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Threshing machine

A threshing machine or a thresher is a piece of farm equipment that threshes grain, that is, it removes the seeds from the stalks and husks. It does so by beating the plant to make the seeds fall out. Before such machines were developed, threshing was done by hand with flails: such hand threshing was laborious and time-consuming, taking about one-quarter of agricultural labour by the 18th century. Mechanization of this process removed a substantial amount of drudgery from farm labour; the first threshing machine was invented circa 1786 by the Scottish engineer Andrew Meikle, the subsequent adoption of such machines was one of the earlier examples of the mechanization of agriculture. During the 19th century and mechanical reapers and reaper-binders became widespread and made grain production much less laborious. Michael Stirling is said to have invented a rotary threshing machine in 1758 which for forty years was used to process all the corn on his farm at Gateside. No published works have yet been found but his son William made a sworn statement to his minister to this fact.

He gave him the details of his father's death in 1796. Separate reaper-binders and threshers have been replaced by machines that combine all of their functions, combine harvesters or combines. However, the simpler machines remain important as appropriate technology in low-capital farming contexts, both in developing countries and in developed countries on small farms that strive for high levels of self-sufficiency. For example, pedal-powered threshers are a low-cost option, some Amish sects use horse-drawn binders and old-style threshers; as the verb thresh is cognate with the verb thrash, the names thrashing machine and thrasher are alternate forms. The Swing Riots in the UK were a result of the threshing machine. Following years of war, high taxes and low wages, farm labourers revolted in 1830; these farm labourers had faced unemployment for a number of years due to the widespread introduction of the threshing machine and the policy of enclosing fields. No longer were thousands of men needed to tend the crops, a few would suffice.

With fewer jobs, lower wages and no prospects of things improving for these workers the threshing machine was the final straw, the machine was to place them on the brink of starvation. The Swing Rioters smashed threatened farmers who had them; the riots were dealt with harshly. Nine of the rioters were hanged and a further 450 were transported to Australia. Early threshing machines were horse-powered, they were about the size of an upright piano. Machines were steam-powered, driven by a portable engine or traction engine. Isaiah Jennings, a skilled inventor, created a small thresher that doesn't harm the straw in the process. In 1834, John Avery and Hiram Abial Pitts devised significant improvements to a machine that automatically threshes and separates grain from chaff, freeing farmers from a slow and laborious process. Avery and Pitts were granted United States patent #542 on December 29, 1837. John Ridley, an Australian inventor developed a threshing machine in South Australia in 1843; the 1881 Household Cyclopedia said of Meikle's machine: "Since the invention of this machine, Mr. Meikle and others have progressively introduced a variety of improvements, all tending to simplify the labour, to augment the quantity of the work performed.

When first erected, though the grain was well separated from the straw, yet as the whole of the straw and grain, was indiscriminately thrown into a confused heap, the work could only with propriety be considered as half executed. By the addition of rakes, or shakers, two pairs of fanners, all driven by the same machinery, the different processes of thrashing and winnowing are now all at once performed, the grain prepared for the public market; when it is added, that the quantity of grain gained from the superior powers of the machine is equal to a twentieth part of the crop, that, in some cases, the expense of thrashing and cleaning the grain is less than what was paid for cleaning it alone, the immense saving arising from the invention will at once be seen."The expense of horse labour, from the increased value of the animal and the charge of his keeping, being an object of great importance, it is recommended that, upon all sizable farms, to say, where two hundred acres, or upwards, of grain are sown, the machine should be worked by wind, unless where local circumstances afford the conveniency of water.

Where coals are plenty and cheap, steam may be advantageously used for working the machine."Steam-powered machines used belts connected to a traction engine. Steam remained a viable commercial option until the early post-WWII years. Threshing is just one step of the process in getting cereals to customer; the wheat needs to be grown, stooked, threshed, de-chaffed, straw baled, the grain hauled to a grain elevator. For many years each of these steps was an individual process, requiring teams of workers and many machines. In the steep hill wheat country of Palouse in the Northwest of the United States, steep ground meant moving machinery around was problematic and prone to rolling. To reduce the amount of work on the sidehills, the idea arose of combining the wheat binder and thresher into one machine, known as a combine harvester. About 1910, horse pulled combines became a success. Gas and diesel engines appeared with other refinements and specifications. Mo

Beverly Rudd

Beverly Rudd is a British television and theatre actress. She rose to prominence playing the role of Tina in the BBC Three sitcom Massive, she won a Royal Television Society award for her work on the show. She joined the cast of comedy sketch show Scallywagga. From 2011 until 2018 Rudd played the regular role of Lisa in the Sky One comedy drama Trollied. Aside from television work the actress has concentrated on her theatre work and has appeared in numerous stage productions. Rudd completed her training with London Academy of Dramatic Art, her early on-screen credits include Marie in the Channel 4 comedy drama No Angels, Gussie in ITV's drama Octavia and Dawn in Lindy Heymann's Coming Up film Service. In 2008, Rudd joined the cast of BBC Three sitcom Massive playing Tina; the show starred Carl Rice and Faye McKeever. In 2009, Rudd won the "Best Performance in a Comedy" accolade at the Royal Television Society North West Awards. In 2010, Rudd joined the cast of BBC comedy sketch show Scallywagga during the second season, which starred Rice.

She appeared in Coronation Street as Brigitte and Shameless as Liz. In 2011, the actress joined the cast of the Sky One comedy drama Trollied; the character is a rude checkout assistant, not committed to her job role. The show starred Rudd's Massive co-stars Rice and McKeever. In addition Rudd and Rice's characters Lisa and Colin were a romantic double act through out the show's tenure; the show remained on-air until 2018. Rudd has concentrated on theatre work and her acting credits include The Twits at the Curve Theatre, Dead Dog In A Suitcase for an international tour and The Hole Story tour with Paines Plough. Rudd appeared in James And The Giant Peach at the West Yorkshire Playhouse and Much Ado About Nothing at the Royal Exchange Theatre. At the Regent's Park Open Air Theatre she has performed in Peter Pan, The Beggars Opera and Into The Woods, she played roles in the musical Soho Cinders at the Soho Theatre, The Little Mermaid at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre, The Magistrate, televised live at the National Theatre Company, Days Of Significance at the Tricycle theatre and Titus Andronicus at the Paradoxos Theatre.

She toured the UK in the Kneehigh production of Tin Drum. Sources: Beverly Rudd on IMDb Beverly Rudd at Shepherd Management


Othiyathur is a large village located in Gangavalli of Salem district, Tamil Nadu with total 933 families. The Othiyathur village has population of 3465 of which 1771 are males while 1694 are females as per Population 2011. In Othiyathur village population of children with age 0-6 is 330 which makes up 9.52 % of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Othiyathur village is 957, lower than Tamil Nadu state average of 996. Child Sex Ratio for the Othiyathur as per is 897, lower than Tamil Nadu average of 943. Othiyathur village has lower rate compared to Tamil Nadu. In 2011, rate of Othiyathur village was 71.77 % compared to 80.09 % of Tamil Nadu. In Othiyathur Male stands at 78.90 % while female rate was 64.37 %. As per constitution of India and Panchyati Raaj Act, Othiyathur village is by Sarpanch, elected representative of village. In Othiyathur village out of total population, 2187 were engaged in work activities. 99.82 % of workers describe their work as Main Work while 0.18 % were involved in Marginal activity providing for less than 6 months.

Of 2187 workers engaged in Main Work, 700 were. Nearest airport is Salem Airport, 65 km away from Odiyathur. Nearest railway station is Attur, 10 km away from Odiyathur. Saint Maria magdalene catholic church Goddess Mariammal Goddess Selliamman Government Panchayat Union Middle School, Othiyathur Golden Polytechnic College, Salem


AIDAmira is a cruise ship operating for AIDA Cruises, a subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc. The ship most operated as Costa neoRiviera for sister brand, Costa Cruises, before debuting for AIDA Cruises in December 2019; the ship was ordered by Renaissance Cruises in the summer of 1996, but the order was withdrawn. The yard and bankers together held ownership of the ship through a company called Auxiliaire Maritime. During construction at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, the order was taken over by Festival Cruises, which would be receiving its first new-build vessel. Festival Cruises chartered the ship for the first 12 years, with the option to purchase the ship after the first six years; the ship was floated out on 2 January 1999 from the shipyard and was christened on 25 June 1999 by Claude Deschamps, wife of French football player, Didier Deschamps. She sailed her maiden cruise on a 7-day cruise from Genoa to the Greek islands, she was deployed to Guadeloupe in the Caribbean after her inaugural Mediterranean season.

She operated from Cuba. Festival Cruises collapsed in 2004 and most of the company's fleet, including Mistral, was sold off. Mistral was sold back to Alstrom Group and chartered to Viajes Iberojet and operated by Ibero Cruises, having been marketed as Iberostar Mistral. Mistral was sold to Iberojet at an auction and subsequently renamed Grand Mistral, debuting for the cruise line on 30 May 2005. In 2007, Carnival Corporation & plc formed a joint venture with Orizonia Corporation under Orizonia's Iberojet Cruceros brand, with Carnival owning 75% and Orizonia owning 25% of the company. With this, Grand Mistral would now be operated by the new joint venture company. Grand Mistral exited the Ibero Cruises fleet in November 2013 after being transferred to Costa Cruises. In August 2013, Costa Cruises announced that Grand Mistral would be transferred to Costa Cruises cancelling the South American itineraries from Santos, Brazil operated by Ibero Cruises. Costa invested €10 million into transforming the ship to integrate it into its fleet.

A month Costa announced that the transferred ship, which would be renamed Costa neoRiviera, would take a central role in launching a new sub-product that would focus on smaller ships with longer port calls, more overnights, new exotic locales among its offered itineraries. In October 2013, Costa revealed that she would be based in Dubai, with her debut set for 24 November 2013. Costa neoRiviera exited Costa's fleet in October 2019 after it was announced on 25 May 2018 it would be transferred to sister brand, AIDA Cruises. Costa neoRiviera entered dry dock at the San Giorgio del Porto shipyard in Genoa on 30 October 2019 for a $55 million transformation to integrate her into the AIDA fleet, she departed the shipyard on 28 November 2019 and arrived in Palma de Mallorca on 29 November 2019 for her christening. AIDAmira was christened by Franziska Knuppe on 30 November 2019 in Palma de Mallorca. AIDAmira is the fourth ship to be in AIDA's "AIDA Selection" program, along with AIDAaura, AIDAcara, AIDAvita, which utilizes the fleet's smaller ships to perform longer itineraries calling in exotic locales.

Her inaugural cruise was scheduled to leave on 4 December 2019 to Sète and Barcelona, but was cancelled last-minute due to continued renovations requiring her to stay in Palma de Mallorca until 4 December. She will leave for her maiden season in South Africa, offering 14-day cruises from Cape Town, she will return to the Mediterranean from May to September 2020, sailing within the Eastern Mediterranean region from Corfu. Costa neoRomantica - pictures and video of the ship | Costa Cruises

Wyatt F. Jeltz

Wyatt F. Jeltz was an African-American educator and ethnographer from Oklahoma City, United States. For many years Wyatt Jeltz was an assistant principal at Oklahoma City Douglass High School. Having no children and his wife Mattie willed their assets to establish the Jeltz Scholarship Foundation, now known as Wyatt F. Jeltz Memorial Scholarship Foundation; the foundation provides scholarships to assist successful full-time students enrolled in a state-supported Oklahoma accredited college in paying college-related expenses. Jeltz is acclaimed for his article "The Relations of Negroes and Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians", in which he argues that the treatment of slaves by the two Native American nations was similar to the practice of the whites in the Southern States. Another tribute to his memory is the Wyatt F. Jeltz Senior Center in Oklahoma City, built in 1979. Wyatt Jeltz was associated with the Oklahoma City Alumni chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity


Vayeira, Vayera, or Va-yera is the fourth weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. It constitutes Genesis 18:1–22:24; the parashah tells the stories of Abraham's three visitors, Abraham's bargaining with God over Sodom and Gomorrah, Lot's two visitors, Lot's bargaining with the Sodomites, the flight of Lot, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, how Lot's daughters became pregnant by their father, how Abraham once again passed off his wife Sarah as his sister, the birth of Isaac, the expulsion of Hagar, disputes over wells, the binding of Isaac. The parashah has the most words of any of the weekly Torah portions in the Book of Genesis, its word-count is second only to parshat Naso in the entire Torah, it is made up of 7,862 Hebrew letters, 2,085 Hebrew words, 147 verses, 252 lines in a Torah Scroll. Jews read it on the fourth Sabbath in October or November. Jews read parts of the parashah as Torah readings for Rosh Hashanah. Genesis 21 is the Torah reading for the first day of Rosh Hashanah, Genesis 22 is the Torah reading for the second day of Rosh Hashanah.

In Reform Judaism, Genesis 22 is the Torah reading for the one day of Rosh Hashanah. In traditional Sabbath Torah reading, the parashah is divided into עליות, aliyot. In the Masoretic Text of the Tanakh, Parashah Vayeira has four "open portion" divisions. Parashah Vayeira has two further subdivisions, called "closed portion" divisions within the first open portion; the first open portion spans the first five readings. The second open portion coincides with the sixth reading; the third open portion covers the binding of Isaac, most of the seventh reading, excluding only the concluding maftir reading. And the fourth open portion coincides with the concluding maftir reading. Closed portion divisions further divide the long fourth reading. In the first reading, as Abraham was sitting in the entrance of his tent by the terebinths of Mamre in the heat of the day, he looked up and saw God in the form of three men, he ran, bowed to the ground, welcomed them. Abraham offered to wash their feet and fetch them a morsel of bread, they assented.

Abraham rushed to Sarah's tent to order cakes made from choice flour, ran to select a choice calf for a servant-boy to prepare, set curds and milk and the calf before them, waited on them under the tree as they ate. One of the visitors told Abraham that he would return the next year, Sarah would have a son, but Sarah laughed to herself at the prospect, with Abraham so old. God questioned Abraham why Sarah had laughed at bearing a child at her age, noting that nothing was too wondrous for God; the first reading ends here. In the second reading, Sarah denied laughing, but God insisted that she had; the men set out toward Sodom and Abraham walked with them to see them off. God considered whether to confide in Abraham what God was about to do, since God had singled out Abraham to become a great nation and instruct his posterity to keep God's way by doing what was just and right. God told Abraham that the outrage and sin of Sodom and Gomorrah was so great that God was going to see whether they had acted according to the outcry that had reached God.

The men went on to Sodom. Abraham pressed God whether God would sweep away the innocent along with the guilty, asking successively if there were 50, or 45, or 40, or 30, or 20, or 10 innocent people in Sodom, would God not spare the city for the sake of the innocent ones, each time God agreed to do so; when God had finished speaking to Abraham, God departed, Abraham returned to his place. The second reading ends here with the end of chapter 18. In the third reading, in chapter 19, as Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom in the evening, the two angels arrived, Lot greeted them and bowed low to the ground. Lot invited the angels to spend the night at his house and bathe their feet, but they said that they would spend the night in the square. Lot urged them so they went to his house, he prepared a feast for them and baked unleavened bread, they ate. Before they had retired for the night, all the men of Sodom gathered about the house shouting to Lot to bring his visitors out so that they might be intimate with them.

Lot went outside the entrance, shutting the door behind him, begged the men of Sodom not commit such a wrong. Lot offered the men his two virgin daughters for them to do with as they pleased, if they would not do anything to his guests, but they disparaged Lot as one who had come as an alien and now sought to rule them, they pressed threateningly against him and the door, but the visitors stretched out their hands and pulled Lot back into the house and shut the door and struck the people with blindness so that they were unable to find the entrance. The visitors directed Lot to bring what family he had out of the city, for they were about to destroy the place, because the outcry against its inhabitants had become so great. So Lot told his sons-in-law that they needed to get out of the place because God was about to