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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1990 that divides cellular life forms into archaea and eukaryote domains. In particular, it emphasizes the separation of prokaryotes into two groups called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. Woese argued that, on the basis of differences in 16S rRNA genes, these two groups and the eukaryotes each arose separately from an ancestor with poorly developed genetic machinery called a progenote. To reflect these primary lines of descent, he treated each as a domain, divided into several different kingdoms. Woese used the term "kingdom" to refer to the three primary phylogenic groupings, this nomenclature was used until the term "domain" was adopted in 1990. Parts of the three-domain theory have been fiercly challenged by scientists such as Radhey Gupta, who argues that the primary division within prokaryotes should be between those surrounded by a single membrane, those with two membranes; the three-domain system adds a level of classification "above" the kingdoms present in the used five- or six-kingdom systems.

This classification system recognizes the fundamental divide between the two prokaryotic groups, insofar as Archaea appear to be more related to Eukaryotes than they are to other prokaryotes – bacteria-like organisms with no cell nucleus. The current system sorts the known kingdoms into these three domains: Archaea and Eukarya; the Archaea are prokaryotic, with no nuclear membrane, distinct biochemistry, RNA markers from bacteria. The Archaeans possess unique, ancient evolutionary history for which they are considered some of the oldest species of organisms on Earth, most notably their diverse, exotic metabolisms, which allow them to feed on inorganic matter. Classified as exotic bacteria, reclassified as archaebacteria, the only easy way to distinguish them on sight from "true" bacteria is by the extreme, harsh environments in which they notoriously thrive; some examples of archaeal organisms are: methanogens – which produce the gas methane halophiles – which live in salty water thermoacidophiles – which thrive in acidic high-temperature water The Bacteria are prokaryotic.

Traditionally classified as bacteria, many thrive in the same environments favored by humans, were the first prokaryotes discovered. Most known pathogenic prokaryotic organisms belong to bacteria. For that reason, because the Archaea are difficult to grow in laboratories, Bacteria are studied more extensively than Archaea; some examples of bacteria include: Cyanobacteriaphotosynthesizing bacteria that are related to the chloroplasts of eukaryotic plants and algae SpirochaetesGram-negative bacteria that include those causing syphilis and Lyme disease ActinobacteriaGram-positive bacteria including Bifidobacterium animalis, present in the human large intestine Eukarya are uniquely organisms whose cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus. They include all known non-microscopic organisms. A partial list of eukaryotic organisms includes: Kingdom Fungi or fungi Saccharomycotina – includes true yeasts Basidiomycota – includes mushroomsKingdom Plantae or plants Bryophyta – mosses Magnoliophyta – flowering plantsKingdom Animalia or animals Chordata – includes vertebrates as a subphylum Each of the three cell types tends to fit into recurring specialities or roles.

Bacteria tend to be the most prolific reproducers, at least in moderate environments. Archaeans tend to adapt to extreme environments, such as high temperatures, high acids, high sulfur, etc; this includes adapting to use a wide variety of food sources. Eukaryotes are the most flexible with regard to forming cooperative colonies, such as in multi-cellular organisms, including humans. In fact, the structure of a Eukaryote is to have derived from a joining of different cell types, forming organelles. Parakaryon myojinensis is a single-celled organism known by a unique example. "This organism appears to be a life form distinct from prokaryotes and eukaryotes", with features of both. Parts of the three-domain theory have been challenged by scientists including Ernst Mayr, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Radhey S. Gupta. In particular, Gupta argues that the primary division within prokaryotes should be among those surrounded by a single membrane, including gram-positive bacteria and archaebacteria, those with an inner and outer cell membrane, including gram-negative bacteria.

He claims that sequences of features and phylogenies from some conserved proteins are inconsistent with the three-domain theory, that it should be abandoned despite its widespread acceptance. Recent work has proposed that Eukarya may have branched off from the domain Archaea. According to Spang et al. Lokiarchaeota forms a monophyletic group with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses; the associated genomes encode an expanded repertoire of eukaryotic signature proteins that are suggestive of sophisticated membrane remodelling capabilities. This work suggests a two-domain system as opposed to the near universally adopted three-domain system


For the lost village in Lincolnshire see Havercroft, LincolnshireHavercroft is a small village situated on the B6428 in West Yorkshire, England 7 mi south east of the city of Wakefield. It forms part of the civil parish of Havercroft with Cold Hiendley, which has a population of 2,103, increasing to 2,256 at the 2011 Census. In the last 100 years it has grown from a small collection of homes to a thriving village in its own right. For hundreds of years, Havercroft was an agricultural community and the few people who lived here worked in the fields. Havercroft now maintains Havercroft J & I School; the Ryhill & Havercroft Sports Centre is shared with Ryhill as is the local health centre, Rycroft Primary Care Centre. Havercroft has a'community hub' known as the Havercroft & Ryhill Community Learning Centre, the Havercroft Parish Hall; as well as the Living Hope Community Church established in 1960 at bottom of cow lane which runs a number of cumminity projects. The Havercroft with Cold Hiendley Parish Council meets there and the Centre provides a regular calendar of educational courses & community activities for both Havercroft and its neighbour Ryhill.

Havercroft suffered from high unemployment in the 1980s due to local pit closures. Since the village has become popular with commuters travelling to nearby towns such as Pontefract and Wakefield. Havercroft is split into two undistinct sections, Newstead - occupying the higher ground of Newstead hill - and the main village of Havercroft. In terms of the built environment Havercroft is co-terminous with its Ryhill neighbour with the boundary of the two civil parishes following along streetside and garden fence rather than across open fields for much of its length. Ryhill website at Ryhill and Havercroft Villages fan website


Repeaters is a 2010 Canadian thriller film directed by Carl Bessai, written by Arne Olsen, starring Dustin Milligan, Amanda Crew, Richard de Klerk as young drug addicts who find themselves stuck in a time loop. Kyle and Michael are inmates at a rehabilitation facility. Bob, the administrator, tasks them with apologizing to those; when Kyle attempts to apologize to his teenage sister Charlotte, she angrily blows him off, the principal kicks him off school grounds. Sonia goes to the hospital where her dying father is a patient, but she is unable to bring herself to face him. Michael visits his father in jail, but the conversation is cut short by his father's abusive threats; when Bob asks them to discuss their day in group therapy, they refuse, Michael storms off. While discussing the pointlessness of Bob's therapy, Sonia learns; as the trio try to deal with their emotional pain, a storm rolls in, each of them is shocked and knocked unconscious. When they wake up in the morning, they find that it is the same day, all the same events repeat.

Kyle and Michael stumble through the day and repeat their actions in a daze. When they discuss the situation, Michael is intrigued by the consequence-free possibilities open to them, but Kyle convinces them to act on a news report that he recalls, they are too late to stop a jumper. Michael suggests that they take advantage of the situation, they commit petty crimes that result in a stay at jail; as the day repeats endlessly, they embark on a drug bender and crime spree, robbing a store and culminating in the violent kidnapping of Tiko, a drug dealer, selling to Charlotte and her friend Michelle. On another loop, Kyle slices Tiko’s throat. At the dam, Michael carelessly risks his life walking on top of the railing and dares Sonia to do the same; when she slips, Michael laughs and refuses to try to help Kyle save her. Sonia falls to her death wakes up with a gasp on the next repeat. Sonia claims to remember nothing of her death, the trio become emboldened by their apparent immortality. On one repeat and Sonia save the jumper at the dam discover that Michael has raped Michelle.

When Kyle and Sonia confront Michael, Michael accuses them of hypocrisy and says that all their bad actions are excusable because everything gets reset. Michael's behavior becomes more antisocial as the days repeat. Shaken by Michael's behavior, Kyle ties him to a chair. Kyle and Sonia fall in love and work toward redemption. Kyle and Sonia make peace with their families; this causes the time loop to abruptly end, but they do not realize it until the next day in the middle of a violent rampage by Michael that ends with the senseless murders of two people. Freaked out, Michael takes Charlotte hostage, but he commits suicide after Kyle attempts to reason with him. Michael is surprised to wake up again, stuck in his own time loop, unsure if he can arrange peace with his own family to break the loop. Dustin Milligan as Kyle Halsted Amanda Crew as Sonia Logan Richard de Klerk as Michael Weeks Alexia Fast as Charlotte Halsted Ben Ratner as Bob Simpson Tom Scholte as Sgt. Gerald Tibbs Gabrielle Rose as Peg Halsted Hrothgar Mathews as Ed Logan John Cassini as Lt. Howard Michael Adamthwaite as Tiko Taylor Manoj Sood as Mr. Singh John Tench as Weeks’ Father Anja Savcic as Michelle Michael Kopsa as Mr. Greeber Emily Perkins as Jumper Shooting took place in Mission, British Columbia on January 11 to 31, 2010.

The film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. It was released on DVD August 9, 2011. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 20% of five surveyed critics gave it a positive review. Robert Koehler of Variety called it "a dead-serious version of Groundhog Day" that "brings little personal energy". Scott A. Gray of Exclaim! wrote that the film is not as preachy as expected, but it is still not the promised mindbender of the tagline. Joel Harley of Starburst rated it 8/10 stars and wrote that it is a cynical take on Groundhog Day, neither original nor too derivative to be enjoyed. Chris Knight of the National Post called it a complicated and elegant version of Groundhog Day that introduces more variables and selfish characters. Bruce DeMara of the Toronto Star rated it 3.5/4 stars and described it as "Groundhog Day but without the laughs and with a wild, cerebral spin." Kate Taylor of The Globe and Mail rated it 2.5/4 stars and called it "a small but interesting thriller" that "does not do full psychological justice to its clever premise".

List of films featuring time loops Official website Repeaters on IMDb Repeaters at Rotten Tomatoes

The Way (2010 film)

The Way is a 2010 Spanish drama film directed and written by Emilio Estevez and starring Martin Sheen, Deborah Kara Unger, James Nesbitt, Yorick van Wageningen, Renée Estevez. The film promotes the traditional pilgrimage. Saying he did not want the film to appeal to only one demographic, Emilio Estevez called the film "pro-people, pro-life, not anti-anything". Dr. Thomas Avery is an American ophthalmologist who goes to France following the death of his adult son, killed in the Pyrenees during a storm while walking the Camino de Santiago, a Catholic pilgrimage route to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. Tom's purpose is to retrieve his son's body. However, in a combination of grief and homage to his son, Tom decides to walk the ancient spiritual trail where his son died, taking Daniel's ashes with him. While walking the Camino, Tom meets others from around the world, all looking for greater meaning in their lives, he reluctantly falls in with three other pilgrims in particular.

Joost is an overweight man from Amsterdam who says he is walking the route to lose weight to get ready for his brother's wedding and so that his wife will desire him again. He is a friendly extrovert, the first to start walking with Tom. Sarah is a Canadian fleeing an abusive husband, who says she is walking the pilgrimage to quit smoking. Jack is an Irish travel writer who when younger had desires to be a great author like William Butler Yeats or James Joyce but never wrote the novel he dreamed of, he is the last to join the quartet and has been suffering from "writer's block". As the pilgrims travel the Camino, they meet and talk with other pilgrims—two Frenchmen, a young Italian and Father Frank, an elderly priest from New York. Tom sees visions of Daniel alive and smiling among other people. Tom starts out the journey being cold to his fellow pilgrims, but over the course of their journey he opens up to them. On the pilgrimage, the group experiences challenges, such as when a young Romani steals Tom's backpack.

Although the thief escapes, his father drags him back to Tom to return the pack, with embarrassed apologies and an offer to attend a street party in compensation. After the group arrives at Santiago de Compostela, Tom is accompanied by the other three members to Muxía, he scatters the remainder of Daniel's ashes at the sea there. With Daniel's backpack on his back, Tom sets out on another journey. Martin Sheen as Dr. Tom Avery Deborah Kara Unger as Sarah Sinclair James Nesbitt as Jack Stanton Yorick van Wageningen as Joost Emilio Estevez as Daniel Avery Tchéky Karyo as Captain Henri The film was inspired by Emilio Estevez's own son, Taylor, it started in 2003 as a project when Taylor, at the time 19 years old, Sheen, whose TV series The West Wing was on hiatus, traveled the pilgrimage route. Taylor, who served as an associate producer on the film, had driven the length of the Camino with his grandfather. On the way, he met the woman. After the trip, a series of discussions started between Sheen and his son for a movie about the Camino de Santiago.

Sheen suggested it be a low-budget documentary, but Estevez was not interested in such a small project, wanting instead a bigger experience. Estevez found inspiration in his vineyard, Casa Dumetz, where he wrote much of the dialogue for the film. Exploring the universal themes of loss and faith, he saw parallels with the characters of the film The Wizard of Oz; the script took six months to get a first draft. According to the opening credits, the story is based on selected stories from Jack Hitt's book Off the Road: A Modern-Day Walk Down the Pilgrim's Route into Spain. Filming took 40 days; the production company and actors walked between 350 kilometers during filming. Estevez had a small crew and shot with available light. Considering the Camino is special to local people on the route, the filmmakers felt great pressure to get the details right. According to a Christian Broadcasting Network interview, a key scene did not happen. With church leadership opposed to allowing the crew to shoot inside the famous cathedral in Santiago de Compostela, Estevez says he took a leap of faith and asked everyone on set to pray for access.

"And it worked", claimed Sheen. The crew was given permission just 48 hours before they were scheduled to shoot the scenes, which they felt were critical to the film. Sheen suggested Michael Douglas or Mel Gibson for the lead role, but Estevez had written the main character's role for his father. Aside from the main actors, those seen on-screen are real pilgrims from all over the world. One episode in the film involves a group of actual Romani people from Burgos; the Way was marketed via a word-of-mouth campaign. "We don’t have a lot of money to do a big $40 million P. & A.", Estevez said, talking about his marketing print-and-advertising budget. The Way premiered in September 2010 at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival and was commercially released in Spain first, with its Spanish premiere on November 10, 2010; the Maltese premiere on February 28, 2011 benefited a tiny Maltese organization, the Pope John XXIII Peace Lab of Ħal Far, which provides shelter to asylum seekers. The shelter, established in 1971, had not sought the funding.

The film was released in the United Kingdom in May 2011 and in the United States in October 2011. Estevez and Sheen took a promotional bus tour in promotion of the film across the United Stat

A Supermarket in California

"A Supermarket in California" is a poem by American poet Allen Ginsberg first published in Howl and Other Poems in 1956. In the poem, the narrator visits a supermarket in California and imagines finding Federico García Lorca and Walt Whitman shopping. Whitman, discussed in "Howl", is a character common in Ginsberg's poems, is referred to as Ginsberg's poetic model. "A Supermarket in California", written in Berkeley and published in 1956, was intended to be a tribute to Whitman in the centennial year of the first edition of Leaves of Grass. For its critique of mainstream American culture, the poem is considered to be one of the major works of the Beat Generation, which included other authors of the era such as Jack Kerouac, William Seward Burroughs, Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Ginsberg achieved critical success in 1956 with the publication of Howl and Other Poems, with "Howl" being the most popular of the works in the collection. Like "Howl", "A Supermarket in California" was a critique of postwar America, yet in the poem the narrator focuses more on consumerist aspects of society by contrasting his generation with Whitman's.

"A Supermarket in California" is a prose poem with an irregular format that does not adhere to traditional poetic form including stanza and rhyme scheme. The format is a resemblance of the long-winded aspect of speech; the long-line style is attributed to Whitman and "as with Whitman, by the time we have traversed the stretch of one of these long lines, we have experienced a rapid set of transformations." This is shown within the poem’s location, the metaphorical supermarket and its symbolism of Ginsberg’s America. The form of Ginsberg's poem comes from "his knowledge of Walt Whitman's long-line style", an experiment for Ginsberg before he adapted it to all his works on. In the opening line, the poet addresses Whitman, or Whitman's spirit as he finds himself "shopping for images", which Douglas Allen Burns suggests puts a capitalist spin on the situation described in the poem; the narrator sees families of consumers shopping in the market alongside the figures of deceased poets Lorca and Whitman, both of whom were homosexual poets like Ginsberg himself.

The poet notes the sexuality of Whitman as he describes the character as a "childless, lonely old grubber, poking among the meats in the refrigerator and eyeing the grocery boys". Bill Morgan writes that Ginsberg always saw Whitman as a kindred spirit in regards to their similar sexualities, seeing "a self-imposed repression of his innate queerness,", evident in the poem through its idolization of Whitman. Betsy Erkkila, in Whitman the Political Poet, suggests that Ginsberg brings Whitman into the poem to show the difference between the America described in the works of Whitman and that which exists in 1955 when "A Supermarket in California" is written. In her opinion, "America" is not described as being a physical place but one that exists in the imagination of the poet and can "live and die only with him". Ginsberg introduces the character of Lorca in line 7, asking "..and you, Garcia Lorca, what were you doing down by the watermelons?". Lorca was a famous Spanish poet and playwright who had died in 1936, yet his spirit appears in the supermarket in 1955 when the poem is written.

Lorca's works were classified as surrealistic and were considered to have homoerotic tones. In the final lines of the poem, Ginsberg turns once again to the image of Whitman, asking: Ah, dear father, lonely old courage- teacher, what America did you have when Charon quit poling his ferry and you got out on a smoking bank and stood watching the boat disappear in the black waters of Lethe? In Greek mythology, Charon was the ferryman who carried the dead into the underworld, across the river Styx; the River Lethe was a different river in the underworld, which caused those who drank its waters to experience complete forgetfulness. The shades of the dead were required to drink the waters of the Lethe in order to forget their earthly life. In Story Line, Ian Marshall suggests that the poem is written to show the differences in American life depicted by Whitman and that which faces Ginsberg in the 1950s: "It's the distance of a century—with Civil War and the'triumph' of the Industrial Revolution and Darwinism and Freud and two world wars, mustard gas, the hydrogen bomb, the advent of the technological era, IBM."

To Marshall, the poem is meant to show the change from 19th century optimism to the "ennui" portrayed in Ginsberg's poems. Marshall's notion about Ginsberg's portrayal of the evolution of society is shown within the lines, "I heard you asking questions of each: Who killed the pork chops? What price bananas?" In Whitman's day, he would have known the answer to those questions because back one would go to the farmer directly to get the products unlike the modern American supermarkets where one does not know where the products come from. Describing the relationship between Ginsberg and Whitman in "Howl" and "A Supermarket in California", Byrne R. S. Fone states that sexuality homosexuality, plays a key role in the poem's presentation of reality: "Not since Whitman had an American homosexual poet dared to intimate, let alone announce, that joy not pain was the result of homosexual rape and to suggest that sex not philosophy might be the most powerful weapon against oppression." Burns adds that the use of Lorca and Whitman is intended to show the counter-cultural aspects of Ginsberg's art.

The poetry of Lorca and Whitman, to Burns, express a value system that contradicts everything the modern supermarket represents. Whereas "love" is what America represents in the works of previous poets, the America of Ginsberg's poetry is best presented through poetical references to "supermarkets and automobiles". Critic Nick Selby, in an essay titled "

Tonga High School

Tonga High School is a selective state-owned co-ed secondary school located in Nukuʻalofa, Tonga. The school educates students aged 11 to 18. Tonga High School was established in 1947 by the Minister of Education. Prince Tungi became King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, the late King of Tonga; the aim of the school is to provide an opportunity for students to achieve a level of education equivalent to that offered in neighbouring countries such as New Zealand and Australia. The school is situated in Nukuʻalofa; the current school buildings were constructed with assistance from the Chinese Government. The buildings were opened on 2 July 2005; the facilities include 34 classrooms and 18 laboratories and can accommodate over a thousand students. A planned second phase of construction was due to begin in 2009 with the building of a gymnasium, swimming pool and a sports stadium. Entry to Form 1 is restricted to those achieving the highest marks in national examinations taken by pupils in their last year of primary school.

There were 1,154 students enrolled at the school in 2005. Students can be members of four houses: Nua, Kava and Tele'a; the Current Principal for Tonga High School is Mrs'Amelia Fuko Folaumahina, Current Deputy Principals are Mrs Losana Latu and Mr'Enesi Vatuvei. Current Senior Tutor is Mr Saipalesi Unu and Current Senior Mistress is Mrs'Ilaisaane Mafi Latunipulu and Current School Chaplain is Rev Penisimani'Akauola Tonga. Tonga high school has a brass band. Sosefo Fe‘aomoeata Vakata - Tongan politician Afuʻalo Matoto - Tongan politician Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō - Tongan politician Viliami Latu - Tongan politician Pita Taufatofua - Australian taekwondo practitioner Clive Edwards - former Tongan Cabinet Minister Rev. Samisoni Fonomanu Tu'i'afitu - Tongan nobleman, Member of Parliament Dr. Futa Helu - founding classmember and Tongan philosopher, historian and founder of'Atenisi University Tonga High School Ex-Students' Web Site