Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. The largest pulmonary artery is the main pulmonary artery. Or pulmonary trunk from the heart, the smallest ones are the arterioles, which lead to the capillaries that surround the pulmonary alveoli. In order of blood flow, the pulmonary arteries start as the pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery; the main pulmonary artery begins at the base of the right ventricle. It is wide -- 5 centimetres in length and 3 centimetres in diameter; the main pulmonary artery splits into the left main pulmonary artery. The left main pulmonary artery is shorter and somewhat smaller than the right, passes horizontally in front of the descending aorta and left bronchus to the root of the left lung. Above, the left main pulmonary artery is connected to the concavity of the proximal descending aorta by the ligamentum arteriosum, it divides into two lobar arteries, one for each lobe of the left lung.
The right main pulmonary artery follows a longer and more horizontal course as it crosses the mediastinum. It passes underneath the aortic arch, behind the ascending aorta, in front of the descending aorta, it courses posterior in front of the right bronchus. Upon reaching the hilum of the right lung the right main pulmonary artery divides into two branches: truncus anterior — supplies blood to the right upper lobe interlobar artery — inferior and larger branch, supplies blood to the middle and inferior lobes of the lung The right and left main pulmonary arteries give off branches that correspond to the lung lobes and can in such cases be termed lobar arteries; the lobar arteries branch into segmental arteries, which in turn branch into subsegmental pulmonary arteries. These form intralobular arteries; the pulmonary arteries originate from the sixth pharyngeal arch. The truncus arteriosis is a structure that forms during the development of the heart as a successor to the conus arteriosus. By the third week of development, the endocardial tubes have developed a swelling in the part closest to the heart.
The swelling is known as the bulbus cordis and the upper part of this swelling develops into the truncus arteriosus The structure is mesodermal in origin. During development of the heart, the heart tissues undergo folding, the truncus arteriosus is exposed to what will be both the left and right ventricles; as a septum develops between the two ventricles of the heart, two bulges form on either side of the truncus arteriosus. These progressively enlarge until the trunk splits into pulmonary arteries. During early development, the ductus arteriosis connects the pulmonary trunk and the aortic arch, allowing blood to bypass the lungs; the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. The blood here passes through capillaries adjacent to alveoli and becomes oxygenated as part of the process of respiration. In contrast to the pulmonary arteries, the bronchial arteries supply nutrition to the lungs themselves; the pulmonary artery pressure is a measure of the blood pressure found in the main pulmonary artery.
This is measured by inserting a catheter into the main pulmonary artery. The mean pressure is 9 - 18 mmHg, the wedge pressure measured in the left atrium may be 6-12mmHg; the wedge pressure may be elevated in left heart failure, mitral valve stenosis, other conditions, such as sickle cell disease. The pulmonary artery is relevant in a number of clinical states. Pulmonary hypertension is used to describe an increase in the pressure of the pulmonary artery, may be defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure of greater than 25mmHg; as can be measured on a CT scan, a diameter of more than 29 mm diameter is used as a cut-off to indicate pulmonary hypertension. This may occur as a result of heart problems such as heart failure, lung or airway disease such as COPD or scleroderma, or thromboembolic disease such as pulmonary embolism or emboli seen in sickle cell anaemia. Pulmonary embolism refers to an embolus; this may arise from a deep venous thrombosis after a period of immobility. A pulmonary embolus is a common cause of death in patients with stroke.
A large pulmonary embolus which becomes lodged in the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk with extensions into both the left and right main pulmonary arteries is called a saddle embolus. Pulmonary artery sling Rasmussen's aneurysm Schoenwolf, Gary C.. Larsen's human embryology. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. Pp. "Development of the Urogenital system". ISBN 9780443068119. Anatomy photo:20:01-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Heart: The Pericardial sac and Great vessels" Anatomy photo:20:07-0105 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Heart: Openings of Great Vessels into the Pericardial Sac" Anatomy figure: 19:05-06 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Mediastinal surface of the right lung" Anatomy figure: 19:06-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center – "Mediastinal surface of the left lung" Histology image: 13802loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things, it is an old science. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate and long timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, they are studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences; the discipline of anatomy is divided into microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, in the study of cells.
The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have improved advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection", anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems and tissues, it includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, position, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology, embryology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures. Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels; the term "anatomy" is taken to refer to human anatomy. However the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is sometimes used to refer to non-human animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy; the kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are motile. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans, they have an internal digestive chamber, with two openings. Metazoans do not include the sponges. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are much smaller than those in the plant cell; the body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles and skin. Each has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal are derived from the embryonic germ layers; those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic.
All of a triploblastic animal's tissues and organs are derived from the three germ layers of the embryo, the ectoderm and endoderm. Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, epithelial and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are fibrous and made up of cells scattered among inorganic material called the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue holds them in place; the main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone. The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of, collagen. Collagen plays a major part in maintaining tissues; the matrix can be modified to form a skeleton to protect the body. An exoskeleton is a thickened, rigid cuticle, stiffened by mineralization, as in crustaceans or by the cross-linkin
A corslet is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "a piece of defensive armour covering the body." In ancient Egypt, Ramesses II is said to have worn a similar device in some battle. In Ancient Greek armies, the'hoplite', or heavy infantryman, wore a bronze corslet or known as the thorax to protect his upper body; the corslet consisted of two plates connected on the sides via hinges and bronze pins. By the 16th century, the corslet spelled corselet, was popular as a light-half-armour for general military use, e.g. by town guards. It was made up of a gorget, breast covering and tassets, full arms and gauntlets. In the 10th and 11th century AD depicts some Byzantine troops wearing a metallic corselet lamellar armour shown in the Skylitzes and Madrid Skylitzes chronicles and of the menologion of basil II. There were seen to be used by the imperial guardsmen in Constantinople; the armour itself fell into disuse in the 12th century as the infantry preferred lamellar armour over it, as it is composed of iron plates.
The word'corslet' was adopted as a so-called'occupational surname,' altered to Coslett, Coslet, etc. following the arrival of an expert in the manufacture of osmond iron, Corslet Tinkhaus, to Wales from his native Westphalia in 1567. According to Webster's Third New International Dictionary, corslet refers to a soldier equipped with a corslet
A cuirass is a piece of armor, formed of a single or multiple pieces of metal or other rigid material which covers the torso. The use of the term "cuirass" refers to both the chest plate and the back piece together. Whereas a chest plate only protects the front and a back plate only protects the back, a cuirass protects both the front and the back. In Hellenistic and Roman times, the musculature of the male torso was idealized in the form of the muscle cuirass or "heroic cuirass" sometimes further embellished with symbolic representation in relief, familiar in the Augustus of Prima Porta and other heroic representations in official Roman sculpture; as parts of the actual military equipment of classic antiquity and corsets of bronze, iron, or some other rigid substance were used. Secondary protection for the breast was worn in earlier times by men-at-arms in addition to mail hauberks and reinforced coats, it was not until the 14th century. The Roman emperor Galba donned a cuirass. Suetonius records in 12 Caesars that, "As was offering sacrifice on the morning before he was killed, a soothsayer warned him again and again to look out for danger, since assassins were not far off.
Not long after this he learned that Otho held possession of the camp, when several advised him to proceed thither as soon as possible – for they said that he could win the day by his presence and prestige – he decided to do no more than hold his present position and strengthen it by getting together a guard of the legionaries, who were encamped in many different quarters of the city. He did however put on a linen cuirass, though he declared that it would afford little protection against so many swords." The latter portion of the 14th century saw the cuirass come into general use in connection with plate armor for the limbs until, at the close of the century, mail was phased out among the nobles except in the camail of the bascinet and at the edge of the hauberk. The cuirass was universally worn throughout its lifespan as a form of armor. Thus, the globule form of the breast-armor of the Black Prince, in his effigy in Canterbury Cathedral, 1376, intimates that a cuirass is to be considered to have been covered by the royalty-emblazoned jupon of the Prince.
Historical cuirass, contrary to many modern reproductions, did not rest on the hips. Historical cuirass stopped somewhere around the midriff or bellybutton in order to allow a proper range of movement to the wearer. A cuirass ending at the waist would limit the ability of the wearer to lean forward, backward or sideways. Thus, to protect the rest of the torso, mail or fauld were used depending on the time period. Early in the 15th century, plate armor, including the cuirass, began to be worn without any surcoat. While the surcoat was being phased out, small plates of various forms and sizes were attached to the armor in front of the shoulders, to defend the otherwise vulnerable points where the plate defenses left a gap. About the middle of the century, the breastplate of the cuirass was made in two parts. In the second half of the 15th century, the cuirass was superseded by the brigandine jacket, the medieval forerunner of the flak jacket. In essence, the brigandine jacket was constructed of metal plates sewn into a fabric jacket.
The fabric was a rich material, was lined throughout with overlapping scales of metal which were attached to the jacket by rivets, having their heads, like studs, visible on the outside. About 1550, the breast-piece of the cuirass was characterized by a vertical central ridge, called the tapul, having near its center a projecting point. Somewhat the tapul was moved lower on the breast; the profile of the plate began to resemble a pea pod and, as such, was referred to as the peascod cuirass. During the English Civil War, only the wealthiest and physically strongest of men could afford this form of munition armour. Corslets provided with both breast and back pieces were worn by foot-soldiers in the 17th century, while their mounted comrades were equipped in heavier and stronger cuirasses; these defenses continued in use longer than any other single piece of armor. Their use never altogether ceased and in modern armies mounted cuirassiers, armed as in earlier days with breast and back plates, have in some degree emulated the martial splendour of the body armor of the era of medieval chivalry.
Both the French and German heavy cavalry wore cuirasses in parade leading up to World War I. In the early part of that conflict, they painted their cuirasses black and wore canvas protection covers over the neo-Roman style helmets; some years after Waterloo, certain historical cuirasses were taken from their repose in the Tower of London and adapted for service by the Life Guards and the Horse Guards. For parade purposes, the Prussian Gardes du Corps and other corps wore cuirasses of richly decorated leather. Cuirasses were manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century. Tankō, worn by foot soldiers and keikō, worn by horsemen were both pre-samurai types of early Japanese cuirass constructed from iron plates connected by leather thongs. During the Heian period
Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. It serves as a thesaurus. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine, it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials. MeSH was introduced in the 1960s, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus as precursors; the yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be downloaded free of charge through PubMed. In English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different origins; the 2009 version of MeSH contains a total of 25,186 subject headings known as descriptors. Most of these are accompanied by a short description or definition, links to related descriptors, a list of synonyms or similar terms.
This additional information and the hierarchical structure make the MeSH a thesaurus, rather than a plain subject headings list. The descriptors or subject headings are arranged in a hierarchy. A given descriptor may appear at several locations in the hierarchical tree; the tree locations carry systematic labels known as tree numbers, one descriptor can carry several tree numbers. For example, the descriptor "Digestive System Neoplasms" has the tree numbers C06.301 and C04.588.274. The tree numbers of a given descriptor are subject to change; every descriptor carries a unique alphanumerical ID that will not change. Most subject headings come with definition. See the MeSH description for diabetes type 2 as an example; the explanatory text is written by the MeSH team based on their standard sources if not otherwise stated. References are encyclopaedias and standard textbooks of the subject areas. References for specific statements in the descriptions are not given, instead readers are referred to the bibliography.
In addition to the descriptor hierarchy, MeSH contains a small number of standard qualifiers, which can be added to descriptors to narrow down the topic. For example, "Measles" is; the "epidemiology" qualifier can be added to all other disease descriptors. Not all descriptor/qualifier combinations are allowed. In all there are 83 different qualifiers. In addition to the descriptors, MeSH contains some 139,000 supplementary concept records; these do not belong to the controlled vocabulary as such. Many of these records describe chemical substances. In MEDLINE/PubMed, every journal article is indexed with about 10–15 subject headings and supplementary concept records, with some of them designated as major and marked with an asterisk, indicating the article's major topics; when performing a MEDLINE search via PubMed, entry terms are automatically translated into the corresponding descriptors with a good degree of reliability. By default, a search for a descriptor will include all the descriptors in the hierarchy below the given one.
In ClinicalTrials.gov, each trial has keywords. The ClinicalTrials.gov team assigns each trial two sets of MeSH terms. One set for the conditions studied by the trial and another for the set of interventions used in the trial; the XML file that can be downloaded for each trial contains these MeSH keywords. The XML file has a comment that says: "the assignment of MeSH keywords is done by imperfect algorithm"; the top-level categories in the MeSH descriptor hierarchy are: Anatomy Organisms Diseases Chemicals and Drugs Analytical and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment Psychiatry and Psychology Biological Sciences Physical Sciences Anthropology, Education and Social Phenomena Technology and Food and Beverages Humanities Information Science Persons Health Care Publication Characteristics Geographic Locations Medical classification Medical literature retrieval Medical Subject Heading Home provided by National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health MeSH database tutorials Automatic Term Mapping Browsing MeSH: Entrez MeSH Browser Visual MeSH Browser mapping drug-disease relationships in research Reference.
MD List of qualifiers – 2009