Andrew Meikle was a Scottish mechanical engineer credited with inventing the threshing machine, a device used to remove the outer husks from grains of wheat. He had a hand in assisting Firbeck in the invention of the Rotherham Plough and this was regarded as one of the key developments of the British Agricultural Revolution in the late 18th century. The invention was made around 1786, although some say he only improved on a design by a Scottish farmer named Leckie. Meikle worked as a millwright at Houston Mill in East Linton, East Lothian and he died at Houston Mill and is buried in East Lintons Prestonkirk Parish Church kirkyard, close to Rennies father, George Rennie, who farmed the nearby Phantassie estate by the River Tyne. In 2011 he was one of seven inductees to the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame. List of places in East Lothian Phantassie Doocot Gazetteer for Scotland entry for Andrew Meikle
A bushel is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity. The old bushel was equal to 4 pecks or 8 gallons and was used mostly for agricultural products such as wheat, at present, the volume is usually only nominal, with bushels referring to standard quantities of mass instead. Two pecks make a kenning, and four pecks make a bushel, the name bushel is used to translate similar units in other measurement systems. The name is an anglicization of the Old French boissiel and buissiel and it may further derive from Old French boise, thus meaning little butt. The bushel is a value between the pound and ton or tun that was introduced to England following the Norman Conquest. Norman statutes made the London bushel part of the measure of English wine, ale. In either case, the bushel was reckoned to contain 64 pounds of 12 ounces of 20 pence of 32 grains and these measures were based on the relatively light tower pound and were rarely used in Scotland, Ireland, or Wales during the Middle Ages.
When the Tower system was abolished in the 16th century, the bushel was redefined as 56 avoirdupois pounds. The imperial bushel established by the Weights and Measures Act of 1824 described the bushel as the volume of 80 avoirdupois pounds of distilled water in air at 62 °F or 8 imperial gallons and this is the bushel in some use in the United Kingdom. Thus there is no distinction between liquid and dry measure in the imperial system, the Winchester bushel was the volume of a cylinder 18.5 in in diameter and 8 in high, which gives an irrational number of cubic inches. The modern American or US bushel is a variant of this, rounded to exactly 2150.42 cubic inches and it is somewhat in use in Canada. Bushels are now most often used as units of mass or weight rather than of volume, the bushels in which grains are bought and sold on commodity markets or at local grain elevators, and for reports of grain production, are all units of weight. This is done by assigning a weight to each commodity that is to be measured in bushels.
These bushels depend on the commodities being measured and the moisture content. Some of the common ones are, Oats, USA,32 lb Canada,34 lb Barley,48 lb Malted barley,34 lb Shelled maize at 15. 5% moisture by weight,56 lb Wheat at 13. Government policy in the United States is to phase out units such as the bushel, the German bushel was the Scheffel. The Polish bushel was used as measure of dry capacity and it was divided into 4 quarters and in the early 19th century had a value of 128 litres in Warsaw and 501.116 litres in Kraków. The Spanish bushel was used as a measure of dry capacity and it was roughly equal to 55.5 litres in Castille
The first threshing machine was destroyed on Saturday night,28 August 1830, and by the third week of October more than 100 threshing machines had been destroyed in East Kent. If captured, the protesters faced charges of arson, riot, machine breaking and those convicted faced imprisonment and possibly execution. In parliament Lord Carnarvon had said that the English labourer was reduced to a plight more abject than that of any race in Europe, with their employers no longer able to feed, the Swing letters were first mentioned by The Times newspaper on 21 October 1830. Early nineteenth-century England was virtually unique among major nations in having no class of landed smallholding peasantry, probably one of the main reasons for the Swing Riots were the Enclosure Acts of rural England. Between 1770 and 1830 about 6 million acres of land were enclosed. The common land had been used for centuries by the poor of the countryside to graze their animals and this land was now divided up among the large local landowners, leaving the landless farmworkers solely dependent upon working for their richer neighbours for a cash wage.
According to social historians John and Barbara Hammond, enclosure was fatal to three classes, the farmer, the cottager and the squatter. Before enclosure the cottager was a labourer with land, after enclosure he was a labourer without land, in contrast to the Hammond’s 1911 analysis of the events, the historian G. E. The modern historians of the Swing riots, Eric Hobsbawm and George Rudé could cite only three of a total of 1,475 incidents as being caused by enclosure. However, this revisionist approach itself has been challenged by more recent historians. In the 1780s workers would be employed at annual hiring fairs, during this period the worker would receive payment in kind and in cash from his employer, would often work at his side, and would commonly share meals at the employers table. As time passed the gulf between farmer and employee widened, workers were hired on stricter cash-only contracts, which ran for increasing shorter periods. First monthly terms became the norm, contracts were offered for as little as a week, historically the monasteries had taken responsibility for the impotent poor, but after their dissolution in 1536-9, it passed to the parishes.
The Act of Settlement in 1662, had confined relief strictly to those who were natives of the parish. The poor law system charged a Parish Rate to landowners and tenants and these payments were minimal, and at times degrading conditions were required for their receipt. As more and more people became dependent on relief, ratepayers rebelled ever more loudly against the costs. Three and a half one gallon bread loaves were considered necessary for a man in Berkshire in 1795, however provision had fallen to just two similar-sized loaves being provided in 1817 Wiltshire. To this mixture was added the burden of the church tithe, originally this had been the churchs right to a tenth of the parish harvest
Bangladesh, officially the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar, Nepal and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The countrys maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area, Bangladesh is the worlds eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong which has the countrys largest port, Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people of different ethnic groups and religions, who speak the official Bengali, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the worlds third largest Muslim-majority country, most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km of inland waterways, highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef and it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The countrys biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including critically endangered Bengal tigers, the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which had trade links for millennia. The Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries, the region was home to many principalities which had inland naval prowess. It was a center of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance, the Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan, and was renamed as East Pakistan. The region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, after independence, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy, the country has been affected by poverty, natural disasters, dominant party systems and military coups.
Bangladesh is a power and a major developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, it has the 46th largest economy and it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Malaysia, with its strategically vital location between Southern and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation
A threshing machine or thresher is a piece of farm equipment that threshes grain, that is, removes the seeds from the stalks and husks. It does so by beating the plant to make the fall out. Mechanization of this removed a substantial amount of drudgery from farm labor. During the 19th century and mechanical reapers and reaper-binders gradually became widespread, separate reaper-binders and threshers have largely been replaced by machines that combine all of their functions, that is, combine harvesters or combines. For example, pedal-powered threshers are a low-cost option, and some Amish sects use horse-drawn binders, as the verb thresh is cognate with the verb thrash, the names thrashing machine and thrasher are alternate forms. The Swing Riots in the UK were partly a result of the threshing machine, following years of war, high taxes and low wages, farm labourers finally revolted in 1830. These farm labourers had faced unemployment for a number of years due to the introduction of the threshing machine.
No longer were thousands of men needed to tend the crops, with fewer jobs, lower wages and no prospects of things improving for these workers the threshing machine was the final straw, the machine was to place them on the brink of starvation. The Swing Rioters smashed threshing machines and threatened farmers who had them, the riots were dealt with very harshly. Nine of the rioters were hanged and a further 450 were transported to Australia, early threshing machines were hand-fed and horse-powered. They were small by todays standards and were about the size of an upright piano, machines were steam-powered, driven by a portable engine or traction engine. Isaiah Jennings, an inventor, created a small thresher that doesnt harm the straw in the process. In 1834, John Avery and Hiram Abial Pitts devised significant improvements to a machine that automatically threshes and separates grain from chaff, freeing farmers from a slow and Pitts were granted United States patent #542 on December 29,1837.
John Ridley, an Australian inventor, developed a machine in South Australia in 1843. Where coals are plenty and cheap, steam may be used for working the machine. Steam-powered machines used belts connected to an engine, often both engine and thresher belonged to a contractor who toured the farms of a district. Steam remained a commercial option until the early post-WWII years. Threshing is just one step of the process in getting cereals to the grinding mill, the wheat needs to be grown, stooked, threshed, de-chaffed, straw baled, and the grain hauled to a grain elevator
Communal work is a gathering to accomplish a task or to hold a competition. A number of cultures have such gatherings, often for the purpose of holding a competition, such as a bee, or for providing manual labour, such as in a barn raising. Especially in the past major jobs, such as clearing a field of timber or raising a barn and it was often both a social and utilitarian event. Jobs like corn husking or sewing could be done as a group to allow socializing during an otherwise tedious chore, such gatherings often included refreshments and entertainment. Different words have been used to such gatherings. This use of the bee is common in literature describing colonial North America. It was, and continues to be, commonly used in Australia also, uses in literature include, There was a bee to-day for making a road up to the church. — Anne Langton The cellar … was dug by a bee in a single day, sometimes the women would have spinning bees. They would put rolls among their neighbors and on a day they would all bring in their yarn.
He never took a salary, had a farm of 80 acres and the church helped him get his wood, — James Slocum I am in a regular quandary, said the mistress of the house, when the meal was about half over. Mr. Van Brunt looked up for an instant, and asked, how I am ever going to do to get those apples and sausage-meat done. If I go to doing em myself I shall about get through by spring, why dont you make a bee. said Mr. Van Brunt. Because the word describes people working together in a social group, harambee literally means all pull together in Swahili, and is the official motto of Kenya and appears on its coat of arms. Naffīr is an Arabic word used in parts of Sudan to describe types of communal work undertakings. Naffīr has been described as including a group recruited through networks, in-laws and village neighbors for some particular purpose. The word may be related to the standard Arabic word nafr which describes a band, group or troop, in standard Arabic, a naffīr āmm refers to a general call to arms.
Naffīr has used in a military context in Sudan. For example, the term was used to refer to the an-Naffīr ash-Shaabī or Peoples Militias that operated in the central Nuba Mountains region in the early 1990s, gotong-royong is a conception of sociality familiar to large parts of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia
A silo is a structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are used in agriculture to store grain or fermented feed known as silage, Silos are more commonly used for bulk storage of grain, cement, carbon black, food products and sawdust. Three types of silos are in use today, tower silos, bunker silos. There are different types of cement silos such as the low-level mobile silo and the static upright cement silo, the low-level silos are fully mobile with capacities from 10 to 75 tons. They are simple to transport and are easy to set up on site and these mobile silos generally come equipped with an electronic weighing system with digital display and printer. This allows any quantity of cement or powder discharged from the silo to be controlled, the static upright silos have capacities from 20 to 80 tons. These are considered an option for the storage of cement or other powders. Cement silos can be used in conjunction with bin-fed batching plants, Cement can be stored in different types of Silos like Horizontal Mobile Silos, Concrete Silos, Steel Panel Silos etc. depending upon the requirement of the end user.
While Mobile Silos come in a small storage capacity of approximately 90MT of Cement. A majority of Silos that store more than 5000 MT of Cement are constructed from Concrete, a good compromise between cost, construction time and ease of operation is Steel Panel Silos. Storage silos are cylindrical structures, typically 10 to 90 ft in diameter and 30 to 275 ft in height with the slipform and Jumpform concrete silos being the diameter and taller silos. They can be made of many materials, wood staves, concrete staves, cast concrete, and steel panels have all been used, and have varying cost and airtightness tradeoffs. Silos storing grain and woodchips are typically unloaded with air slides or augers, Silos can be unloaded into rail cars, trucks or conveyors. Bottom silo unloaders are utilized at times but have problems with difficulty of repair, an advantage of tower silos is that the silage tends to pack well due to its own weight, except in the top few feet. However, this may be a disadvantage for items like chopped wood, the tower silo was invented by Franklin Hiram King.
In bumper crop times, the grain is stored in piles without silos or bins. Concrete stave silos are constructed from small precast concrete blocks with ridged grooves along each edge that lock them together into a high strength shell. Concrete is much stronger in compression than tension, so the silo is reinforced with steel hoops encircling the tower and compressing the staves into a tight ring
A harvest festival is an annual celebration that occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region. Given the differences in climate and crops around the world, harvest festivals can be found at times at different places. Harvest festivals typically feature feasting, both family and public, with foods that are drawn from crops that come to maturity around the time of the festival, in North America and the US each have their own Thanksgiving celebrations in October and November. In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times, Harvest festival is traditionally held on the Sunday near or of the Harvest Moon. This is the full Moon that occurs closest to the autumn equinox, in British and English-Caribbean churches and schools, and some Canadian churches, people bring in produce from the garden, the allotment or farm. The food is distributed among the poor and senior citizens of the local community, or used to raise funds for the church. In the United States, many churches bring in food from the garden or farm in order to celebrate the harvest, the festival is set for a specific day and has become a national holiday known as Thanksgiving which falls on the fourth Thursday in November.
Harvest festivals in Asia include the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival, one of the most widely spread harvest festivals in the world, in Iran Mehrgan was celebrated in an extravagant style at Persepolis. Not only was it the time for harvest, but it was the time when the taxes were collected, visitors from different parts of the Persian Empire brought gifts for the king all contributing to a lively festival. Harvest is from the Old English word hærfest, meaning Autumn and it came to refer to the season for reaping and gathering grain and other grown products. The full moon nearest the autumnal equinox is called the Harvest Moon. Therefore, coinciding with ancient tradition, an early harvest festival used to be celebrated at the beginning of the harvest season on 1 August and was called Lammas, meaning loaf Mass. The Latin prayer to hallow the bread is given in the Durham Ritual, farmers made loaves of bread from the fresh wheat crop. These were given to the church as the Communion bread during a special service thanking God for the harvest.
By the sixteenth century a number of customs seem to have been established around the gathering of the final harvest. A play by Thomas Nashe, Summers Last Will and Testament, there is a character personifying harvest who comes on stage attended by men dressed as reapers, he refers to himself as their master and ends the scene by begging the audience for a largesse. The scene is inspired by contemporary harvest celebrations, and singing and drinking feature largely. The last verse is repeated in full after the character Harvest remarks to the audience Is your throat cleare to helpe us sing hooky, hooky. a prose work of 1613 refers to the practice as predating the Reformation. Describing the character of a farmer, it says, Early English settlers took the idea of harvest thanksgiving to North America
Romanian dress refers to the traditional clothing worn by Romanians, who live primarily in Romania and Moldova, with smaller communities in Ukraine and Serbia. Today, the vast majority of Romanians wear modern style dress on most occasions, they can still be seen in more remote areas, on special occasions, and at ethnographic and folk events. Each historical region has its own variety of costume. Romanian traditional clothing can be classified according to seven traditional regions and these can be further subdivided by ethnographic zones, which may range between 40 and 120, depending on the criteria used. Between 7000 and 3500 BC was founded the belief in the one controlling power of the cosmos, fabrics wore symbols appointed by virtue of faith, thus spinning and weaving became sacred. Therefore, were customary on the dresses the solar circle, the column of the sky, the rhomb, since 3500 BC and until year zero has passed from the sacred weaving to the vestment, the ritual reaching from the imposing space of the temple to the household hearth.
The purpose of the worn by the ancestors was to facilitate dialogue with the unseen forces of the cosmos. Thus, it is possible to talk about a civilization of sacred fabrics. For example, the thread of spun is column-shaped and spirally twisted, having different colors is the most useful means for expressing feelings and behaviors. Popular clothes Carpatho-Danubian territory summarizes existential and spiritual dimension of Romanians, but component parts of clothes multiplied, as a result, the autochthonous popular garment is a system of which developed the regional variations, through innovations and contaminations caused by each creator against the prototype schema. The form and ornametics of the contemporary garments preserved a part of the language of signs, the first testimonies about Romanian traditional port are set in stone, on Tropaeum Traiani monument in Adamclisi and Trajans Column in Rome. For example, women portraits carved on Trajans Column after the Dacian wars provide information about their clothing, Dacian women wore shirts rippled at the neck related to the Romanian ie.
Sleeves were either long and wide or short, the dress was long to the ground, over which sometimes was attached a wide draped mantle. In the feet they wore leather sandals in summer and fur sandals in winter, portraits of the founders provide important information about the type of material of which were made the pieces of the port and about elements of tailoring and chromatics. Between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, votive paintings on the walls of churches reserved to countrys rulers, as a result, in the sub-Carpathian areas of Oltenia appear portraits of free peasants and yeomen. But representations of peasant port date from the fourteenth century, in Chronicon Pictum Vindobonense are portrayed men in white shirts and trousers. Over they wore shaggy sarici with long sleeves and left on back, in a simple comparative analysis it can be grasped that these elements are always present in the port of remote shepherds. Boyar shirts were of silk, embroidered with gold thread and decorated with pearls, the costume of Oltenia peasant women was composed of cotton shirts sewn with altițe, striped catrințe and bete
Astore is one of the nine districts of the Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the population was 71,666, the Astore valley has an area of 5,092 km² and an altitude of 2600m. Astore is connected to Gilgit which is connected by air with Islamabad and by road with Islamabad/Rawalpindi, Skardu. You can take a flight to Gilgit from the capital of the country and it connects its extremist with the Indian held Kashmir, Northwest connects with Pakistan held Kashmir, in the East it connects with the Skardu, in the West it connects to outskirts of Chilas. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, around 1600, Astore valley has a moderate climate during summer, in winter it can snow up to 6 inches in the main valleys and up to 2–3 feet in the mountains. In Mirmalik valley it snows up to 6 feet in February, the main language spoken in the valley is Shina. Urdu, which is the National language of Pakistan, is the second most frequently spoken language. There are different dialect of Shina spoken in the region.
Since Astore has a history of modest tourist traffic in the months, local guides. According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2015, Astore is ranked 32 out of 148 districts in terms of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 114 out of 148, Astore goreqoot is one of the educational village of Astore where the educational ratio is high up to 99%. It contained village of goreqoot is including 3 beautiful lakes and natural beauty, Gorikot is the beautiful valley in distric Astore and population is almost 2000. Tarzay Tarishing Rupal, Nanga Parbat Eidghah Louze Biyan Bunji Choungrah Chamrote, Having more than 290 families. Goreqoot is one of the biggest village in Astore and it has some sub villages like bazaar yearya peroot domosar hilbich ahmad abad kenaydasy sargaly babay yearyea dagant etc. It is the gateway of Astore, it consists above than 1370 homes, dashkin Douan Khuma eidgah astore main sunter numbardar the house Parishing Lous Khangrool Ramkha Chougam Mushkay Theeng paine Theeng Bala Theeg bala is a small village, the population is 300 people.
Landslides and rockfall may be an issue in areas of the Indus Valley. There is a permanent road through Gilgit as well as road access via Deosai Plateau to Skardu. Here you can obtain all types of vehicles and hire jeeps, the most used vehicles are Jeeps and SUVs with a local preference for Pajeros and Landcruisers. Astore lies about the base of Nanga Parbat, the 9th highest peak in the world
Pig wrestling is a type of game sometimes played at agricultural shows such as state and county fairs, in which contestants, usually children or young adults, try to grab a slippery pig. In the most common version of the game, a team of four members chases a domestic pig around a fenced-off mud pit and attempts to place it in a barrel, in a race against the clock. In some events the pigs are greased with vegetable or mineral oil in order to make catching the pig more difficult, rules vary depending on the venue. Some contests use larger pigs, while others use those that are smaller, some include a single pig, while others use more than one. The pigs are coated with shortening, vegetable oil, contestants chase the pigs around a field or other determined area. Depending on the contest, contestants try to get one or both hands on the pig and hold the pig down, or drag the pig to a set point. There may be several rounds per contest, the prize for winning is often the pig itself. Children too young to compete in pig wrestling may compete in a pig chase. A more juvenile pig is used for this competition.
Concerns have been raised by animal rights organizations that using pigs in this form of entertainment is inhumane, the wrestling may impose undue emotional stress on the pigs, as evidenced by fearful squealing, and causes physical torsional stress on the pigs joints. Some fairs have thus eliminated pig wrestling from their events, in Minnesota, pig wrestling is a misdemeanor. A variant is shown in The Man in the Iron Mask in which a pig dressed to look like a unicorn is released with a valuable gem hung around its neck, the first to capture the pig is allowed to keep the treasure. The television show Family Guy parodies this concept with the Greased-up Deaf Guy, in a 2014 episode of the Discovery Channel series MythBusters, the Build Team investigated the difficulty of catching a greased pig, both with and without technological assistance
A flea market is a type of bazaar that rents or provides space to people who want to sell or barter merchandise. Used goods, cheap items and antiques are commonly sold, many markets offer fresh produce or baked goods, plants from local farms and vintage clothes. Renters of the flea market tables are called vendors and it may be indoors, as in a warehouse or school gymnasium, or outdoors, as in a field or parking lot or under a tent. Flea markets can be annually or semiannually, others may be conducted monthly, on weekends. Flea market vending is distinguished from street vending in that the market itself, many flea markets have food vendors who sell snacks and drinks to the patrons. Some flea market vendors have been targeted by law enforcement efforts to halt the sale of bootleg movies and music or knockoff brand clothing, electrical goods, different English-speaking countries use various names for flea markets. In Australian English, they are called trash and treasure markets, in Philippine English, the word is tianggê from the Nahuatl tianguis via Mexican Spanish, supplanting the indigenous term talipapâ.
In India it is known as gurjari or shrukawadi bazaar or even as juna bazaar, in the United Kingdom they are known as car boot sales if the event takes place in a field or car park, as the vendors will sell goods from the boot of their car. If the event is held indoors, such as a school or church hall, it is known as either a jumble sale, or a bring. In Quebec and France, they are often called Marché aux puces, while in French-speaking areas of Belgium, the name Brocante or vide-grenier is normally used. In Switzerland the Swiss German language term Flomärt, for example for the well-known Bürkliplatz-Flomärt is used, being a variation of the Allemanic word of Flohmarkt, in the predominantly Cuban/Hispanic areas of South Florida, they are called pulgero from pulga, the Spanish word for fleas. While the concept existed in such as what are now India and China for millennia. According to one theory, the Fly Market in 18th-century New York City began the association, the Dutch word vlaie was located at Maiden Lane near the East River in Manhattan.
The land on which the market stood was originally a marsh with a brook. Another theory maintains that flea market is a common English calque from the French marché aux puces, the first reference to this term appeared in two conflicting stories about a location in Paris in the 1860s which was known as the marché aux puces. The traditional and most-publicised story is in the article What Is a Flea Market