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Thomas Savery

Thomas Savery was an English inventor and engineer, born at Shilstone, a manor house near Modbury, England. He invented the first commercially used steam powered device, a steam pump, referred to as an "engine", although it is not technically an "engine". Savery's "engine" was a revolutionary method of pumping water, which solved the problem of mine drainage and made widespread public water supply practicable. Savery became a military engineer, rising to the rank of Captain by 1702, spent his free time performing experiments in mechanics. In 1696 he took out a patent for a machine for polishing glass or marble and another for "rowing of ships with greater ease and expedition than hitherto been done by any other" which involved paddle-wheels driven by a capstan and, dismissed by the Admiralty following a negative report by the Surveyor of the Navy, Edmund Dummer. Savery worked for the Sick and Hurt Commissioners, contracting the supply of medicines to the Navy Stock Company, connected with the Society of Apothecaries.

His duties on their behalf took him to Dartmouth, how he came into contact with Thomas Newcomen. On 2 July 1698 Savery patented an early steam engine, "A new invention for raising of water and occasioning motion to all sorts of mill work by the impellent force of fire, which will be of great use and advantage for draining mines, serving towns with water, for the working of all sorts of mills where they have not the benefit of water nor constant winds." He demonstrated it to the Royal Society on 14 June 1699. The patent had no illustrations or description, but in 1702 Savery described the machine in his book The Miner's Friend. Savery's engine had no piston, no moving parts except from the taps, it was operated by first raising steam in the boiler. When the system was hot and therefore full of steam the tap between the boiler and the working vessel was shut, if necessary the outside of the vessel was cooled; this made the steam inside it condense, creating a partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure pushed water up the downpipe until the vessel was full.

At this point the tap below the vessel was closed, the tap between it and the up-pipe opened, more steam was admitted from the boiler. As the steam pressure built up, it forced the water from the vessel up the up-pipe to the top of the mine. However, his engine had four serious problems. First, every time water was admitted to the working vessel much of the heat was wasted in warming up the water, being pumped. Secondly, the second stage of the process required high-pressure steam to force the water up, the engine's soldered joints were capable of withstanding high pressure steam and needed frequent repair. Thirdly, although this engine used positive steam pressure to push water up out of the engine practical and safety considerations meant that in practice, to clear water from a deep mine would have needed a series of moderate-pressure engines all the way from the bottom level to the surface. Fourthly, water was pushed up into the engine only by atmospheric pressure, so the engine had to be no more than about 30 feet above the water level – requiring it to be installed and maintained far down in the dark mines all over.

Savery's original patent of July 1698 gave 14 years' protection. This Act became known as the "Fire Engine Act". Savery's patent covered all engines that raised water by fire, it thus played an important role in shaping the early development of steam machinery in the British Isles; the architect James Smith of Whitehill acquired the rights to use Savery's engine in Scotland. In 1699, he entered into an agreement with the inventor, in 1701 he secured a patent from the Parliament of Scotland, modelled on Savery's grant in England, designed to run for the same period of time. Smith described the machine as "an engine or invention for raising of water and occasioning motion of mill-work by the force of fire", he claimed to have modified it to pump from a depth of 14 fathoms, or 84 feet. In England, Savery's patent meant. By 1712, arrangements had been between the two men to develop Newcomen's more advanced design of steam engine, marketed under Savery's patent, adding water tanks and pump rods so that deeper water mines could be accessed with steam power.

Newcomen's engine worked purely by atmospheric pressure, thereby avoiding the dangers of high-pressure steam, used the piston concept invented in 1690 by the Frenchman Denis Papin to produce the first steam engine capable of raising water from deep mines. When Denis Papin was back to London in 1707, he was asked by Newton, new President of The Royal Society after Robert Boyle, Papin's friend, to work with Savery, who worked for 5 years with Papin, but never gave any credit nor revenue to the French scientist. After his death in 1715 Savery's patent and Act of Parliament became vested in a company, The Proprietors of the Invention for Raising Water by Fire; this company issued licences to others for the building and operation of Newcomen engines, charging as much as £420 per year patent royalties for the construction of steam engines. In one case a colliery paid the Proprietors £200 per year and half their net profits "in return for th

Lakota people

The Lakota are a Native American tribe. Known as the Teton Sioux, they are one of the three tribes of the Great Sioux Nation, their current lands are in South Dakota. They speak Lakȟótiyapi—the Lakota language, the westernmost of three related languages that belong to the Siouan language family; the seven bands or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are: Sičháŋǧu Oglála Itázipčho Húŋkpapȟa Mnikȟówožu Sihásapa Oóhenuŋpa Notable Lakota persons include Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake from the Húnkpapȟa band. Siouan languages speakers may have originated in the lower Mississippi River region and migrated to or originated in the Ohio Valley, they were agriculturalists and may have been part of the Mound Builder civilization during the 9th–12th centuries CE. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Dakota-Lakota speakers lived in the upper Mississippi Region in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas. Conflicts with Anishnaabe and Cree peoples pushed the Lakota west onto the Great Plains in the mid- to late-17th century.

Early Lakota history is recorded in their Winter counts, pictorial calendars painted on hides or recorded on paper. The Battiste Good winter count records Lakota history back to 900 CE, when White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Lakota people the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Around 1730, Cheyenne people introduced the Lakota to horses, called šuŋkawakaŋ. After their adoption of horse culture, Lakota society centered on the buffalo hunt on horseback; the total population of the Sioux was estimated at 28,000 by French explorers in 1660. The Lakota population was first estimated at 8,500 in 1805, growing and reaching 16,110 in 1881; the Lakota were, one of the few Native American tribes to increase in population in the 19th century. The number of Lakota has now increased to more than 170,000, of whom about 2,000 still speak the Lakota language. After 1720, the Lakota branch of the Seven Council Fires split into two major sects, the Saône who moved to the Lake Traverse area on the South Dakota–North Dakota–Minnesota border, the Oglála-Sičháŋǧu who occupied the James River valley.

However, by about 1750 the Saône had moved to the east bank of the Missouri River, followed 10 years by the Oglála and Brulé. The large and powerful Arikara and Hidatsa villages had long prevented the Lakota from crossing the Missouri. However, the great smallpox epidemic of 1772–1780 destroyed three-quarters of these tribes; the Lakota crossed the river into short-grass prairies of the High Plains. These newcomers were the Saône, well-mounted and confident, who spread out quickly. In 1765, a Saône exploring and raiding party led by Chief Standing Bear discovered the Black Hills the territory of the Cheyenne. Ten years the Oglála and Brulé crossed the river. In 1776, the Lakota defeated the Cheyenne; the Cheyenne moved west to the Powder River country, the Lakota made the Black Hills their home. Initial United States contact with the Lakota during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–1806 was marked by a standoff. Lakota bands refused to allow the explorers to continue upstream, the expedition prepared for battle, which never came.

Some bands of Lakotas became the first Indians to help the United States Army in an Indian war west of the Missouri during the Arikara War in 1823. In 1843, the southern Lakotas attacked Pawnee Chief Blue Coat's village near the Loup in Nebraska, killing many and burning half of the earth lodges. Next time the Lakotas inflicted a blow so severe on the Pawnee would be in 1873, during the Massacre Canyon battle near Republican River. Nearly half a century after Fort Laramie had been built without permission on Lakota land, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was negotiated to protect travelers on the Oregon Trail; the Cheyenne and Lakota had attacked emigrant parties in a competition for resources, because some settlers had encroached on their lands. The Fort Laramie Treaty acknowledged Lakota sovereignty over the Great Plains in exchange for free passage on the Oregon Trail for "as long as the river flows and the eagle flies"; the United States government did not enforce the treaty restriction against unauthorized settlement.

Lakota and other bands attacked settlers and emigrant trains, causing public pressure on the U. S. Army to punish the hostiles. On September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Lakota village in Nebraska, killing about 100 men and children. A series of short "wars" followed, in 1862–1864, as refugees from the "Dakota War of 1862" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory. Increasing illegal settlement after the American Civil War caused war once again; the Black Hills were considered sacred by the Lakota, they objected to mining. Between 1866 and 1868 the U. S. Army fought the Lakota and their allies along the Bozeman Trail over U. S. Forts built to protect miners traveling along the trail. Oglala Chief Red Cloud led his people to victory in Red Cloud's War. In 1868, the U

Case Construction Equipment

Case Construction Equipment is a brand of construction equipment from CNH Industrial. Case produces construction equipment including excavators, motor graders, wheel loaders, vibratory compaction rollers, crawler dozers, skid steers, compact track loaders; the origins of Case date to 1842, when Jerome Increase Case created Racine Threshing Machine Works in Racine, Wisconsin. The company produced its first portable steam engine in 1876, now on display at the Smithsonian Institution. In 1957 Case made the 320 Construction King backhoe loader. Since 1969 Case has manufactured skid steers, starting in Burlington and moving production to Wichita; the company evolved into the Case Corporation, which merged with New Holland in 1999 to become CNH Global which in 2011 became CNH Industrial. 2005: Case made its 500,000th backhoe loader and in 2010 made its 250,000th skid steer loader. 2016: Case released the new G-Series wheel loader lineup consisting of seven new models from 521G thru 1121G. 2017: In its 175th year in business, Case announced its facility in Wichita produced its 300,000th skid-steer loader.

2017: At Conexpo-Con/Agg 2017 Case released the CX750D excavator. As of May 2017, according to Trade Arabia, Case "sells a full line of construction equipment around the world, including the number one loader/backhoes, motor graders, wheel loaders, vibratory compaction rollers, crawler dozers, skid steers, compact track loaders and rough-terrain forklifts." Case was the first company to introduce the factory-integrated backhoe loader. In February 2017, Case released an upgraded T-Series backhoe loader in Europe, which meets the Stage IV/Tier 4 Final emissions regulations. In 2017, Case introduced the CX750D Excavator, the'largest and most powerful machine in the CASE excavator line' according to Construction Equipment Guide. In 2017, Case introduced six new mini excavators and its seventh C-Series model, the CX30C; the CX30C has an adjustable offset boom for better maneuvering, a zero tail swing design, an Auto-Shift travel system that improves operator comfort when moving over changing terrains.

Case sells skid-steer loaders, used on construction sites. Skid-steer loaders are small in size and engine powered with lift arms, fitted with labor-saving tools. Case skid-steer loaders are manufactured in Kansas. Case wheel loaders are used in construction and earthmoving, as well as on the farm in dairies and feedlots where it is necessary to move of large amounts of material. Case IH is CNH Industrial's global provider of agricultural equipment. CASE website

Villa MarĂ­a del Triunfo

Villa María del Triunfo is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. It located in the Cono Sur area of the city of Lima. Established as a district on December 28, 1961, the current mayor of Villa María del Triunfo is Eloy Chávez Hernández; the district has a total land area of 70.57 km². Its administrative center is located 158 meters above sea level. North: La Molina East: Pachacamac South: Villa El Salvador and Lurín West: San Juan de Miraflores According to a 2002 estimate by the INEI, the district has 329,057 inhabitants and a population density of 4662.8 persons/km². In 1999, there were 71,889 households in the district. According to Propoli: the principal economic activities in the region are timber, footwear, metalworking, tourism. Undernourishment rate is 14.76% Population without access to drinking water is 34.05% Population without electricity is 22.9% Administrative divisions of Peru Official district's web site

John Jones House (Stoneham, Massachusetts)

The John Jones House is a historic house at 1 Winthrop Street in Stoneham, Massachusetts. Built in 1874, it is a well-preserved example of a house with classic, yet modest, Italianate features; the two-story wood-frame structure is finished in clapboards, with a side-gable roof and twin interior chimneys. It has a three bay front facade, with bay windows flanking a center entry, sheltered by a porch connected to the bay roofs. John Jones, the first owner, was a shoemaker; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. National Register of Historic Places listings in Stoneham, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Middlesex County, Massachusetts

Thomas Franklin Fairfax Millard

Thomas Franklin Fairfax Millard was an American journalist, newspaper editor, founder of the China Weekly Review, author of seven influential books on the Far East and first American political adviser to the Chinese Republic, serving for over fifteen years. Millard was "the founding father of American journalism in China", "the dean of American newspapermen in the Orient," who "probably has had a greater influence on contemporary newspaper journalism than any other American journalist in China.” Millard was a war correspondent for the New York Herald during the Spanish–American War, the Boer War, the Boxer Uprising, the Russo-Japanese War and the Second Sino-Japanese War. Millard was the Shanghai correspondent for The New York Times from 1925. Millard was involved in the Twain-Ament Indemnities Controversy, supporting the attacks of Mark Twain on American missionary William Scott Ament. Thomas Franklin Fairfax Millard was born in Rolla, Missouri on July 8, 1868, the son of Tennesseans Alvin Marion Millard, a merchant, his wife Elizabeth E. Smith.

By 1870 Millard was living at Texas County, Missouri with his parents. Millard attended the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy at Rolla, from 1878 to 1882, the University of Missouri from 1884, during the presidency of The Rev. Dr. Samuel Spahr Laws. Millard was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity, graduated in 1888. In June 1929 Millard received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Missouri. Millard received the Order of the Jade from the Chinese government. In 1895 Millard began his career in journalism at the St. Louis Republic, "the oldest newspaper west of the Mississippi River, which carried the slogan "America's Foremost Democratic Newspaper" on its masthead". Millard was dismissed from this position due to "a characteristic fit of stubbornness" for refusing to cover a fire. After his termination at the St. Louis Republic, Millard became as a drama critic for the New York Herald in 1897. Millard was war correspondent for The New York Herald during the five-week Greco-Turkish War, which ended with a victory for Turkey on May 21, 1897.

Millard covered the Spanish–American War in Puerto Rico, reporting on the capture of Cuomo in August 1898. While covering the war in Cuba, Millard's interview with American Major General William Shafter after his deportation of fellow correspondent Henry Sylvester "Harry" Scovel of the New York World for disobeying a military order, resulted in Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, firing Scovel. During his time in Cuba, Millard helped feed the starving New York Herald sketch artist and realist painter William Glackens. Millard reported on hostilities in Central America for the New York Herald. Millard covered the Second Boer War by accompanying the Boer forces for both "The New York Herald" and the London Daily Mail. Millard was able to interview Boer commandant general Louis Botha in July 1900 after the fall of Pretoria, in which Botha criticised State President of the South African Republic Paul Kruger and the War Office for their conduct of the war. Millard's writings on the Afrikaner struggle his dispatches criticizing British colonialists and glorifying their enemy, so enraged the British commander Lord Kitchener, that Millard was deported from the country before the cessation of hostilities.

Millard was among the war correspondents. Millard covered the Boxer Uprising in 1900 for the New York Herald. In the aftermath of the Uprising, Millard denounced the Allied Powers and their insistence on punitive indemnities. "Seized with a vertigo of indiscriminating vengeance," in 1901 he wrote the powers are trifling with the peace of the world. Events such as the months of September and November brought to China have carried war back to the Dark Ages, will leave a taint in the moral atmosphere of the world for a generation to come. In January 1901 Millard supported fellow anti-imperialist Mark Twain in his controversy with American Congregationalist missionary to China, William Scott Ament over the collection of indemnities from Chinese subjects. In 1901, Millard toured the United States with American pioneer cinematographer C. Fred Ackerman of the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company presenting an illustrated propagandist lecture "War in China", which included both lantern slides and films shot during the Boxer Uprising by Ackerman.

In 1904 Millard was in Manchuria reporting the Russo-Japanese War. In his reports, Millard "provided some of the most accurate insights into the changing nature of modern war." While Millard spent most of the war with the Russian forces in Manchuria, was allowed in the battle zone, "his initial sympathy for the Russians did not deter his recognition of the superior adaptation of modern techniques by the Japanese forces." After the conclusion of the Russo-Japanese War, Millard was able to travel to Korea, where he reported on the Japanese occupation of Korea. In 1907 Millard visited the Philippine Islands. One of the issues Millard reported on was the Moro Rebellion. In