A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions. "Throne" in an abstract sense can refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, is used in many expressions such as "the power behind the throne". The expression "ascend the throne" takes its meaning from the steps leading up to the dais or platform, on which the throne is placed, being comprised in the word's significance; when used in a political or governmental sense, throne refers to a civilization, tribe, or other politically designated group, organized or governed under an authoritarian system. Throughout much of human history societies have been governed under authoritarian systems, in particular dictatorial or autocratic systems, resulting in a wide variety of thrones that have been used by given heads of state; these have ranged from stools in places such as in Africa to ornate chairs and bench-like designs in Europe and Asia, respectively. But not always, a throne is tied to a philosophical or religious ideology held by the nation or people in question, which serves a dual role in unifying the people under the reigning monarch and connecting the monarch upon the throne to his or her predecessors, who sat upon the throne previously.
Accordingly, many thrones are held to have been constructed or fabricated out of rare or hard to find materials that may be valuable or important to the land in question. Depending on the size of the throne in question it may be large and ornately designed as an emplaced instrument of a nation's power, or it may be a symbolic chair with little or no precious materials incorporated into the design; when used in a religious sense, throne can refer to one of two distinct uses. The first use derives from the practice in churches of having a bishop or higher-ranking religious official sit on a special chair which in church referred to by written sources as a "throne", or “Cathedra” and is intended to allow such high-ranking religious officials a place to sit in their place of worship; the other use for throne refers to a belief among many of the world's monotheistic and polytheistic religions that the deity or deities that they worship are seated on a throne. Such beliefs go back to ancient times, can be seen in surviving artwork and texts which discuss the idea of ancient gods seated on thrones.
In the major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam, the Throne of God is attested to in religious scriptures and teachings, although the origin and idea of the Throne of God in these religions differs according to the given religious ideology practiced. In the west, a throne is most identified as the seat upon which a person holding the title King, Emperor, or Empress sits in a nation using a monarchy political system, although there are a few exceptions, notably with regards to religious officials such as the Pope and bishops of various sects of the Christian faith. Changing geo-political tides have resulted in the collapse of several dictatorial and autocratic governments, which in turn have left a number of throne chairs empty, however the significance of a throne chair is such that many of these thrones - such as China's Dragon Throne - survive today as historic examples of nation's previous government. Thrones were found throughout the canon of ancient furniture; the depiction of monarchs and deities as seated on chairs is a common topos in the iconography of the Ancient Near East.
The word throne itself is from Greek θρόνος, "seat, chair", in origin a derivation from the PIE root *dher- "to support". Early Greek Διὸς θρόνους was a term for the "support of the heavens", i.e. the axis mundi, which term when Zeus became an anthropomorphic god was imagined as the "seat of Zeus". In Ancient Greek, a "thronos" was a specific but ordinary type of chair with a footstool, a high status object but not with any connotations of power; the Achaeans were known to place additional, empty thrones in the royal palaces and temples so that the gods could be seated when they wished to be. The most famous of these thrones was the throne of Apollo in Amyclae; the Romans had two types of thrones- one for the Emperor and one for the goddess Roma whose statues were seated upon thrones, which became centers of worship. The word "throne" in English translations of the Bible renders Hebrew כסא kissē'; the Pharaoh of the Exodus is described as sitting on a throne, but the term refers to the throne of the kingdom of Israel called the "throne of David" or "throne of Solomon".
The literal throne of Solomon is described in 1 Kings 10:18-20: "Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, overlaid it with the best gold.. The throne had six steps, the top of the throne was round behind: and there were stays on either side on the place of the seat, two lions stood beside the stays, and twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps: there was not the like made in any kingdom." In the Book of Esther, the same word refers to the throne of the king of Persia. The God of Israel himself is described as sitting on a throne, referred to outside of the Bible as the Throne of God, in the Psalms, in a vision Isaiah, notably in Isaiah 66:1, YHWH says of himself "The heaven is my throne, the earth is my footstool". In the New Testament, the angel Gabriel refers to this throne in the Gospel of Luke: "He will be great, will be called th
The Battle of Zacatecas known as the Toma de Zacatecas, was the bloodiest battle in the campaign to overthrow Mexican President Victoriano Huerta. On June 23, 1914, Pancho Villa's División del Norte decisively defeated the federal troops of General Luis Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas; the great victory demoralized Huerta's supporters, leading to his resignation on July 15. However, the Toma de Zacatecas marked the end of support of Villa's Division of the North from Constitutionalist leader Venustiano Carranza and US President Woodrow Wilson. Zacatecas, a silver mining town of 30,000, possessed a strategic military asset, a railroad junction that had to be captured in order to advance from the north on the capital, Mexico City. General Rubio Navarrete planned to use the mountain strongholds surrounding the city to weaken or destroy the División del Norte. Huerta sent one of his better officers, General Medina Barrón, with reinforcements for the federal troops defending the town.
Estimates of the size of his total force range from 7,000 to 15,000, but it is he had 12,000 men. By 1914, the federal army under Huerta had been increased in size from that of Porfirio Diaz and Francisco Madero. However, the rank-and-file conscripts randomly press-ganged, were poorly motivated and prone to desertion. In contrast, Villa's División del Norte was comparatively well-organized, employed trained federal defectors in key roles, included effective artillery and mounted units; as the defeat of Huerta became more certain, the divide between Pancho Villa and Venustiano Carranza increased. Since Villa had not always obeyed Carranza (such as refusing to have his division be subordinated to Obregón and acting independently of Carranza in the Benton affair, combined with his recent victories overshadowing other Constitutionalist generals, Carranza grew distrustful of Villa and saw him as a potential rival for control of Mexico. Therefore, to help prevent Villa from reaching Mexico City first, he ordered him to attack Saltillo after his hard-fought victory at Torreón.
Carranza instead chose General Panfilo Natera for the assault on Zacatecas. After receiving federal reinforcements on June 14 1914, Medina Barrón repulsed Natera's attack. During this two-day initial battle for Zacatecas Villa had refused on various pretexts to send artillery and other support called for by Natera. Carranza faced a dilemma. Villa commanded the only force with the ability to penetrate the stronghold at Zacatecas. Carranza ordered that a detachment of 5,000 men from Villa's army be placed under the command of Natera for the next attack on Zacatecas. Villa had been eager to placate Carranza in earlier negotiations with the Constitutionalist leader and complied with his orders to seize the city of Saltillo over the objections of Villa's trusted advisors, Felipe Ángeles, José María Maytorena, Roque González Garza. After Carranza's detachment proposal, Villa concluded that a reconciliation was unlikely. So Villa planned an attack on Zacatecas in defiance of orders from the First Chief of the Constitutionalist government.
Zacatecas is ringed by high hills. Medina Barrón placed many of his best troops on two of them, La Bufa and El Grillo, with two batteries of artillery in support, while fortifying the two smaller hills, Loreto and La Sierpe. Villa assigned the planning of the attack to General Felipe Ángeles, a professional soldier and artillery specialist. Ángeles decided to take advantage of the greater numbers and superior artillery of the rebel forces and storm the town from all sides, with the artillery concentrating on La Bufa and El Grillo. Medina Barrón positioned himself at La Bufa to oversee its defense. On June 20 1914 a federal relief detachment of about two thousand men reached Zacatecas although two further columns of reinforcements from the south were unable to bypass blocking Constitututionalist forces. With this addition the garrison of Zacatecas was outnumbered by two to one, by the encircling Division of the North; the bombardment started at 10 a.m. on June 23. Villa led multiple cavalry charges against the stronghold on El Grillo, while Ángeles directed his twenty-nine field and mountain artillery pieces at both hills.
Villa captured El Grillo at 1 p.m. General Medina Barrón and his men retreated into the town from El Grillo. La Bufa suffered the same fate late in the afternoon, with the remaining federal troops evacuating to the Plaza de Armas. Villa reported that he and Ángeles narrowly escaped when a shell in a nearby artillery piece exploded, killing or wounding all of its crew. With the loss of the northern heights, Zacatecas itself was exposed on all sides to artillery and rifle fire. Panic set in. According to James Caldwell, the British consul stationed in Zacatecas, the morale of troops, who had fought bravely until this point collapsed and the streets became chaotic. Many soldiers hid, discarded their uniforms and abandoned their gear, ridding themselves of any visible association with the federal army. Medina Barrón ordered a retreat to the neighboring town of Guadalupe, on the road to the city of Aguascalientes, from which reinforcements were expected. However, the retreating column of about 1,500 federal soldiers found 7,000 fresh rebel troops blocking their way.
Most of the disorganised federals were slaughtered by Constitutionalist riflemen firing from the slopes on either side of the road. The surviving federal troops still attempted to escape the city, though others returned amid continuing street fighting; the greatest single act of destruction in the city occurred when
"Love Will Turn You Around" is a song performed and co-written by American country music singer Kenny Rogers. It was released in June 1982 as the first single and title track from Rogers' album of the same name, it is the theme song to Rogers' 1982 film Six Pack. Rogers wrote the song with David Malloy and Even Stevens; the song was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Male Country Vocal Performance. On the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, the song reached number 13, while reaching number one on both the country and adult contemporary charts. Kip Kirby, of Billboard magazine reviewed the song favorably, saying that Rogers "creates a sound similar to his First Edition work, with high-strung acoustic guitars backing a quick, unstrained vocal." He goes on to say that the song is notable for its "sharp metaphors on human relationships." List of number-one adult contemporary singles of 1982 Single release info at discogs.com
By-elections were held for five seats in the Parliament of Singapore in April 1970, resulting from the resignation of representatives of the People's Action Party. The PAP held all five seats. At the time of the 1968 general election, mass resignations by the members of Barisan Sosialis in the parliament, who opted to protest and "struggle for democracy" on the streets, had removed all opposition from the parliament. In 1970, however, it was five members from the governing People's Action Party who were invited to resign and give way to new blood as a part of renewing PAP's ranks; the resulting vacancies were in the constituencies of Delta, Kampong Kapor, Ulu Pandan and Whampoa. By-elections were arranged, with nomination day set as 8 April 1970 and polling day as 18 April 1970. Similar to 1968 general election, no opposition parties stood except a newly formed United National Front formed from remnants of the defunct Singapore Alliance; this party stood candidates in two seats out of the five, namely Ulu Pandan.
Once again the PAP won the other three by walkovers. The election deposit was set at $500. Similar to previous elections, the election deposit would be forfeited if the particular candidate had failed to secure at least 12.5% or one-eighth of the votes. Background of 1970 By Election 1970 By Elections Result
The Herero Wars were a series of colonial wars between the German Empire and the Herero people of German South West Africa. They took place between 1904 and 1908; the Hereros were cattle grazers, occupying most of northern South West Africa. Under the leadership of Jonker Afrikander, who died in 1861, later under the leadership of Maherero, they had achieved supremacy over the Nama and Orlam peoples in a series of conflicts that had in their stages, seen the extensive use of fire-arms obtained from European traders. In the early 1880s, the German statesman Otto von Bismarck, reversing his previous rejection of colonial acquisitions, decided on a policy of imperial expansion. In 1882 Bismarck gave permission to Adolf Lüderitz to obtain lands which Germany would bring within its "protection", under the conditions that a port was established within the territories taken and that there was "clear title" to the land. Lüderitz bought the title to Angra Pequena from Joseph Fredericks, a chief of the Orlam people, in exchange for 200 rifles, 2,500 German marks, some lead toy soldiers, established a port there.
Clarification of Germany's title among the European powers took some time, as the British refused to state that the land was not their's, however in April 1884 Bismarck instructed the German consul in declare "Lüderitzland" as under the "protection" of the German Reich. Lüderitz spread Germany's influence throughout the South-West African territory until by 1885 only one tribe within it - the Witboois - had not concluded some kind of arrangement with Germany. Whilst Rhenish missionaries and other Europeans had been present in the territory since the 1830's, it was only with the advent of Germany's claim to South-West Africa that German settlement of the territory began in earnest. By 1903 there were 4,682 white settlers in the protectorate of whom nearly 3,000 were Germans, most of them in the towns of Lüderitz and Windhoek; the advent of large-scale German settlement brought about changes in the treatment of the native Herero and Nama peoples by Europeans, with native people facing increased legal discrimination and expropriation of land for the use of white settlers.
In 1903, some of the Khoi and Herero tribes rose in revolt and about 60 German settlers were killed. Troops were sent from Germany to re-establish order but only dispersed the rebels, led by Chief Samuel Maharero. In a famous letter to Hendrik Witbooi, the Namaqua chief, Maharero sought to organize his rebellion against the Germans while building alliances with the other tribes, exclaiming Let us die fighting! The Herero led a guerrilla campaign, conducting fast hit and run operations melting back into the terrain they knew well, preventing the Germans from gaining an advantage with their modern artillery and machine-guns; however a conclusive battle was fought on August 11, 1904, at the Battle of Waterberg in the Waterberg Mountains. Chief Maharero believed his six to one advantage over the Germans would allow him to win in a final showdown; the Germans had time to bring forward heavy weapons. Both sides took heavy losses. In October 1904, General Lothar von Trotha issued orders to kill every male Herero and drive women and children into the desert.
As soon as the news of this order reached Germany, it was repealed, but Trotha ignored Berlin. When the extermination order was suspended at the end of 1904, surviving tribesmen were herded into concentration camps, while others were transferred as slave labor to German businesses, it took the Germans until 1908 to re-establish authority over the territory. By that time tens of thousands of Africans estimates range from 34,000 to 110,000 had been either killed) or died of thirst while fleeing. 65,000 of 80,000 Hereros and at least 10,000 of 20,000 Nama. At the height of the campaign, some 19,000 German troops were involved. At about the same time, diamonds were discovered in the territory, which greatly boosted its prosperity. In 1915, during World War I, British and South African forces occupied it in the so-called South West Africa Campaign, SW Africa became a mandate of South Africa in 1920. On 16 August 2004, 100 years after the war, the German government apologised for the atrocities. "We Germans accept our historic and moral responsibility and the guilt incurred by Germans at that time," said Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, Germany's development aid minister.
In addition, she admitted. Not until 2015 did the German government admit that the massacres were equivalent to genocide and again apologised in 2016; the Herero are suing the German government in a class action lawsuit. The Herero Wars and the massacres are both depicted in a chapter of the 1963 novel V. by Thomas Pynchon. The tragic story of the Herero and Namaqua Genocide appears in Pynchon's 1973 novel Gravity's Rainbow; the heavy toll of the Herero and Namaqua Genocide on individual lives and the fabric of Herero culture is seen in the 2013 historical novel Mama Namibia by Mari Serebrov. The war and the massacres are both featured in The Glamour Of Prospecting, a contemporary account by Frederick Cornell of his attempts to prospect for diamonds in the region. In the book, he describes his first-hand accounts of witnessing the concentration camp on Shark Island amongst other aspects of the conflict. Herero and Namaqua genocide Bridgman, Jon; the Revolt of the Hereros. University of California Press.
The Story of Lucy Gault is a novel written by William Trevor in 2002. The book is divided into three sections: the childhood, middle age and older times of the girl, Lucy; the story takes place in Ireland during the transition to the 21st century. It follows her immediate contacts; the book was shortlisted for the Booker and Whitbread Prizes in 2002. It begins with Lucy, on a night in 1921, she is the only child of an Anglo-Irish land owner on the coast of County Cork. It starts during the Irish War of Independence, when Loyalist Protestant landowners caught in the battle between the IRA and the British army had their houses burned; the place is under martial law and Captain Gault is disturbed by young arsonists from the nearby village. When he fires a warning shot with his old rifle, he injures a boy in the shoulder. Out of fear, the family plans to move to England. Lucy is not told why her family wishes to move and longs for the house she was kept from and the sea close by. On the eve of their departure, she hides in the woods.
Due to a series of events, her parents are led to believe. By the time she is discovered, her parents are gone, she thus gets what she wished for, to live in the house, being taken care of by the house servants turned caretaker-farmers. Lucy lives a lonely life, reading books and keeping bees, she feels guilty about running away and thus feels that she deserves her loneliness. When another character, tries to relieve her of her sad life, she feels that she cannot let him love her without, one of the characters opines, getting forgiveness from her parents, her father returns after the Second World War, having spent the previous years in Italy and Switzerland, too late to salvage her happiness. They settle with too much unspoken. Having lost the love of her life, she forms a bond with the person, wounded by her father. Lucy spends many years visiting the asylum where the person is incarcerated in his confusion and his silence. Lucy in old age sees people with phones to their ears and hears on the wireless about the Internet, wonders what it is.
William Trevor biography "Trevor's tragic tale" by William Gallagher, BBC, October 17, 2002, retrieved August 29, 2006 "Oh so clever Trevor" by Tim Adams, September 29, 2002, retrieved August 29, 2006 "Myths that linger in the mind" by Hermione Lee, August 31, 2002, retrieved August 29, 2006 "Fools of Fortune" by Thomas Mallon, New York Times, September 29, 2002, retrieved August 29, 2006