The Illinois Country — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States. While these names referred to the entire Upper Mississippi River watershed, French colonial settlement was concentrated along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in what is now the U. S. states with outposts in Indiana. Explored in 1673 from Green Bay to the Arkansas River by the Canadien expedition of Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette, the area was claimed by France, it was settled from the Pays d'en Haut in the context of the fur trade. Over time, the fur trade took some French to the far reaches of the Rocky Mountains along the branches of the broad Missouri River valley; the French name, Pays des Illinois, means "Land of the Illinois " and is a reference to the Illinois Confederation, a group of related Algonquian native peoples. Up until 1717, the Illinois Country was governed by the French province of Canada, but by order of King Louis XV, the Illinois Country was annexed to the French province of Louisiana, with the northeastern administrative border being somewhat vaguely on or near the upper Illinois River.
The territory thus became known as "Upper Louisiana." By the mid-18th century, the major settlements included Cahokia, Chartres, Saint Philippe, Prairie du Rocher, all on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day Illinois. Genevieve across the river in Missouri, as well as Fort Vincennes in what is now Indiana; as a consequence of the French defeat in the Seven Years' War, the Illinois Country east of the Mississippi River was ceded to the British, the land west of the river to the Spanish. Following the British occupation of the left bank of the Mississippi in 1764, some Canadien settlers remained in the area, while others crossed the river, forming new settlements such as St. Louis; the eastern part of the Illinois Country became part of the British Province of Quebec, while the inhabitants chose to side with the Americans during the Revolutionary War. Although the lands west of the Mississippi were sold in 1803 to the United States by France—which had reclaimed possession of Luisiana from the Spanish in the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso—French language and culture continued to exist in the area, with the Missouri French dialect still being spoken into the 20th century.
Because of the deforestation that resulted from the cutting of much wood for fuel during the 19th-century age of steamboats, the Mississippi River became more shallow and broad, with more severe flooding and lateral changes in its channel in the stretch from St. Louis to the confluence with the Ohio River; as a consequence, many architectural and archaeological resources were lost to flooding and destruction of early French colonial villages located near the river, including Kaskaskia, St. Philippe and Ste. Genevieve; the boundaries of the Illinois Country were defined in a variety of ways, but the region now known as the American Bottom was nearly at the center of all descriptions. One of the earliest known geographic features designated as Ilinois was what became known as Lake Michigan, on a map prepared in 1671 by French Jesuits. Early French missionaries and traders referred to the area southwest and southeast of the lake, including much of the upper Mississippi Valley, by this name. Illinois was the name given to an area inhabited by the Illiniwek.
A map of 1685 labels a large area southwest of the lake les Ilinois. In 1721, the seventh civil and military district of Louisiana was named Illinois, it included more than half of the present state, as well as the land between the Arkansas River and the line of 43 degrees north latitude, the country between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River. A royal ordinance of 1722—following the transfer of the Illinois Country's governance from Canada to Louisiana—may have featured the broadest definition of the region: all land claimed by France south of the Great Lakes and north of the mouth of the Ohio River, which would include the lower Missouri Valley as well as both banks of the Mississippi. A generation trade conflicts between Canada and Louisiana led to a more defined boundary between the French colonies, thus and Peoria were the limit of Louisiana'a reach. This boundary between Canada and the Illinois Country remained in effect until the Treaty of Paris in 1763, after which France surrendered its remaining territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain.
As part of a general report on conditions in the newly conquered lands, Gen. Thomas Gage commandant at Montreal, explained in 1762 that, although the boundary between Louisiana and Canada wasn't exact, it was understood the upper Mississippi
Louisiana (New Spain)
Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1763 to 1801 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, which had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682, it is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded to France, under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso and the Treaty of Aranjuez. In 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 14 October, effecting the transfer and outlining the conditions. However, Spain agreed to continue administering the colony until French officials arrived and formalized the transfer; the ceremony was conducted at the Cabildo in New Orleans on 30 November 1803, just three weeks before the formalities of cession from France to the United States pursuant to the Louisiana Purchase. Spain was a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain.
During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American revolutionists through New Orleans and the vast Louisiana territory beyond. In keeping with being absentee landlords, Spanish efforts to turn Louisiana into a Spanish colony were fruitless. For instance, while Spanish was the only language of government, the majority of the populace continued to speak French. Official business conducted at the Cabildo lapsed into French, requiring a translator on hand; when Alejandro O'Reilly re-established Spanish rule in 1769, he issued a decree on December 7, 1769, which banned the trade of Native American slaves. Although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, that of others. A group of maroons led by Jean Saint Malo resisted re-enslavement from their base in the swamps east of New Orleans between 1780 and 1784. On May 4, 1795, 57 slaves and 3 local white men were put on trial in Point Coupee.
At the end of the trial 23 slaves were hanged, 31 slaves received a sentence of flogging and hard labor, the three white men were deported, with two being sentenced to six years forced labor in Havana. Spanish colonial officials divided Luisiana into Upper Louisiana and Lower Louisiana at 36° 35' North, at about the latitude of New Madrid; this was a higher latitude than during the French administration, for whom Lower Louisiana was the area south of about 31° North or the area south of where the Arkansas River joined the Mississippi River at about 33° 46' North latitude. In 1764, French fur trading interests founded St. Louis in what was known as the Illinois Country; the Spanish referred to St. Louis as "the city of Illinois" and governed the region from St. Louis as the "District of Illinois". To establish Spanish colonies in Louisiana, the Spanish military leader Bernardo de Gálvez, governor of Louisiana at the time, recruited groups of Spanish-speaking Canary Islanders to emigrate to North America.
In 1778, several ships embarked for Louisiana with hundreds of settlers. The ships made stops in Venezuela, where half the settlers disembarked. In the end, between 2,100 and 2,736 Canarians settled near New Orleans, they settled in what is today St. Bernard Parish. However, many settlers were relocated for various reasons. Barataria suffered hurricanes in 1779 and in 1780. In 1782, a splinter group of the Canarian settlers in Saint Bernard emigrated to Valenzuela. In 1779, another ship with 500 people from Málaga; these colonists, led by Lt. Col. Francisco Bouligny, settled in New Iberia, where they intermarried with Cajun settlers. In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War and the Anglo-Spanish War, Bernardo de Gálvez recruited men from the Canarian settlements of Louisiana and Galveston to join his forces, they participated in three major military campaigns: the Baton Rouge, the Mobile, the Pensacola, which expelled the British from the Gulf Coast. In 1790 settlers of mixed Canarian and Mexican origin from Galveston settled in Galveztown, Louisiana, to escape the annual flash floods and prolonged droughts of this area.
Beginning in the 1790s, following the slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue that began in 1791, waves of refugees came to Louisiana. Over the next decade, thousands of migrants from the island landed there, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, African slaves, some of the latter brought in by the white elites, they increased the French-speaking population in New Orleans and Louisiana, as well as the number of Africans, the slaves reinforced African culture in the city. The French established settlements in French Louisiana beginning in the 17th century; the French began exploring the region from French Canada. 1762 – As negotiations began to end the Seven Years' War, Louis XV of France secretly proposed to his cousin Charles III of Spain that France give Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. 1763 – The Treaty of Paris ended the war, with a provision in which France ceded all territory east of the Mississippi to Britain. Spain ceded land east of the Mississippi to Britain.
1763 – George III of the United Kingdom, in the Royal P
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams signed into law on May 7, 1800, to form an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, to December 11, 1816, when the remaining southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana. The territory contained 259,824 square miles of land, but its size was decreased when it was subdivided to create the Michigan Territory and the Illinois Territory; the Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. William Henry Harrison, the territory's first governor, oversaw treaty negotiations with the native inhabitants that ceded tribal lands to the U. S. government, opening large parts of the territory to further settlement. In 1809 the U. S. Congress established a bicameral legislative body for the territory that included a popularly-elected House of Representatives and a Legislative Council.
In addition, the territorial government began planning for a basic transportation network and education system, but efforts to attain statehood for the territory were delayed due to war. At the outbreak of Tecumseh's War, when the territory was on the front line of battle, Harrison led a military force in the opening hostilities at the Battle of Tippecanoe and in the subsequent invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. After Harrison resigned as the territorial governor, Thomas Posey was appointed to the vacant governorship, but the opposition party, led by Congressman Jonathan Jennings, dominated territorial affairs in its final years and began pressing for statehood. In June 1816 a constitutional convention was held at Corydon, where a state constitution was adopted on June 29, 1816. General elections were held in August to fill offices for the new state government, the new officeholders were sworn into office in November, the territory was dissolved. On December 11, 1816, President James Madison signed the congressional act that formally admitted Indiana to the Union as the nineteenth state.
When the Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 its original boundaries included the western portion the Northwest Territory. This encompassed an area northwest of a line beginning at the Ohio River, on the bank opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky River, extending northeast to Fort Recovery, in present-day western Ohio, north to the border between the United States and Canada along a line 84 degrees 45 minnutes West longitude; the territory included most of the present-day state of Indiana, all of present-day states of Illinois and Wisconsin, fragments of present-day Minnesota that were east of the Mississippi River, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula the western half of the Lower Peninsula of present-day Michigan, a narrow strip of land in present-day Ohio, northwest of Fort Recovery. This latter parcel became part of Ohio when it attained statehood in 1803; the Indiana Territory's southeast boundary was shifted in 1803, when Ohio became a state, to the mouth of the Great Miami River from its former location opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River.
In addition, the eastern part of present-day Michigan was added to the Indiana Territory. The territory's geographical area was further reduced in 1805 with the creation of the Michigan Territory to the north, in 1809, when the Illinois Territory was established to the west; the Indiana Territory's government passed through a non-representative phase from 1800 to 1804. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance, during the non-representative phase of territorial government the U. S. Congress, after 1789, the president with congressional approval, appointed a governor and three judges to govern each new territory. Local inhabitants did not elect these territorial officials. During the second, or semi-legislative phase of government, the territory's adult males who owned at least fifty acres of land elected representatives to the lower house of the territorial legislature. In addition, the Congress, the president with congressional approval, appointed five adult males who owned at least five hundred acres of land to the upper house of the territorial legislature from a list of ten candidates that the lower house submitted for consideration.
In the semi-legislative phase of government, the upper and lower houses could legislate for the territory, but the territorial governor retained absolute veto power. When the territory reached a population of 60,000 free inhabitants, it entered the final phase that included its successful petition to Congress for statehood. In 1803, when the Indiana Territory was formed from the remaining Northwest Territory after Ohio attained statehood, the requirement for proceeding to the second or semi-legislative phase of territorial government was modified. Instead of requiring the territory's population to reach 5,000 free adult males, the second phase could be initiated when the majority of territory's free landholders informed the territorial governor that they wanted to do so. In 1810 the requirement for voters to be landholders was replaced with a law granting voting rights to all free adult males who paid county or territorial taxes and had resided in the territory for at least a year; because of William Henry Harrison's leadership in securing passage of the Land Act of 1800 and his help in forming the Indiana Terri
The Cabildo was the seat of Spanish colonial city hall of New Orleans, is now the Louisiana State Museum Cabildo. It is located along Jackson Square, adjacent to St. Louis Cathedral; the original Cabildo was destroyed in the Great New Orleans Fire. The Cabildo was rebuilt between 1795–99 as the home of the Spanish municipal government in New Orleans, in 1821 Spanish coat of arms removed from the façade pediment and replaced with the extant American eagle with cannonballs by the Italian sculptor Pietro Cardelli and the third floor with mansard roof was added in 1847, in French style; the building took its name from the governing body who met there—the "Illustrious Cabildo," or city council. The Cabildo was the site of the Louisiana Purchase transfer ceremonies late in 1803, continued to be used by the New Orleans city council until the mid-1850s; the building's main hall, the Sala Capitular, was utilized as a courtroom. The Spanish used the courtroom from 1799 to 1803, from 1803 to 1812 it was used by the Louisiana territorial superior court.
During the years between 1868 and 1910, the Cabildo was the seat of the Louisiana Supreme Court. The Sala Capitular was the site including Plessy v. Ferguson. In 1895 the building proposed for demolition. In 1911, the Cabildo became the home of the Louisiana State Museum; the museum displays exhibits about the history of Louisiana from its settlement up through the Reconstruction Era, about the heritage of the ethnic groups who have lived in the state. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960; the Cabildo was extensively damaged by a fire on May 11, 1988, which destroyed the cupola and the entire third floor, but it was restored and reopened to the public in 1994. In 2005, the Cabildo survived Hurricane Katrina, the eye of which passed 30 miles east of downtown, with minor damage. Days after the storm struck, the Louisiana State Police used the business offices of the Cabildo to set up what was called Troop N. From the Cabildo, state troopers patrolled the city's streets along with police agencies from New Mexico and New York.
Vieux Carré – the surrounding area Louisiana Purchase Louisiana State Museum The Presbytere, the twin of the Cabildo List of National Historic Landmarks in Louisiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Orleans Parish, Louisiana The Cabildo on the Louisiana State Museum website The Cabildo: Two Centuries of Louisiana History at the Louisiana Dept. of Culture, Recreation & Tourism Friends of the Cabildo website