Thriller (genre)

Thriller is a genre of fiction, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby they present obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."

Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood: suspenseful excitement. In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller; as the introduction to a major anthology says:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension.

These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions. Suspense builds; the suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.

Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.

The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the character's own mind; the suspense comes from two or more characters preying upon one another's minds, either by playing deceptive games with the other

2005 PTT Bangkok Open

The 2005 PTT Bangkok Open was a women's professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the 1st edition of the PTT Bangkok Open and was part of the WTA Tier III tournaments on the 2005 WTA Tour, it took place at the Rama Gardens Hotel in Bangkok, Thailand from October 10 through October 16, 2005. 1 Rankings as of October 3, 2005 The following players received wildcards into the main draw: Virginia Ruano Pascual Suchanun ViratprasertThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Melinda Czink Stéphanie Foretz Hsieh Su-wei Saori ObataThe following players received entry as a lucky loser: Martina Müller Shenay Perry 1 Rankings are as of October 3, 2005 The following pair received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Nudnida Luangnam / Tamarine TanasugarnThe following pair received entry from the qualifying draw: Ryōko Fuda / Miho Saeki Nicole Vaidišová def. Nadia Petrova, 6–1, 6–7, 7–5It was the 5th title for Vaidišová in her career and the 3rd consecutive title in 3 straight weeks, after winning in Seoul and Tokyo.

Shinobu Asagoe / Gisela Dulko def. Conchita Martínez / Virginia Ruano Pascual, 6–1, 7–5 Official Results Archive Official Results Archive


Pachuco refers to a subculture of Chicanos and Mexican-Americans, associated with zoot suits, street gangs and flamboyant public behavior. The idea of the pachuco – a zoot-suited, well-dressed, street-connected flamboyant playboy of Hispanic/Latino heritage – originated in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, it spread north, following the line of migration of Mexican railroad workers into Los Angeles, where it developed further. A pachuca is the female counterpart idealized as a beautiful Chicana woman in extravagant evening dress or a female version of the zoot suit, out with a pachuco boyfriend for a night on the town. Pachucas broke taboos of their time by wearing men's-style pants sometimes and appearing in public with their pachuco boyfriends. White-American women were not encouraged to wear pants, as it was seen as masculine; because of this, outsiders saw Pachucas as rebellious, un-American. This created the rest of the community. However, this was not the intention of the Pachuco/Pachuca style.

Pachucas strove to prove that their community fits in to American culture and that they were not of lesser value and economically. In order to portray this, they created their suits with expensive fabrics. Pachucas created a space for self expression through fashion, they defied male/female stereotypes and roles in Mexican-American culture in much the same way flappers had in European-American culture in the 1920s. The origin of the term "pachuco" is uncertain, but one theory connects it to the city of El Paso, sometimes referred to as "Chuco Town" or "El Chuco." People migrating to El Paso from Ciudad Juarez would say, in Spanish, that they were going "pa' El Chuco." Some say "pa El Chuco comes from the word Shoe Co. A shoe company, located in El Paso in the 1940s during the war; the majority of Mexican migrants would cross the border in order to work for this famous shoe company in El paso. Through out the years the term" pa El Chuco" was used when Mexican immigrants were heading to El Paso looking for a job.

In order to cross the American border with success the migrants would have to dress nice and look nice other wise they would get rejected at the border. These migrants became known as pachucos; the name "Pachuco" is quite derived from the name of the city of Pachuca, Mexico. There have long been migrants from Hidalgo state living in Texas. Another theory says that the word derives from pocho, a derogatory term for a Mexican born in the United States who has lost touch with the Mexican culture; the word is said to mean "punk" or "troublemaker". Yet another theory is put forth by author Laura L. Cummings who postulates a possible indigenous origin of the term. Connections have been found between "Pachucos" and mixed civilians who lived near the Mexican–American border during the turn of the century, between "Pachucos" and the poor soldiers who fought in the Mexican Revolution in the armies of Pancho Villa. Pachucos called their slang Caló, a unique argot that drew on the original Spanish Gypsy Caló, Mexican Spanish, the New Mexican dialect of Spanish, American English, employing words and phrases creatively applied.

To a large extent, Caló went mainstream and is one of the last surviving vestige of the Pachuco used in the lexicon of some urban Latinos in the United States to this day. The influence of Valdés is responsible for the assimilation of several Caló terms into Mexican slang; the Mexican Nobel laureate Octavio Paz writes in the essay, "The Pachuco and Other Extremes" that the Pachuco phenomenon paralleled the zazou subculture in World War II-era Paris in style of clothing, music favored, attitudes. Although there was no known link between the two subcultures, they both are most derivative localized blends of American pop culture in the United States. While he was not the first Mexican comedian to perform as a Mexican American zoot suiter, Mexican comedian and film actor German Valdés better-known by his artistic name "Tin-Tan" is Mexico’s most famous and celebrated pachuco. Pachuco culture in America was at its height during World War II; the Wartime Productions Board in 1942 thought it necessary to cut back on fabric consumption, so they enacted regulations on the amount of fabric used for suits.

This enactment targeted Pachucos in particular because of the excess fabric used in their zoot suits. Pachucos boldly chose not to follow these regulations, demonstrating rebellious attitudes and pride in their culture. Pachucos continued to flaunt zoot suits, now attained through bootleg tailors; as a result, these flashy zoot suits were seen as unpatriotic by other Americans. This controversial series of events helped shape Pachuco culture, zoot suits became a symbol of cultural pride among Mexican-Americans, it didn't all end well, however, as this led to rising tension between Pachucos and other Americans, playing a part in the start of the 1944 Zoot Suit Riots. The pachuco subculture declined in the 1960s; this style preserved some of the pachuco slang while adding a strong political element characteristic of the late 1960s American life. In the early 1970s, a recession and the violent nature of gang life resulted in an abandonment of anything that suggested dandyism. Accordingly, Mexican-American gangs adopted a uniform of T-shirts and khakis derived from prison uniforms, the pachuco style died out.

However, the zoot suit remains a popular choice of formal wear for urban and rural Latino youths in ethnic Mexican neighborhoods. I