Slavery in ancient Rome
Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy. Besides manual labour, slaves performed many services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs. Accountants and physicians were often slaves, Greek slaves in particular might be highly educated. Unskilled slaves, or those sentenced to slavery as punishment, worked on farms, in mines and their living conditions were brutal, and their lives short. Slaves were considered property under Roman law and had no legal personhood, unlike Roman citizens, they could be subjected to corporal punishment, sexual exploitation and summary execution. Over time, slaves gained increased legal protection, including the right to file complaints against their masters, attitudes changed in part because of the influence among the educated elite of the Stoics, whose egalitarian views of humanity extended to slaves. Roman slaves could hold property which, despite the fact that it belonged to their masters, skilled or educated slaves were allowed to earn their own money, and might hope to save enough to buy their freedom.
Such slaves were freed by the terms of their masters will. A notable example of a slave was Tiro, the secretary of Cicero. Tiro was freed before his masters death, and was enough to retire on his own country estate. However, the master could arrange that slaves would only have enough money to buy their freedom when they were too old to work. They could use the money to buy a new young slave while the old slave, unable to work, Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become citizens. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a Roman citizen enjoyed not only passive freedom from ownership. A slave who had acquired libertas was thus a libertus in relation to his former master, as a social class, freed slaves were libertini, though writers used the terms libertus and libertinus interchangeably. Libertini were not entitled to public office or state priesthoods. During the early Empire, freedmen held key positions in the government bureaucracy, any future children of a freedman would be born free, with full rights of citizenship.
Vernae were slaves born within a household or on a farm or agricultural estate. There was a social obligation to care for vernae, whose epitaphs sometimes identify them as such
Ottoman Imperial Harem
The utmost authority in the Imperial Harem was the Valide Sultan, who ruled over the other women in the household and was often of slave origin herself. The Kizlar Agha was the head of the responsible for guarding the Imperial Harem. The word harem is derived from the Arabic harim or haram which give connotations of the sacred, the female quarters of Turkish households were referred to as haremlik due to their prevailing exclusivity. The harem was the symbol of the Sultans power. His ownership of women, mostly slaves, was a sign of wealth, the institution was introduced in the Turkish society with adoption of Islam, under the influence of the Arab Caliphate, which the Ottomans emulated. To ensure the obedience of the women, many of them were bought, not all members of the Harem were slaves. The main wives, especially taken into marriage to consolidate personal. This was the exception, not the rule, the relationship between slavery and polygamy/harems in the Turkish Harem continued until 1908, at the very least.
The imperial harem served as an institution the sultans household of male servants. The Imperial Harem occupied one of the sections of the private apartments of the sultan at the Topkapi Palace which encompassed more than 400 rooms. After 1853, an equally lavish harem quarter was occupied at the new palace at Dolmabahçe. The mother of a new sultan came to the harem with pomp and she was paramount chief and ran the Harem and ruled over the members of the dynasty. The Valide Sultan who influenced the life of the Ottoman Empire during various periods of history had the authority to regulate the relations between the sultan and his wives and children. In 1868, Empress Eugénie of France visited the Imperial harem, the visit of the Empress, did cause a dress reform in the harem by making Western fashion popular among the harem women, who dressed according to Western fashion ever after. The court ladies who were introduced into the harem in their age were brought up in the discipline of the palace.
They were promoted according to their capacities and became kalfas and ustas, the court ladies with whom the sultan shared his bed became a member of the dynasty and rose in rank to attain the status of Gözde, Ikbal or Kadın. The highest position was the Valide Sultan, the mother of the sultan. No court lady could leave or enter the premises of the harem without the permission of the valide sultan
History of serfdom
Like slavery, serfdom has a long history, dating to the Ancient Times. Social institutions similar to serfdom occurred in the ancient world, the status of the helots in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta resembled that of medieval serfs. By the 3rd century AD, the Roman Empire faced a labour shortage, large Roman landowners increasingly relied on Roman freemen, acting as tenant farmers, to provide labour. The status of these tenant farmers, eventually known as coloni, in 332 AD Emperor Constantine issued legislation that greatly restricted the rights of the coloni and tied them to the land. Some see these laws as the beginning of medieval serfdom in Europe, medieval serfdom really began with the breakup of the Carolingian Empire around the 10th century. The demise of this empire, which had ruled much of western Europe for more than 200 years, during this period, powerful feudal lords encouraged the establishment of serfdom as a source of agricultural labor. Serfdom as a system provided most of the agricultural labour throughout the Middle Ages, Slavery persisted right through the Middle Ages, but it was rare and largely confined to the use of household slaves.
Parts of Europe, including much of Scandinavia, never adopted serfdom, in the Middle Ages serfdom began to disappear west of the Rhine even as it spread through much of the rest of Europe. This was one important cause for the differences between the societies and economies of eastern and western Europe. In Western Europe, the rise of powerful monarchs, Serfdom in Western Europe came largely to an end in the 15th and 16th centuries, because of changes in the economy and laws governing lord-tenant relations in Western European nations. The enclosure of fields for livestock grazing and for larger arable plots made the economy of serfs small strips of land in open fields less attractive to landowners. Paid labour was more flexible, since workers could be hired only when they were needed. At the same time, increasing unrest and uprisings by serfs and peasants, like Tyler’s Rebellion in England in 1381, put pressure on the nobility and the clergy to reform the system. As a result, the establishment of new forms of land leases and increased personal liberties accommodated serf.
An important factor in the decline of serfdom was industrial development—especially the Industrial Revolution and this led to the growing process of urbanization. Serfdom reached Eastern Europe centuries than Western Europe—it became dominant around the 15th century, before that time, Eastern Europe had been much more sparsely populated than Western Europe, and the lords of Eastern Europe created a peasantry-friendly environment to encourage migration east. Serfdom developed in Eastern Europe after the Black Death epidemics of the mid-14th century, the resulting high land-to-labour ratio - combined with Eastern Europes vast, sparsely populated areas - gave the lords an incentive to bind the remaining peasantry to their land. This pattern applied in Central and Eastern European countries, including Prussia, Hungary, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and this led to the slower industrial development and urbanisation of those regions
An odalisque was a chambermaid or a female attendant in a Turkish seraglio, particularly the court ladies in the household of the Ottoman sultan. The word odalisque is French in form and originates from the Turkish odalık, meaning chambermaid, from oda and it can be transliterated odahlic and odaliq. In western usage, the term has come to refer specifically to the harem concubine, by the eighteenth century the term odalisque referred to the eroticized artistic genre in which a nominally eastern woman lies on her side on display for the spectator. An odalık was not a concubine of the harem, but a maid, an odalık was ranked at the bottom of the social stratification of a harem, serving not the man of the household, but rather, his concubines and wives as personal chambermaids. Odalık were usually given as gifts to the sultan by wealthy Turkish men. Generally, an odalık was never seen by the sultan but instead remained under the supervision of his mother. If an odalık was of beauty or had exceptional talents in dancing or singing.
If selected, an odalık trained as a lady would serve the sultan sexually and only after such sexual contact would she change in status. In contrast to European depictions of nude women, they more often wore androgynous robes resembling those worn by the male pages of the palace. The conditions of the Ottoman harem resembled a monastery for young girls more than the bordello of European imagination. W. S. Gilbert refers to the Grace of an odalisque on a divan in Colonel Calverleys song If You Want A Receipt For That Popular Mystery from the Gilbert and Sullivan opera Patience. In popular use, the word may refer to a mistress. During the 19th century, odalisques became common fantasy figures in the movement known as Orientalism. The gentlemen who wish to buy an odalisque or a wife, many Turks, prefer to take a slave as a wife, as, in such case, there is no need to dread fathers, mothers, or brothers-in-law, and other undesirable relations. In 2011 the Law Society of British Columbia brought a discipline hearing against a lawyer for referring to another lawyers client as living with an odalisque.
The Law Society found the use of the word, though a poor choice. Culture of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Sultans concubines Hammam Arab slave trade Islamic views on slavery Köçek Ottoman Turkish language Jeffrey Eugenides Middlesex, stretched across the couch, a Pisceasn Odalisque. The Imperial Harem by Leslie Pierce The Nature of the Early Ottoman State by Heath W Lowry
Arab slave trade
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, Southeast Africa, the Horn of Africa and Europe. This barter occurred chiefly between the era and the early 21st century. The trade was conducted through slave markets in areas, with the slaves captured mostly from Africas interior. These traders captured Bantu peoples from the interior in present-day Kenya and Tanzania, the slaves gradually assimilated in the rural areas, particularly on the Unguja and Pemba islands. The captives were sold throughout the Middle East and this trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labour on plantations in the region. Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year, the Indian Ocean slave trade was multi-directional and changed over time. Slave labor in East Africa was drawn from the Zanj, Bantu peoples that lived along the East African coast, the Zanj were for centuries shipped as slaves by Arab traders to all the countries bordering the Indian Ocean.
The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs recruited many Zanj slaves as soldiers and, as early as 696 and it grew to involve over 500,000 slaves and free men who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq. The Zanj who were taken as slaves to the Middle East were often used in agricultural work. As the plantation economy boomed and the Arabs became richer, the resulting labor shortage led to an increased slave market. To 5°S. to which the name was applied, wealthy proprietors had received extensive grants of tidal land on the condition that they would make it arable. Sugar cane was prominent among the products of their plantations, particularly in Khūzestān Province, Zanj worked the salt mines of Mesopotamia, especially around Basra. Their jobs were to clear away the topsoil that made the land arable. The working conditions were considered to be extremely harsh and miserable. Many other people were imported into the region, besides Zanj, historian M. A.
Shaban has argued that rebellion was not a slave revolt, but a revolt of blacks. In his opinion, although a few runaway slaves did join the revolt, if the revolt had been led by slaves, they would have lacked the necessary resources to combat the Abbasid government for as long as they did. These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages from Italy, Spain and more distant places like France or England. They were taken from ships stopped by the pirates, the effects of these attacks were devastating, France and Spain each lost thousands of ships
Atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th through the 19th centuries. This was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires, the Portuguese were the first to engage in the New World slave trade in the 16th century. In 1526, the Portuguese completed the first transatlantic voyage from Africa to the Americas. The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as indentured servants, like coming from England. By the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a caste and their offspring were legally the property of their owners. As property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, the major Atlantic slave trading nations, ordered by trade volume, the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, and the Dutch Empire. Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders and these slaves were managed by a factor who was established on or near the coast to expedite the shipping of slaves to the New World.
Slaves were kept in a factory while awaiting shipment, current estimates are that about 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic, although the number purchased by the traders is considerably higher, as the passage had a high death rate. Near the beginning of the century, various governments acted to ban the trade. In the early twenty-first century, several governments issued apologies for the slave trade. The Atlantic slave trade arose after trade contacts were first made between the continents of the Old World and those of the New World, between 1600 and 1800, approximately 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast, historian John Thornton noted, A number of technical and geographical factors combined to make Europeans the most likely people to explore the Atlantic and develop its commerce. That leadership gave rise to the myth that the Iberians were the leaders of the exploration.
Slavery was practiced in parts of Africa, Asia. There is evidence that people from some African states were exported to other states in Africa, Europe. The African slave trade provided a number of slaves to Europeans. The Atlantic slave trade was not the slave trade from Africa, although it was the largest in volume. As Elikia M’bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique, The African continent was bled of its resources via all possible routes
Children in the military
Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns even when such practices were against cultural morals. In World War I, in Great Britain 250,000 boys under 18 managed to join the army, in World War II, child soldiers fought throughout Europe, in the Warsaw Uprising, in the Jewish resistance, and in the Soviet Army. According to one study, children have been used militarily across the globe, Children are easy targets to recruit for military purposes because of their vulnerability to influence. Many are seized and recruited by force whereas others join to escape their reality, research shows that child soldiering prolongs the duration of civil wars, as it increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This reduction in both the calibre of infantry rifles and the mass of many items of equipment makes it easier for children to carry. However, children who are over the age of 15 but under the age of 18 are still able to take part in combat as soldiers.
The United Nations Security Council convenes regularly to debate, receive reports, the most recent meeting was on 17 July 2008. The first resolution on the issue, Resolution 1261, was passed in 1999, in 2014, more than 17 cases were covered about children in armed conflict. Many children in different countries are involved in such illegal conflicts and these children are detained with no real evidence, or in massive sweeps. Some of them are captured with their families, or by the activity of one of their family members and relatives are banded to the court. They can be detained without sufficient food, medical care, or under other inhumane conditions, some of these children live with physical and sexual torture. Refraining from recruiting children under fifteen does not exclude children who volunteer for armed service, non-state actors and guerrilla forces are forbidden from recruiting anyone under the age of 18 for any purpose. Opinion is currently divided over whether children should be prosecuted for committing war crimes, many child soldiers fought in the Sierra Leone Civil War.
In its wake, the UN sanctioned the Special Court for Sierra Leone to try the participants for war crimes, if found guilty under US law such a crime carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. This was agreed as part of a bargain, which would see Khadr deported to Canada after one year to serve the remaining seven years there. In a letter to the U. S. Omar Khadr remained in Guantanamo Bay, Khadr was transferred to the Canadian prison system in September 2012, and was freed on bail by a judge in the province of Alberta in May 2015. He is appealing his American conviction as a war criminal, in March 2012 Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was convicted by the International Criminal Court for military use of children. P. W. Singer of the Brookings Institution estimated in January 2003 that child soldiers participate in three quarters of all the ongoing conflicts in the world
The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde. The khanate was located in present-day Russia and Ukraine, Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Crimean Khanate was an important center of the slave trade. In 1774, it was released as a independent state, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. English-speaking writers during the 18th and early 19th centuries often called the territory of the Crimean Khanate, the name Little Tartary distinguished the area from Tartary - those areas of central and northern Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples or Tatars. The Khanate included the Crimean peninsula and the adjacent steppes, mostly corresponding to the parts of South Ukraine between the Dnepr and the Donets. The Crimean Khanate originated in the early 15th century when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak and decided to make Crimea their yurt.
At that time, the Golden Horde of the Mongol empire had governed the Crimean peninsula as an ulus since 1239, the local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to become their khan. Hacı Giray accepted their invitation and traveled from exile in Lithuania and he warred for independence against the Horde from 1420 to 1441, in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, the khanate included the Crimean Peninsula as well as the adjacent steppe. The sons of Hacı I Giray contended against each other to succeed him, the Ottomans intervened and installed one of the sons, Meñli I Giray, on the throne. Menli I Giray, took the imperial title Sovereign of Two Continents, in 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro and the Genoese colonies at Cembalo and Caffa. Thenceforth the khanate was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman sultan enjoyed veto power over the selection of new Crimean khans.
The Empire annexed the Crimean coast but recognized the legitimacy of the rule of the steppes. In 1475, the Ottomans imprisoned Meñli I Giray for three years for resisting the invasion, after returning from captivity in Constantinople, he accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Nevertheless, Ottoman sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects, the khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers and they did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire, instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns. Later on, Crimea lost power in this relationship as the result of a crisis in 1523, during the reign of Meñlis successor and he died that year and beginning with his successor, from 1524 on, Crimean khans were appointed by the Sultan
Circassian beauties is a phrase used to refer to an idealized image of the women of the Circassian people of the Northwestern Caucasus. A fairly extensive literary history suggests that Circassian women were thought to be beautiful and elegant. As a result of this reputation, in Europe and America Circassians were often characterised as ideals of beauty in poetry. Cosmetic products were advertised, from the 18th century on, using the word Circassian in the title, in consequence, most wives of several Ottoman Sultans were ethnic Circassians converted to Islam, e. g. In the 1860s the showman P. T. Barnum exhibited women whom he claimed were Circassian beauties and it is not clear why Barnum chose this hairstyle. It may have been a reference to the Circassian fur hat, there were several classical Turkish music pieces and poems that praise the beauty of the Lepiska Saçlı Çerkes. They furnish with beauties the seraglio of the Turkish Sultan, of the Persian Sophy. Their beauty is mentioned in Henry Fieldings Tom Jones, in which Fielding remarked, How contemptible would the brightest Circassian beauty, drest in all the jewels of the Indies, beautys brightest colours Had decked her out in all the hues of heaven.
Her sale sent home some disappointed bawlers, Who bade on till the hundreds reached the eleven, But when the offer went beyond, they knew ‘Twas for the Sultan, and at once withdrew. Hugos comment was condemned by Karl Marx in The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law on the grounds that it excused slavery, mark Twain reported in The Innocents Abroad that Circassian and Georgian girls are still sold in Constantinople by their parents, but not publicly. American travel author and diplomat Bayard Taylor in 1862 claimed that, So far as beauty is concerned. They have preserved in their home the purity of the Grecian models. An anthropological literary suggests that Circassians were best characterized by what was called rosy pale or translucent white skin, while most Circassian tribes were famous for their abundant fair or dark blond and red hair combined with greyish-blue or green eyes, some had dark hair with light complexions. The fact that Circassian women were encouraged to wear corsets in order to keep their posture straight might have shaped their wasp waist as a result.
It has suggested that a lithe and erect physique were favored for Circassians. In Henry Lindlahrs words in the early 20th century, Blue-eyed Caucasian regiments today form the cream of the Sultans army, Circassian beauties are admired for their abundant and luxuriant yellow hair and blue eyes. She was tall, and well, though slightly, shaped, at Bet il Sahel there was much more luxury and grand style than at Bet il Mtoni. The handsome and graceful Circassian women were more numerous than at Bet il Mtoni
Impressment, the press or the press gang, refers to the act of taking men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Navies of several nations used forced recruitment by various means, the large size of the British Royal Navy in the Age of Sail meant impressment was most commonly associated with Britain. The Royal Navy impressed many merchant sailors, as well as some sailors from other nations, people liable to impressment were eligible men of seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 55 years. Non-seamen were impressed as well, though rarely, though the public opposed conscription in general, impressment was repeatedly upheld by the courts, as it was deemed vital to the strength of the navy and, by extension, to the survival of the realm. Impressment was essentially a Royal Navy practice, reflecting the size of the British fleet, Continental Navy did however apply a form of impressment during the American War of Independence. The impressment of seamen from American ships caused serious tensions between Britain and the United States in the leading up to the War of 1812.
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, Britain ended the practice, conscription was not limited to the Royal Navy and living conditions for the average sailor in the Royal Navy in the 18th century were harsh by modern standards. Naval pay was attractive in the 1750s, but towards the end of the century its value had been eroded by rising prices, sailors pay on merchant ships was somewhat higher during peacetime, and could increase to double naval pay during wartime. Until 19th century reforms improved conditions, the Royal Navy was additionally known to pay wages up to two years in arrears, and it always withheld six months pay to discourage desertion. Naval wages had been set in 1653, and were not increased until April 1797 after sailors on 80 ships of the Channel Fleet based at Spithead mutinied, despite this, there were many volunteers for naval service. Also the food supplied by the Navy was plentiful and good by the standards of the day. The main problem with recruitment, was a shortage of qualified seamen during wartime, the Royal Navy, and the Merchant Navy all competed for a small pool of ordinary and able seamen in wartime, and all three groups were usually short-handed.
Volunteering protected the sailor from creditors, as the law forbade collecting debts accrued before enlistment, the main disadvantage was that enlisted deserters who were recaptured would be hanged, whereas pressed men would simply be returned to service. Other records confirm similar percentages throughout the 18th century, average annual recruitment 1736–1783 All three groups suffered high levels of desertion. In the 18th century, British desertion rates on naval ships averaged 25% annually, if a naval ship had taken a prize, a deserting seaman would forfeit his share of the prize money. In a report on proposed changes to the RN written by Admiral Nelson in 1803, the Impress Service was formed to force sailors to serve on naval vessels. There was no concept of joining the navy as a fixed career-path for non-officers at the time since seamen remained attached to a ship only for the duration of its commission. They were encouraged to stay in the Navy after the commission, Impressment relied on the legal power of the King to call men to military service, as well as to recruit volunteers
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage, which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe, serfs were often required not only to work on the lords fields, but his mines and roads. The decline of serfdom in Western Europe has sometimes been attributed to the Black Death, Serfdom became increasingly rare in most of Western Europe after the Renaissance, but conversely, it grew strong in Central and Eastern Europe, where it had previously been less common. In Eastern Europe the institution persisted until the mid-19th century, in the Austrian Empire serfdom was abolished by the 1781 Serfdom Patent, corvée continued to exist until 1848. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 1860s, in Finland and Sweden, feudalism was never fully established, and serfdom did not exist, serfdom-like institutions did exist in both Denmark and its vassal Iceland. According to Joseph R. Strayer, the concept of feudalism can be applied to the societies of ancient Persia, ancient Mesopotamia, Muslim India, james Lee and Cameron Campbell describe the Chinese Qing dynasty as maintaining a form of serfdom.
Tibet is described by Melvyn Goldstein to have had serfdom until 1959, bhutan is described by Tashi Wangchuk, a Bhutanese civil servant, as abolishing serfdom officially by 1959, but Wangchuk believes less than or about 10% of poor peasants were in copyhold situations. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery prohibits serfdom as a form of slavery, the word serf originated from the Middle French serf and can be traced further back to the Latin servus. In Late Antiquity and most of the Middle Ages, what are now called serfs were usually designated in Latin as coloni. As slavery gradually disappeared and the status of servi became nearly identical to that of the coloni. Serfs had a place in feudal society, as did barons and knights, in return for protection. Thus the manorial system exhibited a degree of reciprocity, one rationale held that a serf worked for all while a knight or baron fought for all and a churchman prayed for all, thus everyone had a place.
The serf was the worst fed and rewarded, but at least he had his place and, unlike slaves, had rights in land. A lord of the manor could not sell his serfs as a Roman might sell his slaves and this unified system preserved for the lord long-acquired knowledge of practices suited to the land. Further, a serf could not abandon his lands without permission, a freeman became a serf usually through force or necessity. Sometimes the greater physical and legal force of a local magnate intimidated freeholders or allodial owners into dependency, often a few years of crop failure, a war, or brigandage might leave a person unable to make his own way. In such a case he could strike a bargain with a lord of a manor, in exchange for protection, service was required, in cash, produce or labour, or a combination of all. These oaths bound the lord and his new serf in a feudal contract, to become a serf was a commitment that encompassed all aspects of the serfs life