried to unite the factions in the successful effort to recapture Le Havre from the English. After this victory, Charles declared his legal majority in August 1563. However, Catherine would continue to play a principal role in politics and dominated her son. In March 1564, the King and his mother set out from Fontainebleau on a grand tour of France, their tour spanned two years and brought them through Bar, Salon-de-Provence, Toulouse, Bayonne, La Rochelle, Moulins. During this trip, Charles IX issued the Edict of Roussillon, which standardised 1 January as the first day of the year throughout France. War again broke out in 1567 after reports of iconoclasm in Flanders prompted Charles to support Catholics there.
Huguenots, fearing a Catholic attack was imminent, tried to abduct the king at Meaux, seized various cities, massacred Catholics at Nîmes in an
Michelham Priory is the site of a former Augustine Priory in Upper Dicker, East Sussex, United Kingdom. The surviving buildings are owned and administered by the Sussex Archaeological Society and are Grade I and Grade II listed. A T-shaped stone-built structure, the east and north wings date from the 13th century and the west wing from the 16th century; the north wing the Priors Lodging, comprises three storeys with an attic and the other two wings two storeys. The roof is tiled; the whole is surrounded by a moat, enclosing an area of 8 acres. A watermill in the grounds of the priory has been restored to working order and is open to the public; the Augustinian Priory of the Holy Trinity was founded at Michelham in 1229 by Gilbert de Aquila, whose father had been a benefactor of Bayham Abbey in Kent and had connections to Otham Abbey in East Sussex. Michelham was a daughter house of Hastings Priory. All Gilbert's lands and honours were forfeited in 1235 as punishment for his going to Normandy without licence from King Henry III.
In 1278 and again in 1287, the prior was fined for exercising illegal privileges. On 26 June 1283, John de Kyrkeby renounced his election as Bishop of Rochester at Michelham Priory before John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury. King Edward I stayed overnight at the priory on 14 September 1302. In 1353, the prior was fined blocking the river. By 1398, the priory was reported to be in a ruinous condition. Robert Reade, bishop of Chichester, granted the advowsons of Alfriston and Fletching to Michelham Priory in that year; the Priory was seized in 1537 under Henry VIII during the Dissolution of the monasteries. The priory and its possessions was granted to Thomas Cromwell. Following Cromwell's execution in 1540, it was granted to Anne of Cleves. Part of it was leased to Thomas Culpeper, with the greater part of the site passing to William, Earl of Arundel. In 1544, Earl of Arundel exchanged Michelham Priory with Queen Mary for other property. In 1556, the priory was sold to John Roberts for £ 1,249 16s 10d.
Foote alienated the manor and hundred of Michelham Parkegate to Ambrose Smythe in 1574. In 1584, Smythe granted it to John Elizabeth, his wife. Morley granted the priory to Herbert Pelham in 1587; the church and some of the buildings were demolished and between 1599 and 1601. In the former year, the priory was made over in trust to Thomas Peirse, Thomas Pelham and James Thatcher to be sold to provide an annuity of £400 and pay off his debts. In 1601, the priory was sold to Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset for the sum of £4,700. On his death in 1608, the property passed to 2nd Earl of Dorset. In 1609, it passed to 3rd Earl of Dorset. On Richard's death in 1630, the priory passed to Lady Anne Clifford. On her death in 1675, the property remained in the Sackville family, passing down the Earls of Dorset until the death of John Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset in 1799 passing to his daughter Mary, Countess of Plymouth, she married William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst in 1839. It was sold to James Gwynne in 1896 and was where his children Rupert and Violet grew up.
The property remained in private hands into the 20th century, when it was restored by the Sussex architect and antiquarian, Walter Godfrey. It was used as a base for Canadian troops during the winter of 1941-42 while they prepared for the Dieppe Raid, it was the East Sussex headquarters of the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1958 Mrs R. H. Hotblack purchased the property with the aim of preserving it for posterity. With an endowment from Kenneth, Earl of Inchcape as a memorial to his friend John Fletcher Boughey, killed during the Second World War, Mrs Hotblack gave the property in trust to the Sussex Archaeological Society on 1 November 1959; the following priors are recorded at Michelham Priory:– 1229 Roger. 1239–c.1260 Peter. 1248–68 Roger. 1273 William. 1278 Nicholas. 1287 Roger. 1290 Luke de la Gare. 1302 John de Echingham†. C.1322–34 William de Shelvestrode. C.1376–c.1415 John Leem. c.1434–38 William London. 1438–c.1447 Laurence Wynchelse. C.1450–83 Edward Marley. 1482–c.1509 John West. C.1518–37 Thomas Holbeme.
1533 John† Italics denotes a possible prior. The barn was built between 1587 and 1610, it is on a timber frame clad with tarred weatherboards. The arched queen post roof is covered with pegtiles; the barn is Grade II listed. The barn serves as a meeting room; the chapter house and dormitory stood south of the church, on the east of the site. The church stood to the north of the surviving refectory, it possessed five bells. No trace of it remains today; the dovecot described as a stables or pigeon house, is a single-storey building of sandstone, ashlar on the south facing aspect under a hipped pegtile roof. Built in the C18th, it is a Grade II listed building; the building has been converted to form a tearoom. The gatehouse was built during the time when John Leem was prior. A basement at moat level served either as a prison; the building contains four stories, including the cellar. In the C16th, a stone bridge was built over the moat; the gatehouse and bridge are Grade I listed buildings. The surviving refectory building contained a hall 40 feet long.
There was a window at the west end, 13 feet 6 inches wide, the outer frame of which survives today. This and the Prior's House are built of sandstone. At the time of dissolution, the refectory was roofless. A second floor was added and the building was divided into a number of rooms. Adjacent to the refectory is the Prior's House and crypt, above ground on account of th
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"