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Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley

Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, KG was a brother of Jane Seymour, the third wife of King Henry VIII. With his brother, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector of England, he vied for control of their nephew, the young King Edward VI. In 1547 Seymour became the fourth husband of Catherine Parr, the sixth and last wife and queen of Henry VIII. During his marriage to Catherine Parr, Seymour involved the future Queen Elizabeth I, who resided in his household, in flirtatious and sexual behaviour. Thomas Seymour was the son of Sir John Margaret Wentworth, he was the younger brother of 1st Duke of Somerset. He grew up at the Seymour family home, in Wiltshire, a county in southwest England; the Seymours were a family of country gentry, like most holders of manorial rights, traced their ancestry to a Norman origin. Because Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, did not have a son, his interests turned elsewhere, to Thomas Seymour's sister Jane, one of Anne's ladies in waiting.

Henry married Jane eleven days after Anne's execution in May 1536, the Seymour brothers saw their fortunes rise, as they became part of the royal family. In October of the following year, Jane gave birth to a son, Edward Tudor, who would become King Edward VI, her two brothers and Thomas, were therefore uncles to the baby Edward, heir to the throne. Less than two weeks Queen Jane died from complications related to childbirth. Thomas Seymour's other royal connection was with Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's sixth wife, whom Seymour would marry, after Henry's death. In 1543 Catherine Parr established herself as part of Princess Mary's household, where she caught the attention of the King. Although she had begun a romantic relationship with Thomas Seymour, she saw it as her duty to accept Henry's proposal. In 1538, Thomas Seymour was sent to the embassy at the French court, he was one of those appointed to meet Anne of Cleves, King Henry's fourth wife, at Calais on 13 December 1539. A few weeks he was sent to King Ferdinand I of Hungary, brother of Emperor Charles V, to enlist support for Henry against France and Scotland.

He arrived at Vienna in July, remained there two years. In May 1543, he was appointed ambassador to the Habsburg court in Brussels, he was given this posting to remove him from King Henry's court, for the King's marriage to Catherine Parr. War breaking out between England and France, Seymour was made marshal of the English army in the Netherlands on 26 June, being second in command to Sir John Wallop. On 24 July 1543, with a strong detachment, he captured and destroyed the castles of Rinquecen and Arbrittayne near the French city of Boulogne. For a short time, he held the chief command during Wallop's illness. Due to his position of privilege as a royal uncle and as a reward for his services, Thomas was made Master-General of the Ordnance in 1544 and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1545, both senior military positions, he returned to court just before King Henry VIII died in January 1547, leaving Catherine one of the wealthiest women in England. According to the King's will, a regency council was constituted to rule on behalf of the 9-year-old orphaned King Edward.

Thomas Seymour became 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley. Edward became Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, is therefore, referred to as "Somerset". In addition, Thomas Seymour saw his brother rise, in the contentious and dangerous politics of the English Reformation, to the position of chief councillor with an approved title of "Protector" regent, referred to unofficially as Lord Protector of England, in effect, ruler of the realm as Regent for his nephew, the king. Thomas Seymour, began to resent his brother and the relationship between them began to dissolve. Although Thomas Seymour was named Lord High Admiral as a concession, he was consumed by jealousy of his brother's power and influence and worked to unseat and replace his brother as Lord Protector. Thomas Seymour sought to over-turn his brother's position on the regency council by his personal influence over the young king, possibly, by making a royal marriage. Although his name had been linked to Mary Howard, Duchess of Richmond, he was still unmarried at the time of the King's death.

He had shown some interest in marrying either of Henry's daughters, Elizabeth or Mary. Anne Stanhope, Somerset's proud wife, disliked Catherine and Thomas and began to turn many people in court against them. To demonstrate her hatred, Anne kept the Queen's jewels. In turn, Catherine was annoyed at the appointment of Edward Seymour as Protector regent, since as King Edward's stepmother, she had expected to be appointed regent.. Upon their marriage, Seymour moved into his wife's house, at Chelsea Manor in London, where she lived with her step-daughter, the 14-year-old Elizabeth. Seymour was the uncle of Elizabeth's half-brother, the newly wed husband of her step-mother, their family roles regarding each other were unclear. Now, living under the same roof as Elizabeth, Thomas Seymour became more than a little familiar, if not intimate, with Elizabeth, indulging in daily romps with her, tickling her, slapping her on her behind as she lay in her bed, or coming into her room in his nightclothes, her governess, Kat Ashley, thought this scandalous, reported it to Catherine.

Indignant, Seymour retorted,'By God's precious soul, I mean no evil

Nampohang Line

The Namp'ohang Line, or Namp'o Port Line, is an electrified secondary railway line of the Korean State Railway in Namp'o Special City, North Korea, from Sinnamp'o on the P'yŏngnam Line to Namp'ohang. The line was opened by the Korean State Railway after the end of the Korean War to serve glass factories and shipbuilders located in the area; this line serves Namp' o Port. Steel and other products are received by rail. Located on this line is the Namp'o Glass Bottle Factory, a petroleum storage tank farm, the Ch'ŏnji Lubricant Factory, the Pyeonghwa Motors factory. A yellow background in the "Distance" box indicates that section of the line is not electrified


Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides. In such molecules the isomer of the inositol group is assumed to be the myo- conformer unless otherwise stated. Phosphatidylinositols form a minor component on the cytosolic side of eukaryotic cell membranes; the phosphate group gives the molecules a negative charge at physiological pH. The form of phosphatidylinositol comprising the isomer muco-inositol acts as a sensory receptor in the taste function of the sensory system. In this context it is referred to as PtdIns, but that does not imply any molecular difference from phosphatidylinositols comprising the myo- conformers of inositol; the phosphatidylinositol can be phosphorylated to form phosphatidylinositol phosphate, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate. All lipids based on phosphatidylinositol are known as inositides, or sometimes phosphoinositides; the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the laboratory is catalyzed by phosphatidylinositol synthase and involves CDP-diacylglycerol and L-myo-inositol.

PI has a non-polar region, making the lipid an amphiphile. Phosphatidylinositol is classified as a glycerophospholipid that contains a glycerol backbone, two non-polar fatty acid tails, a phosphate group substituted with an inositol polar head group; the most common fatty acids of phosphoinositides are stearic acid in the SN1 position and arachidonic acid, in the SN2 position. Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides yield one mole of glycerol, two moles of fatty acids, one mole of inositol and one, two, or three moles of phosphoric acids, depending on the number of phosphates on the inositol rings. Phosphoinositides are regarded as the most acidic phospholipids; the specific fatty acids of PtdIns, their conformation, employed in the sensory neurons has not been elucidated. Phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol are called phosphoinositides and play important roles in lipid signaling, cell signaling and membrane trafficking; the inositol ring can be phosphorylated by a variety of kinases on the three and five hydroxyl groups in seven different combinations.

However, the two and six hydroxyl groups are not phosphorylated due to steric hindrance. All seven variations of the following phosphoinositides have been found in animals: Phosphatidylinositol monophosphates: Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate known as PtdIns3P or PIP Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate known as PtdIns4P or PIP Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate known as PtdIns5P or PIPPhosphatidylinositol bisphosphates: Phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate known as PtdInsP2 or PIP2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate known as PtdInsP2 or PIP2 Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate known as PtdInsP2, PIP2 or simply referred to as PIP2Phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate: Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate known as PtdInsP3 or PIP3These phosphoinositides are found in plant cells, with the exception of PIP3. PI 3-kinase Inositol phosphate Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate Phosphatidylinositol -bisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol -bisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol -bisphosphate Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Phosphatidylinositol -trisphosphate inositol pentakisphosphate inositol hexaphosphate inositol triphosphate receptor Phosphatidylinositols at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Phosphatidylinositol at Lipid Library

Eberhard Freitag

Eberhard Freitag is a German mathematician, specializing in complex analysis and modular forms. Freitag studied from 1961 mathematics and astronomy at Heidelberg University, where he received in 1964 his Diplom and in 1966 his Ph. D. supervised by Hans Maaß, with thesis Modulformen zweiten Grades zum rationalen und Gaußschen Zahlkörper, published in Sitzungsberichte Heidelberger Akad. Wiss. 1967. From 1964 he was a research assistant at the Mathematischen Institut in Heidelberg, where he received at the end of 1969 his habilitation and became there a Privatdozent and in 1970 a scientific advisor. In 1970–1971 he was a visiting professor at Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main. In 1973 he became a professor ordinarius at the University of Mainz. In 1977 he became a professor ordinarius at Heidelberg University, where from 1991 to 1993 he was the dean of the Faculty of Mathematics. Freitag's research deals with the theory of modular forms, but approaches modular forms via algebraic geometry.

Among other work, Freitag described this theory in two monographs published by Springer Verlag in Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften. These two books and the first volume of his series on function theory are standard references. In 1974 in Vancouver he was an Invited Speaker of the ICM with talk Singularitäten von Modulmannigfaltigkeiten und Körper Automorpher Funktionen. In 1998 he proved with Rainer Weissauer and Richard Borcherds the existence of a Siegel cusp form of degree 12 and weight 12 using the theta series associated with the 24 Niemeier lattices of dimension 24. Freitag demonstrated that the Siegel modular variety Ag is of general type when g = 8. With Rolf Busam: Funktionentheorie 1. Springer-Verlag, 1993, 4th edition 2006, ISBN 3540317643, Complex Analysis, 2006, Eng. trans. of 4th edition Funktionentheorie 2: Riemannsche Flächen, Mehrere komplexe Variable, Abelsche Funktionen, Höhere Modulformen, Springer-Verlag, 2009 Hilbert Modular Forms. Springer-Verlag, Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, 1990, ISBN 978-3540505860 2013 reprint Singular Modular Forms and Theta Relations.

In: Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Vol. 1487, Springer-Verlag, 1991, ISBN 3540547045 with Reinhardt Kiehl: Etale Cohomology and the Weil Conjecture, Springer Verlag, 1988, ISBN 978-0387121758 Siegelsche Modulfunktionen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1983, Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften vol. 254, ISBN 978-3540116615 Dagmar Drüll Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon 1933-1986, Springer 2009 Freitag's homepage at the University of Heidelberg List of reprints and preprints of some papers by Eberhard Freitag, University of Heidelberg

Iran–South Korea relations

Iran and South Korea have had diplomatic relations since 1962. Throughout history, the two countries have maintained a strong and strategic partnership despite Iran's close relationship with North Korea, South Korea's close relationship with the United States. Western countries including the US are concerned about South Korea selling strategic materials to Iran through illegal channels. In fact, Iran is one of the only countries in the world that has a good relationship with both North Korea and South Korea; the big friendship between Korea and Iran is referred as "Korea-Iran One Heart One Soul". Korea's and Iran's long-running relationship started with cultural exchanges date back to the Three Kingdoms of Korea era, more than 1600 years ago by the way of the Silk Road. A dark blue glass found in the Cheonmachong Tomb, one of Silla's royal tombs unearthed in Gyeongju. An exotic golden sword found in Gyerim-ro, a street located in Gyeongju; these are all relics that are presumed to be sent to Silla from ancient Iran or Persia through the Silk Road.

It was only the Koryeo Dynasty during King HyeonJong's reign when trade with Persia was recorded in Korean history. But in academic circles, it is presumed that both countries had active cultural exchanges during the 7th century Silla era which means the relationship between Korea and Iran began more than 1500 years ago."If a history book written by the Persian scholar Khurdadbid, it states that Silla is located at the eastern end of China and reads'In this beautiful country Silla, there is much gold, majestetic cities and hardworking people. Their culture is comparable with Persia'.“We have a myth in an ancient Persian book that tells of a Persian prince who went to Silla in the seventh century and got married with a Korean princess, thus forming a royal marriage.” Park Geun-hye said during a Festival celebrating Iran and Korea’s 1500’s years of shared cultural ties. She said, “this is quite a good plot for making a film together.” Her suggestion was received with a lot of applause. Other items uncovered during the excavation include a silver bowl engraved with an image of the Persian goddess Anahita.

Samguk Sagi—the official chronicle of the Three Kingdoms era, compiled in 1145—contains further descriptions of commercial items sold by Middle Eastern merchants and used in Silla society. The influence of Persian culture was profoundly felt in other ways as well, most notably in the fields of music, visual arts, literature; the popularity of Iranian designs in Korea can be seen in the widespread use of pearl-studded roundels and symmetrical, zoomorphic patterns. An ancient Persian epic poem, the Kushnameh, contains detailed descriptions of Silla. South Korea and Iran established relations on 1962 August. In June 2007, South Korea’s then-foreign minister, Song Min-soon, supported a diplomatic solution to the international disagreement over Iran’s nuclear program. In November 2008, South Korea’s next foreign minister, Yu Myung-hwan, said that Iran needs to reassure the international community of the peaceful nature of its nuclear program. According to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, a South Korean, "the Iranian foreign minister stressed that his country is pushing for a nuclear program for peaceful purposes.”

Iran and South Korea enjoy strong economic ties with bilateral trade totaling $10 billion in 2008. Despite disagreements over Iran’s nuclear enrichment activity, Vice President of the Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency Hong Ki-Wha and the head of Iran’s Investment and Technical and Economic Assistances Organization, Mohammad Khaza’i, signed a memorandum of understanding in April 2007, in which they agreed to form a committee with the aim of boosting trade between their two countries. Kim Sung Gun, South Korea’s parliamentary delegation head to Iran in March 2007 noted that Korean companies are eager to invest in Iran and added that he hopes the two countries can encourage bilateral investment. According to a Middle East Economic Survey, Iran exported 157,000 barrels of crude oil per day to South Korea in July 2009. Though South Korea has decreased total crude oil imports from the Middle East by 14.7% compared to the previous year, Iran remains South Korea’s fourth largest source of crude oil.

In May 2009, South Korean ministers participated in a major conference on foreign investment in Iran. South Korea attended the Iranian gas forum on September 26–27, 2009 alongside Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Malaysia. According to a report by the United States government, as of April 2010 there were three South Korean firms active in Iran’s hydrocarbon sector between 2005 and 2009 that received US government contracts totaling $880 million; these were the Daelim Industrial Company, Hyundai Heavy Industries, GS Engineering and Construction. On July 3, 2010, Iran the National Iranian Oil Company cancelled a $1.2 billion contract with GS Engineering and Construction, accusing the firm of failing to fulfill its obligations. The South Korean company had been tasked with removing hydrogen sulfide from gas pumped from Iran’s South Pars gas field after signing an agreement in October 2009. Iran has about local 2,500 SME trading partners in South Korea, it said that more than 600 out of the 2,500 firms see their ratio of exports to Iran exceed 50 percent.

South Korea and Iran have continuously disagreed on the latter’s nuclear enrichment activities. In January 2007, Ban Ki-Moon, South Korea’s former foreign minister, assumed the position of UN Secretary General. Since assuming office, Ban has supported a

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1578

United Nations Security Council resolution 1578, adopted unanimously on 15 December 2004, after considering a report by the Secretary-General Kofi Annan regarding the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, the Council extended its mandate for a further six months until 30 June 2005. The resolution called upon the parties concerned to implement Resolution 338 and requested that the Secretary-General submit a report on the situation at the end of that period; the Secretary-General's report pursuant to the previous resolution on UNDOF said that the situation between Israel and Syria had remained quiet, though the situation in the Middle East as a whole remained dangerous until a settlement could be reached. Arab–Israeli conflict Golan Heights Israel–Syria relations List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1501 to 1600 2000–2006 Shebaa Farms conflict Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1578 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at