William Jackson (secretary)
William Jackson was a figure in the American Revolution, most noteworthy as the secretary to the United States Constitutional Convention. He served with distinction in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. After the war he served as one of President George Washington's personal secretaries. Born in the county of Cumberland, Jackson was sent to Charleston in South Carolina after the death of his parents, he was raised by a family friend and prominent merchant, Owen Roberts, the commander of a militia battalion. After the war broke out in 1775, Roberts joined the Patriot side, the teenaged Jackson followed. In May 1776 Jackson was commissioned as a second lieutenant. Jackson first saw action near Charleston in June 1776, when his regiment fought off General Sir Henry Clinton's attempted attack on Fort Sullivan; the unit spent a long period garrisoning the city of Charleston, during which Charles Cotesworth Pinckney assumed command of the 1st South Carolina. Late in 1777, Jackson was part of the detachment that made an ill-conceived and worse conducted expedition against St. Augustine in British East Florida under Major-General Robert Howe.
The expedition was a colossal failure, the American force was struck down by disease. Jackson survived, returned to South Carolina in 1778. After the return from Florida, the Southern regiments were placed under the command of Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, from Massachusetts. Pinckney convinced Lincoln that as a Northerner, he needed an aide to assist him in relating to his Southern troops. Jackson was temporarily promoted to the rank of major; as Lincoln's aide he saw action in the Battle of Stono Ferry and the Siege of Savannah in 1779. In 1780 General Lincoln surrendered his troops after the lengthy Siege of Charleston; as a captured officer, Jackson was shipped to Philadelphia held by the British. After a few months he was returned to the Continental Army in an exchange of prisoners. A skilled staff officer, Jackson was assigned to General Washington's staff, serving as secretary to the general's aide John Laurens, son of Henry Laurens of South Carolina; when Laurens was sent to France in 1781 armed with a Memorial written by George Washington outlining why a sizable loan was needed, he took Jackson, like Laurens, had a good command of French, with them at his own expense went Thomas Paine.
Upon their arrival at Versailles, for six weeks they dealt unsuccessfully with Foreign Affairs Minister Vergennes, a longtime diplomat who wanted England tied up in an American war but knew the precarious situation of France's own finances. Against Franklin's advice, direct contact was made with the King and Washington's Memorial handed to him; the following day the King had directed Jacques Necker, to meet with them. The loan was made, the bulk of it for military supplies, 3 million of it in gold specie, the promise that France would underwrite with Dutch agents a loan for 10 million should it be needed. Purchases began, by early May Laurens sailed with 3 ships and Jackson went to Holland where John Adams had contracted with a Captain for the 4th ship; that ship vanished, either because Adams had been deceived about the honesty of the Captain or because the British Navy, with orders to hunt down all 4 ships, had sunk it. The 3 ships, after 3 months of scooting about the ocean, arrived in Boston in early September.
Jackson himself returned to the United States in February 1782, was assistant secretary of war to Benjamin Lincoln. The Confederation's Department of War, like the British, was a financial liaison with the Army. In October 1783, he resigned his office, his commission, to become Robert Morris's agent in England; as an impoverished law student, in 1787, Jackson wrote to Washington applying for the post as secretary to the Philadelphia Convention. On the Convention's first day of business, May 25, 1787, Alexander Hamilton nominated Jackson to the post, the delegates chose him over William Temple Franklin, Benjamin Franklin's grandson, despite the latter's experience serving as his grandfather's secretary during the Treaty of Paris negotiations; as the Convention secretary, Jackson had a number of duties, including maintaining the secrecy of the Convention's proceedings, keeping official minutes, destroying many of the proceedings' other records. He signed the document "Attest William Jackson Secretary" to attest to the delegates' signing.
With his signature Jackson became the fortieth signer of the U. S. Constitution. Jackson was sent to the Congress of the Confederation, assembled in New York City, with a copy of the Constitution, was honored to read it out to the Congress just days after the signing, on September 20, 1787. Major Jackson was admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar in 1788, but in those days, he had to wait two years to practice before the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the most lucrative branch of the law, he applied to be secretary of the United States Senate. He applied to be personal secretary to George Washington, now first President of the United States, writing that he had unpaid expenses as a Continental officer, that business was "not congenial to temper." He resigned in 1791 to restart his law practice, work as agent for William Bingham and Henry Knox, who were selling off a large land grant in Ma
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
William Bingham was an American statesman from Philadelphia. He was a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788 and served in the United States Senate from 1795 to 1801. William Bingham was born on March 1752 in Philadelphia, he graduated from the College of Philadelphia in 1768. Bingham first travelled to Europe in 1773, upon returning to America joined the Philadelphia Society. Sent by the Committee of Secret Correspondence to Martinico, to reside ostensibly as a merchant, establish communications through that colony with Silas Deane, the committee's agent in France, he departed America aboard the frigate Reprisal on July 3, 1776. During his voyages, he established links with French merchants at Martinique, captured several British ships, returned in 1777 to America with several full loads of munitions and other vital goods necessary for the fighting of a war. By the end of the American Revolution, Bingham was regarded as one of the richest men in Pennsylvania, having made his fortune through joint ownership of privateers and trading.
He became a major land developer, purchasing lands in upstate New York and 2 million acres in Maine known as the Bingham Purchase. With his son-in-law Alexander Baring, he helped broker the Louisiana Purchase, he was the first president of the Company of the Lancaster and Turnpike Road. Bingham was director of several other enterprises, he maintained shipping ventures after the Revolutionary war, through his mercantile house called "Bingham and Gilmore". He was a leading member of the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures and Useful Arts, donating a Philadelphia property to be converted into a textile factory. During the 1780s, Bingham marshaled the Second Troop of Philadelphia Light Horse, an outfit of 50 dragoons, they saw little action. William Jackson was first major and became Bingham's land agent. Bingham escorted President-elect George Washington through Pennsylvania with his troop on his April 1789 journey from Valley Forge to New York City to assume the presidency.
During the provisional government of the United States at Philadelphia, he wrote the by-laws for the national Bank of North America. He saw the national debt as beneficial in that it attracted interest into the affairs of the government. During the first presidency, Treasurer Alexander Hamilton sought Bingham as his mentor in managing taxes, in constructing a national bank. In America, he represented Pennsylvania as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788. In 1790 and 1791 he was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, serving as its first speaker in 1791, he oversaw development of the land during a fledgling period of America as a member of the Society of Roads and Inland Navigation, where he worked with Albert Gallatin of western Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1793 through 1794, he built roads and a bridge from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania called the Lancaster Pike. By 1795, he was elected to the United States Senate where he served as a Federalist and Nationalist while it was at Philadelphia, but he left for England in 1801 when his wife had taken ill.
He was an active supporter of John Adams and when Adams was elected President, Bingham served as the Senate's President pro tempore in the Fourth Congress. On March 4, 1797, with the start of the Fifth Congress he administered the oath of office to Vice President Thomas Jefferson, he was criticized by Jeffersonian politicians for "extravagance and dissipation". In 1813, nearly ten years after his death, John Quincy Adams said that the Presidency, the Capital and the Country had been governed by Bingham and his family connections; the several Bingham estates were renowned for hosting many prominent aristocrats from Europe as well as Federalist meetings. At the Bingham estate, Federalists agreed to hold preliminary votings before propositions were brought before Congress publicly, thus creating unanimity among party lines, he was a land surveyor, looked to develop areas a part of Southern New York, Northern Pennsylvania. One of his prime prospects was at the confluence of the Chenango Susquehanna River.
Judge Joshua Whitney Jr. settler and Bingham's agent, called this town Binghamton to honor him. Furthermore, Binghamton's resident university Binghamton University recognizes Bingham through the naming of Bingham Hall, he married Anne Willing, daughter of Thomas Willing, President of the First Bank of the United States, they had two daughters and a son. Ann Louisa Bingham. In 1798, she married 1st Baron Ashburton, they were the parents of nine children. Maria Matilda Bingham. At the age of 15, she was married to a French aristocrat, Jacques Alexandre, Comte de Tilly. Afterwards she married Henry Baring, they were the parents of five children. Maria and Henry were divorced in 1824. William Bingham. In 1822, he married Marie-Charlotte Chartier de Seigneuresse de Rigaud, she was the second of the three daughters and heiresses of Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain Chartier de Lotbinière, by his second wife Mary, daughter of Captain John Munro. They lived in Montreal and London. William Bingham settled in England and died in Kent in 1852.
Although his wife and two daughters factored prominently in the social affairs of American politics, Bingham's wife Ann died while his only son William was one year old. William Sr. left William Jr. to grow up in America with his
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Bank of North America
The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted on May 26, 1781, by the Confederation Congress, opened in Philadelphia on January 7, 1782. It was based upon a plan presented by US Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris on May 17, 1781 that created the Nation's first de facto central bank; when shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It was succeeded in its role as central bank by the First Bank of the United States in 1791. In May 1781 Alexander Hamilton revealed that he had recommended Morris for the position the previous summer when the constitution of the executive was being solidified. Second, he proceeded to lay out a proposal for a national bank. Morris, who had corresponded with Hamilton on the subject of funding the war drafted a legislative proposal based on Hamilton's suggestion and submitted it to the Congress. Morris persuaded Congress to charter the Bank of North America, the first private commercial bank in the United States.
When Robert Morris became superintendent of finance in February 1781, continental currency had ceased to be issued. On April 30, 1781, Alexander Hamilton sent Morris a letter; the original charter called for the disbursement of 1,000 shares priced at $400 each. Benjamin Franklin purchased one share for 0.1% ownership as a sign of good faith to Federalists and the new bank and Hamilton made public endorsement of the establishment under his pseudonym. William Bingham's first daughter, Ann Louisa Baring, was born the day before the bank opened, her father purchased 9.5% of the shares for himself. She was the granddaughter of Thomas Willing, a primary shareholder and the original President of the bank offices at Philadelphia. Using a gift/loan from France, Robert Morris purchased 63.3% of the original shares for the government. Robert Morris deposited large quantities of gold and silver coin and bills of exchange obtained through loans from the Netherlands and France, he issued new paper currency backed by this supply.
By 1783, Congress and several states including Massachusetts enacted legislation, allowing Americans to pay taxes with Bank of North America certificates. Within three years, the Bank was considered a creditworthy institution. After a change of party in Pennsylvania's legislature in 1786 the Bank of North America was re-chartered within the Commonwealth in 1787, but under more restrictive conditions that would hinder it from performing its intended role as a central bank. Thomas Willing was appointed its first president on November 2, 1781 until he was appointed to the First Bank of the United States as one of its original three commissioners on March 19, 1791. John Nixon was the first director of the Bank of Pennsylvania. Morris subscribed £10,000 sterling to fund it, it was not a bank in the ordinary sense but an organization formed for the purpose of financing supplies for the army. In 1782, the Bank of North America superseded the Bank of Pennsylvania. Serving from 1792 to 1808, Nixon succeeded the first president of the Bank of North America, Thomas Willing, who went on to become the first president of the First Bank of the United States.
Nixon was in turn succeeded by John Morton, who served as President until 1822. William Frederick Havemeyer was its president from 1851 to 1861 and brought it through the crisis of 1857. After it had become a National Bank in 1865, a president of the same name presided over its liquidation in 1908; the Bank of Pennsylvania was re-established in 1793, with a charter from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, opened branches in Pittsburgh, Lancaster and Easton. The original branch of the Bank of Pennsylvania remained in business in Pennsylvania through the 19th and 20th centuries under a variety of other names including First Pennsylvania Bank and, before its acquisition by Wells Fargo, as Wachovia, First Union Bank and CoreStates. Wachovia operated a branch at the northwest corner of S. 6th and Chestnut Sts. in Philadelphia, diagonally opposite Independence Hall, the original site of the Bank of North America. This branch is the longest continuously operating branch bank in the States, operating in that location since 1781.
Following Wells Fargo's acquisition of Wachovia, Wells Fargo adopted PNB's charter, in part because it was the first national bank charter issued. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange; the Bank of North America opened a Canadian affiliate in Montreal, Lower Canada on March 8, 1837. Congressional charter First Union Corporation The Bank of North America, Philadelphia, a National Bank, Founded 1781: The Story of Its Progress through the Last Quarter of a Century, 1881–1906, by Robert Grier Cooke Incorporated. Debates and Proceedings of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, on the Memorials Praying a Repeal of Suspension of the Law Annulling the Charter of the Bank. A History of the Bank of North America, the First Bank Chartered in the United States, by Lawrence Lewis, Jr.. Legislative and Documentary History of the Bank of the United States: Including the Original Bank of North America, by Matthew St. Clair Clarke and David A. Hall.
This collection of documents was aimed to include the entire proceedings and resolutions of Congress relating to the Bank of North America, the First Bank of the United States, the Second Bank of the United States. These documents were compiled four years before the closing of the Second Bank. Legislative and Doc
Mary Willing Byrd
Mary Willing Byrd was the second wife of Colonel William Byrd III, a Colonial American military officer at the time of the American Revolution and son of the founder of Richmond, Virginia. Her father, Charles Willing, was the mayor of Philadelphia from 1748 to 1754, her great-grandfather, Edward Shippen, was the second mayor of Philadelphia, from 1701 to 1703. In 2007 Byrd was posthumously honored by the Library of Virginia's "Virginia Women in History" program, her husband committed suicide in January 1777. She managed his plantations, including Westover Plantation, in Charles City County, in order to satisfy his creditors and still preserve some property for their ten children to inherit, she sold off some western lands, residences in Richmond and Williamsburg, other property, but she was able to retain control of Westover, the major Byrd plantation in Charles City County. Although Byrd had many ties to the British and Loyalists during the American Revolution, she tried to remain neutral. After trying to recover property, seized by the British, she was charged in 1781 by the state of Virginia with trading with the enemy.
Byrd defended herself eloquently in a letter to Governor Thomas Jefferson: "I wish well to all mankind, to America in particular. What am I but an American? All my friends and connexions are in America, her trial was first postponed and never held. Mary Willing Byrd had ten children: Maria Horsmanden Byrd Evelyn Taylor Byrd Charles Willing Byrd Abby Byrd Anne Willing Byrd William Boyd Byrd Charles Willing Byrd Dorothy Byrd Jane Byrd Richard Willing Byrd. John T. Kneebone et al. eds. Dictionary of Virginia Biography, 2:457-459. ISBN 0-88490-199-8. "The Will of Mrs. Mary Willing Byrd, of Westover, 1813, with a List of the Westover Portraits"; the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 6: 346–358. 1899. JSTOR 4242183. Westover Plantation Mary Willing Byrd at Find a Grave Sale of property by Mary Willing Byrd Thomas Jefferson, letter to Mary Willing Byrd, October 24, 1779 Mary Willing Byrd, portrait by John Wollaston
John Brown Francis
John Brown Francis was a governor and United States Senator from Rhode Island. John Brown Francis was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on May 31, 1791, son of John Francis and Abigail Brown. Francis' grandfather, John Brown, was a U. S. Representative from Rhode Island and a member of the family for whom Brown University was named, he attended the common schools of Providence, Rhode Island and graduated from Brown University in 1808. He engaged in mercantile pursuits, attended the Litchfield Law School, was admitted to the bar but never practiced. Francis was a member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives from 1821 to 1829 and a member of the board of trustees of Brown University from 1828 to 1857, he was a member of the Rhode Island Senate in 1831 and 1842, was the 13th Governor of Rhode Island from 1833 to 1838. From 1841 to 1854, Francis was chancellor of Brown University. S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Sprague and served from January 25, 1844, to March 4, 1845.
He was not a candidate for reelection. Francis was a member of the Rhode Island Senate from 1845 to 1856, retired from public life and engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death at "Spring Green," Warwick, Rhode Island, in 1864. In 1822, he married Anne Carter Brown, daughter of Nicholas Brown, Jr. and granddaughter of Nicholas Brown, Sr.. Before her death in 1828, they had: Abby Francis, who died unmarried John Francis, who died an infant Anne Brown Francis, who married Marshall Woods, son of Alva Woods and Almira Marshall, in 1848. In 1832, he married his cousin, Elizabeth Francis, widow of Henry Harrison and daughter of Thomas Willing Francis and Dorothy Willing. Together, they had: Elizabeth Francis, who did not have children Sally Francis, who did not have children Sophia H. Francis, who married George William Adams, son of Seth Adams and Sarah Bigelow, in 1860, who did not have children John Brown Francis, who did not have childrenOn August 9, 1864, John Brown Francis, aged 73, died in Warwick, Rhode Island.
Notes SourcesUnited States Congress. "John Brown Francis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John Brown Francis at Find a Grave United States Congress. "John Brown Francis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress