Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, trading as Fujifilm, or Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo. Fujifilm's principal activities are the development, production and servicing of business document solutions, medical imaging and diagnostics equipment, regenerative medicine, stem cells, biologics manufacturing, optical films for flat panel displays, optical devices and printers, digital cameras, color film, color paper, photofinishing equipment, photofinishing chemicals, graphic arts equipment and materials. Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. was established in 1934 with the aim of being the first Japanese producer of photographic films. Over the following 10 years, the company produced photographic films, motion-picture films and X-ray films. In the 1940s, Fuji Photo entered the optical glasses and equipment markets. After the Second World War, Fuji Photo diversified, penetrating the medical, electronic imaging and magnetic materials fields. In 1962, Fuji Photo and U.
K.-based Rank Xerox Limited launched Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd. through a joint venture. From the mid-1950s, Fuji Photo accelerated the establishment of overseas sales bases. In the 1980s, Fuji Photo expanded its production and other bases overseas, stepping up the pace of its business globalization. Meanwhile, Fuji Photo developed digital technologies for its photo-related and printing businesses. Like its rival Eastman Kodak which dominated in the US, Fuji Photo enjoyed a longtime near-monopoly on camera film in Japan. By becoming one of the title sponsors of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, offering cheaper camera film, establishing a film factory in the US, Fuji gained considerable market share there, while Kodak had little success in penetrating Japan. In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji; the complaint was lodged by the US with the World Trade Organization.
On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. The new millennium witnessed the rapid spread of digital technology, demand for photographic films plunged in line with the growing popularity of digital cameras. In response, Fuji Photo implemented management reforms aimed at drastic transformation of its business structures; as early as the 1980s, the company had foreseen the switch from film to digital, so "it developed a three-pronged strategy: to squeeze as much money out of the film business as possible, to prepare for the switch to digital and to develop new business lines." While both film manufacturers recognized this fundamental change, Fuji Photo adapted to this shift much more than Eastman Kodak. Fuji Photo's diversification efforts succeeded while Kodak's had failed. In September 19, 2006, Fujifilm announced plans to establish a holding company, Fujifilm Holdings Corp. Fujifilm and Fuji Xerox would become subsidiaries of the holding company.
A representative of the company reconfirmed its commitment to film. On January 31, 2018, Fujifilm announced that it would acquire a 50.1% controlling stake in Xerox for US$6.1 billion, which will be amalgamated into its existing Fuji Xerox business. The deal was subsequently dropped after intervention by activist investors Carl Icahn and Darwin Deason. Fuji Xerox is Xerox Corporation of North America. Fujifilm bought Sericol Ltd. a UK-based printing ink company specializing in screen, narrow web, digital print technologies in March 2005. Fujifilm de México is a Fujifilm subsidiary in Mexico that sells Fujifilm products since 1934 and has been recognized as one of The Best Mexican Companies from 2012 to 2015, a recognition promoted by Banamex, Deloitte México and Tecnológico de Monterrey. Fujifilm Holdings Fujifilm Fujifilm Imaging Systems Fujifilm Medical Fujifilm Pharma Fujifilm RI Pharma Fujifilm Photo Manufacturing Fujifilm Fine Chemicals Fujifilm Electronics Materials Fujifilm Engineering Fujifilm Optics Fujifilm Opto Materials Fujifilm Global Graphic Systems Fujifilm Computer Systems Fujifilm Software Fujifilm Techno Services Fujifilm Techno Products Fujifilm Business Supply Fujifilm Digital Press Fujifilm Media Crest Fujifilm Sonosite, Inc.
Fujifilm Shizuoka Fujifilm Kyushu Fujifilm Logistics Fuji Xerox Fuji Xerox Printing Systems Sales Fuji Xerox Information Systems Fuji Xerox System Service Fuji Xerox Interfield Fuji Xerox Advanced Technologies Fuji Xerox Manufacturing Fuji Xerox Service Creative Fuji Xerox Service Link Fuji Xerox Learning Institute Toyama Chemical Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical Fujifilm Business Expert Fuji Color Photo Center Fujifilm photographic films Motion picture film stock. Fujichrome color reversal films. Velvia: one of the most saturated and fine-grained slide films, valued by nature and landscape photographers. Provia: a slide film giving more natural colors than Velvia Astia: a fined grained, low contrast slide film used for studio or portrait applications Sensia: a low-contrast consumer slide film. Fortia: consumer slide film, featuring vivid color rendering suitable for flower photography and other high-saturation applications. Fujicolor color negative (pr
Speedlight is the brand name used by Nikon Corporation for their photographic flash units, used since the company's introduction of strobe flashes in the 1960s. Nikon's standalone Speedlights have the SB- prefix as part of their model designation. Current Speedlights and other Nikon accessories make up part of Nikon's Creative Lighting System, which includes the Advanced Wireless Lighting, that enables various Nikon cameras to control multiple Nikon flash units in up to three separate controlled groups by sending encoded pre-flash signals to slave units. Nikon's competitors like Canon and Ricoh use the similar name Speedlite for their flashes. Both names indicate that strobe flashes produce much shorter and more intense bursts of light than earlier photographic lighting systems, such as flashbulbs, or continuous lamps used in some studio situations. Nikon's Speedlight units are: SB-1 SB-2 SB-3 SB-4 SB-6 SB-7E SB-8E SB-9 SB-10 SB-E SB-11 SB-12 SB-14 SB-15 SB-16 SB-17 SB-20 SB-22 SB-22s SB-23 SB-24 SB-25 SB-26 SB-28 D-TTL Units SB-28DX SB-50DX SB-80DX I-TTL Units SB-300 SB-400 SB-500 SB-600 SB-700 SB-800 SB-900 SB-910 SB-N5 SB-N7 SB-R200 SB-5000 Current models: Nikon's latest smaller shoe mount flash unit which replaces SB-400.
It uses AAA-size batteries. SB-300 is derived from the SB-N7, the same flash unit released for the Nikon 1 "multi-accessory port," instead of the ISO 518:2006 hot shoe. Both SB-300 and SB-N7 have a variable angle'bounce' head up to 120 degrees but has no horizontal swiveling; the SB-400 is a lightweight and compact shoe-mount flash unit, powered by only two AA-size batteries. It uses a 40mm xenon tube. Despite its small size, SB-400 is a capable flash with a variable angle'bounce' head; the head lacks tilt movement, common to larger flashes. SB-400 can not be used in master mode in Nikon's CLS system, it weighs 127g and is made in China. The Nikon SB-500 is a lightweight and compact shoe-mount flash unit with coverage for a 24mm lens on an FX camera or a 16mm lens on DX camera and combined with 100 lux LED for video light, powered by only two AA-size batteries. SB-500 is a capable flash with a variable angle'bounce' head and rotates 180-degrees for soft lighting effects; the flash is part of Nikon's Creative Lighting System with two-group/two-channel control and features the intelligent-TTL exposure mode.
Mid-range model - weighs 300 g without 4 AA batteries The Nikon SB-600 is a flash made by Nikon for their digital and film single-lens reflex cameras. The SB-600 can mount to any Nikon camera with a four-prong hotshoe; the SB-600 cannot control other flashes through a wireless connection. The SB-600 is part of Nikon's Creative Lighting System and features the intelligent-TTL exposure mode; this model is the most compatible unit with older model film and earlier digital cameras like Nikon, F5, F6, D100 as well as all recent cameras. SB-700 is an upgrade to the older SB-600 with refined design in both mechanics, it is a more reliable and durable flash in many ways than the SB-600 except the weakly made plastic foot section. Professionals consider the unit as more like a compact version of SB-9XX line supporting both master and slave functions, it features a newly designed interior zoom head and locking shoe section, identical to SB-900 and SB-910 models. SB-700 shares similar features and menu system of SB-910 as well.
The SB-700 is part of Nikon's Creative Lighting System and features the intelligent-TTL exposure mode. It weighs 360 g without 4 AA batteries, it is made in China. Announced September 2010 and available since October 2010. SB-800 is a high quality professional model which weighs 350 g without 4 or 5 AA batteries The Nikon SB-800 is a flash made by Nikon based on the earlier SB-80DX model for their digital and film single-lens reflex cameras, it has electronic interfaces for through-the-lens automatic exposure and automatic zoom to match lens focal lengths from 24 to 105 mm, plus 14 and 17 mm with the use of the built-in diffuser or 14 mm with the external Nikon Diffusion Dome, as well as film speed in the range from ISO 3 to 8000. Its guide number is 38 meters / 125 feet at ISO 100 and 35 mm, with a maximum range of 58 m when adjusted at 105 mm; the SB-800 is part of Nikon's Creative Lighting System and features the intelligent-TTL exposure mode. It is compatible with all SLR cameras, it can be used as master commander as well as remote flash unit within a CLS wir
Canon EOS is an autofocus single-lens reflex camera and mirrorless camera series produced by Canon Inc.. Introduced in 1987 with the Canon EOS 650, all EOS cameras used 35 mm film until October 1996 when the EOS IX was released using the new and short-lived APS film. In 2000, the D30 was announced, as the first digital SLR designed and produced by Canon. Since 2005, all newly announced EOS cameras have used digital image sensors rather than film; the EOS line is still in production as Canon's current digital SLR range, with the 2012 introduction of the Canon EOS M, Canon's mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera system. The name "EOS" was chosen for Eos, the Titan goddess of the dawn in Greek mythology, is pronounced as a word, although some spell out the letters, reading it as an initialism; the EOS emblem was created using Handel Gothic typography. It competes with the Nikon F series and its successors, as well as autofocus SLR systems from Olympus Corporation, Sony/Minolta, Panasonic/Leica.
At the heart of the system is the EF lens mount, which replaced the previous FD lens mount, which supported only manual-focus lenses. The bayonet-style EF lens mount. Breaking compatibility with the earlier FD mount, it was designed with no mechanical linkages between moving parts in the lens and in the camera; the aperture and focus are controlled with motors in the lens itself. This was similar in some ways to Canon's earlier attempt at AF with the T80. Other manufacturers including Contax, Nikon's 1983 F3AF and Olympus have since embraced this type of direct drive system, it is a large lens mount compared to most of its competition, enabling the use of larger aperture lenses. The flash system in the EOS cameras has gone through a number of evolutions since its first implementation; the basic EOS flash system was developed not for the first EOS camera, but rather for the last high-end FD-mount manual-focus camera, the T90, launched in 1986. This was the first Canon camera with through-the-lens flash metering, although other brands had been metering that way for some time.
It introduced the A-TTL system for better flash exposure in program mode, using infrared preflashes to gauge subject distance. This system was carried over into the early EOS cameras wholesale. A-TTL fell out of favor, was replaced by E-TTL; this used a pre-flash for advanced metering, used the autofocus system to judge where the main subject was for more accurate exposure. E-TTL II, an enhancement in the camera's firmware only, replaced E-TTL from 2004. Canon Speedlite-brand flashes have evolved alongside the cameras, they are capable of wired and wireless multi-flash setups, the latter using visible or infrared pulses to synchronise. Canon produces Speedlite accessories, including the OC-E3 Off-Camera Shoe Cord, which can be used to hand-hold the flash while allowing the camera to control it through the cord; the Off-Camera Shoe Cord is popular among portrait photographers who need to have more control over lighting than a camera mounted flash can offer. As of 2017, Canon has released no fewer than 70 EOS SLR and DSLR camera models, starting with the introduction of the EOS 650 in 1987.
In the 1990s, Canon worked with Kodak to produce digital camera bodies, starting with the EOS DCS 3 in 1995. The first digital EOS SLR camera wholly designed and manufactured by Canon was the EOS D30, released in 2000. Canon sold two EOS cameras designed to use the EOS IX and the EOS IX Lite. Canon sold a manual-focus camera, the Canon EF-M, which used the same EF lens mount as the EOS cameras, it lacked autofocus. It came equipped with a split-screen/microprism focusing screen for precise manual focusing. Through the tracking of eyeball movements, EOS cameras equipped with eye-controlled focusing were able to select the desired autofocus point in the scene, based on where the user was looking in the viewfinder frame. ECF was useful in sports photography where the subject may shift its position in the frame rapidly. EOS cameras equipped with ECF were the EOS A2E, EOS Elan IIE, EOS IXe, EOS-3, EOS Elan 7E, EOS Elan 7NE. Canon did not continue its use of eye-controlled focusing in its digital SLRs.
The EOS Elan 7NE was the last EOS camera to have this function. Most prosumer and professional level EOS cameras feature a large quick control dial on the camera back; the first consumer-level EOS camera with this feature is the EOS 760D/Rebel T6s, announced in February 2015. This feature allows easy adjustment of certain parameters using the thumb, the QCD is used for quick access to often-used functions that would otherwise require a more complicated procedure of button-presses and dial-clicks. Settings such as ISO button, Exposure Compensation button, so on) or menus are all available through the QCD. Cameras equipped with the QCD can be operated with one hand without taking the eye off the viewfinder; some useful functions that a QCD is programmed to do include setting exposure compensation, setting of aperture in manual exposure mode and scrolling of images and menus in digital EOS cameras. Top-line EOS cameras have either 61 or 65 user-selectable autofocus points. Autofocus is the cameras ability to focus automatically on an object by pressing down on the shutter button, in s
Single-lens reflex camera
A single-lens reflex camera is a camera that uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see what will be captured. With twin lens reflex and rangefinder cameras, the viewed image could be different from the final image; when the shutter button is pressed on most SLRs, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured. Prior to the development of SLR, all cameras with viewfinders had two optical light paths: one path through the lens to the film, another path positioned above or to the side; because the viewfinder and the film lens cannot share the same optical path, the viewing lens is aimed to intersect with the film lens at a fixed point somewhere in front of the camera. This is not problematic for pictures taken at a middle or longer distance, but parallax causes framing errors in close-up shots. Moreover, focusing the lens of a fast reflex camera when it is opened to wider apertures is not easy.
Most SLR cameras permit upright and laterally correct viewing through use of a roof pentaprism situated in the optical path between the reflex mirror and viewfinder. Light, which comes both horizontally and vertically inverted after passing through the lens, is reflected upwards by the reflex mirror, into the pentaprism where it is reflected several times to correct the inversions caused by the lens, align the image with the viewfinder; when the shutter is released, the mirror moves out of the light path, the light shines directly onto the film. The Canon Pellix, along with several special purpose high speed cameras, were an exception to the moving mirror system, wherein the mirror was a fixed beamsplitting pellicle. Focus can be adjusted manually automatically by an autofocus system; the viewfinder can include a matte focusing screen located just above the mirror system to diffuse the light. This permits accurate viewing and focusing useful with interchangeable lenses. Up until the 1990s, SLR was the most advanced photographic preview system available, but the recent development and refinement of digital imaging technology with an on-camera live LCD preview screen has overshadowed SLR's popularity.
Nearly all inexpensive compact digital cameras now include an LCD preview screen allowing the photographer to see what the CCD is capturing. However, SLR is still popular in high-end and professional cameras because they are system cameras with interchangeable parts, allowing customization, they have far less shutter lag, allowing photographs to be timed more precisely. The pixel resolution, contrast ratio, refresh rate, color gamut of an LCD preview screen cannot compete with the clarity and shadow detail of a direct-viewed optical SLR viewfinder. Large format SLR cameras were first marketed with the introduction of C. R. Smith's Monocular Duplex. SLRs for smaller exposure formats were launched in the 1920s by several camera makers; the first 35mm SLR available to the mass market, Leica's PLOOT reflex housing along with a 200mm f4.5 lens paired to a 35mm rangefinder camera body, debuted in 1935. The Soviet Спорт a 24mm by 36mm image size, was prototyped in 1934 and went to market in 1937. K. Nüchterlein's Kine Exakta was the first integrated 35mm SLR to enter the market.
Additional Exakta models, all with waist-level finders, were produced up to and during World War II. Another ancestor of the modern SLR camera was the Swiss-made Alpa, innovative, influenced the Japanese cameras; the first eye-level SLR viewfinder was patented in Hungary on August 23, 1943 by Jenő Dulovits, who designed the first 35 mm camera with one, the Duflex, which used a system of mirrors to provide a laterally correct, upright image in the eye-level viewfinder. The Duflex, which went into serial production in 1948, was the world's first SLR with an instant-return mirror; the first commercially produced SLR that employed a roof pentaprism was the Italian Rectaflex A.1000, shown in full working condition on Milan fair April 1948 and produced from September the same year, thus being on the market one year before the east German Zeiss Ikon VEB Contax S, announced on May 20, 1949, produced from September. The Japanese adopted and further developed the SLR. In 1952, Asahi developed the Asahiflex and in 1954, the Asahiflex IIB.
In 1957, the Asahi Pentax combined the right-hand thumb wind lever. Nikon and Yashica introduced their first SLRs in 1959; as a small matter of history, the first 35 mm camera to feature through the lens light metering may have been Nikon, with a prototype rangefinder camera, the SPX. According to the website below, the camera used Nikon'S' type rangefinder lenses. Through-the-lens light metering is known as "behind-the-lens metering". In the SLR design scheme, there were various placements made for the metering cells, all of which used CdS photocells; the cells were either located in the pentaprism housing, where they metered light transmitted through the focusing screen. Pentax was the first manufacturer to show an early prototype 35 mm behind-the-lens metering SLR camera, named the Pentax Spotmatic; the camera was shown at the 1960 photokina show. However, the first
A pentaprism is a five-sided reflecting prism used to deviate a beam of light by a constant 90° if the entry beam is not at 90° to the prism. The beam reflects inside the prism twice, allowing the transmission of an image through a right angle without inverting it as an ordinary right-angle prism or mirror would; the reflections inside the prism are not caused by total internal reflection, since the beams are incident at an angle less than the critical angle. Instead, the two faces are coated to provide mirror surfaces; the two opposite transmitting faces are coated with an antireflection coating to reduce spurious reflections. The fifth face of the prism is not used optically but truncates what would otherwise be an awkward angle joining the two mirrored faces. A variant of this prism is the roof pentaprism, used in the viewfinder of single-lens reflex cameras; the camera lens renders an image, both vertically and laterally reversed, the reflex mirror re-inverts it leaving an image laterally reversed.
In this case, the image needs to be reflected left-to-right as the prism transmits the image formed on the camera's focusing screen. This lateral inversion is done by replacing one of the reflective faces of a normal pentaprism with a "roof" section, with two additional surfaces angled towards each other and meeting at 90°, which laterally reverses the image back to normal. Reflex cameras with waist-level finders, including many medium format cameras, display a laterally reversed image directly from the focusing screen, viewed from above. In surveying a double pentaprism and a plumb-bob are used to stake out right angles, e.g. on a construction site. Pentamirror Single-lens reflex camera Digital single-lens reflex camera Retroreflector
In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance. Exposure is measured in lux seconds, can be computed from exposure value and scene luminance in a specified region. In photographic jargon, an exposure is a single shutter cycle. For example: a long exposure refers to a single, protracted shutter cycle to capture enough low-intensity light, whereas a multiple exposure involves a series of brief shutter cycles. For the same film speed, the accumulated photometric exposure should be similar in both cases. Radiant exposure of a surface, denoted He and measured in J/m2, is given by H e = E e t, where Ee is the irradiance of the surface, measured in W/m2. Luminous exposure of a surface, denoted Hv and measured in lx⋅s, is given by H v = E v t, where Ev is the illuminance of the surface, measured in lx. If the measurement is adjusted to account only for light that reacts with the photo-sensitive surface, that is, weighted by the appropriate spectral sensitivity, the exposure is still measured in radiometric units, rather than photometric units.
Only in this appropriately weighted case does the H measure the effective amount of light falling on the film, such that the characteristic curve will be correct independent of the spectrum of the light. Many photographic materials are sensitive to "invisible" light, which can be a nuisance, or a benefit; the use of radiometric units is appropriate to characterize such sensitivity to invisible light. In sensitometric data, such as characteristic curves, the log exposure is conventionally expressed as log10. Photographers more familiar with base-2 logarithmic scales can convert using log2 ≈ 3.32 log10. "Correct" exposure may be defined as an exposure. A more technical approach recognises that a photographic film has a physically limited useful exposure range, sometimes called its dynamic range. If, for any part of the photograph, the actual exposure is outside this range, the film cannot record it accurately. In a simple model, for example, out-of-range values would be recorded as "black" or "white" rather than the graduated shades of colour and tone required to describe "detail".
Therefore, the purpose of exposure adjustment is to control the physical amount of light from the subject, allowed to fall on the film, so that'significant' areas of shadow and highlight detail do not exceed the film's useful exposure range. This ensures; the photographer may overexpose or underexpose the photograph to eliminate "insignificant" or "unwanted" detail. However, it is technically much easier to discard recorded information during post processing than to try to're-create' unrecorded information. In a scene with strong or harsh lighting, the ratio between highlight and shadow luminance values may well be larger than the ratio between the film's maximum and minimum useful exposure values. In this case, adjusting the camera's exposure settings only allows the photographer to choose between underexposed shadows or overexposed highlights. Methods for dealing with this situation include: using some kind of fill lighting to increase the illumination in shadow areas. A photograph may be described as overexposed when it has a loss of highlight detail, that is, when important bright parts of an image are "washed out" or all white, known as "blown-out highlights" or "clipped whites".
A photograph may be described as underexposed when it has a loss of shadow detail, that is, when important dark areas are "muddy" or indistinguishable from black, known as "blocked-up shadows". As the adjacent image shows, these terms are technical ones rather than artistic judgments. Exposure_compensation|Intentionally over- or underexposing is casually referred to as "exposing to the right" or "exposing to the left" as these shift the histogram of the image to the right or left. In manual mode, the photographer adjusts the lens aperture and/or shutter speed to achieve the desired exposure. Many photographers cho
The Nikon F3 was Nikon's third professional single-lens reflex camera body, preceded by the F and F2. Introduced in 1980, it had manual and semi-automatic exposure control whereby the camera would select the correct shutter speed; the Nikon F3 series cameras had the most model variations of any Nikon F camera. It was the first of numerous Nikon F-series cameras to be styled by Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro, to include a red stripe on the handgrip – a feature that would become a signature feature of many Nikon cameras; the F2AS was a current model when the F3 was introduced, for a while both were sold concurrently. The earlier Nikons had developed such a sterling reputation for extreme ruggedness and durability that many Nikon F and F2 owners were reluctant to transition to the new F3 from the F2 series; the F3 was superseded by the F4 in 1988 and the F5 in 1996. Despite being superseded by the newer cameras, it remained in production through to 2001, with over 751,000 F3s produced through September 1992.
It continues to be the longest running professional grade Nikon SLR. Long after production ceased, new bodies in boxes were available throughout the world, so an exact production number is not available; the F3 model with the DE-2 eye-level finder was introduced, soon followed by the popular F3HP, or High Point camera, with the DE-3 High Eyepoint prism/finder. The major advantage of this finder was that the entire viewfinder image could be seen from a distance of 2.5 cm from the viewfinder. This made the F3 more usable by those who wear glasses when shooting, or were forced to shoot in high-glare situations while wearing sunglasses; the only down-side to this was a smaller image through the viewfinder compared to the standard prism. With the exception of the "P" spec camera, all viewfinders are interchangeable; the F3 and F3HP retained the flash mount on the rewind dial, which obstructed that area of the camera. A more durable, robust titanium version of the F3HP was offered, called the "F3/T" in a more natural titanium finish or'champagne' coloring, in a less conspicuous black.
It weighs 20 grams less than the comparable F3. The champagne offering was introduced in 1982 and was discontinued around 1985, making it the rarer of the two titanium models; the F3/T featured titanium clad titanium back, titanium top and bottom plates. It benefited from the conformal coating of the internal circuit board; the mechanical specifications between the black finished F3/T and the natural finish F3/T were identical. Next to be introduced was the F3P in 1983. Built for use by photojournalists, the F3P included additional weathersealing, O-ring gaskets, the MF-6 Auto Film-Stop Back, Type-B Matte focusing screen, a modified Titanium DE-5 pentaprism with ISO-type accessory shoe and no eyepiece blind, rubber-covered waterproof shutter release with a modified lockout and no cable release threads, a round frame counter window with white numerals, an extended shutter speed operating knob for easier operation in cold or wet environments; the F3P lacked self-timer and multiple-exposure lever.
A variant of the F3P called the'F3 Limited' was sold just in Japan, starting in 1994. The Limited had special badging, regular film back without the auto-stop feature of the MF-6/6B back, was otherwise identical to the F3P, it came in a wooden presentation box. Neither camera could use the DX-1 viewfinder of the F3AF body. Contacts in mirror housing were configured differently than a regular F3 series camera. On an F3P and F3 Limited, they were used for flash ready light purposes. On an F3, F3/T, F3AF, they were used to communicate the exposure meter display information to the LCD inside the DX-1 viewfinder; the F3H, a high-speed camera, was introduced for press, sports photography and for the 1998 Nagano Olympics in Japan. However Nikon stated its true motivation on its website in that it "represented Nikon's reaction to the fact that, the previous year, a competitor had released a camera for high-speed continuous shooting that could shoot 10 fps". Following previous practice with the Nikon F High Speed and the F2H, it featured a fixed pellicle semi-transparent mirror, diverting 30% of the light through to the view finder, allowing the camera and the specially produced MD-4H motor drive to achieve up to 13 frames per second, when the MN-2 nicad battery is used.
The F3H had the appearance of an F3P modified for high-speed photography. The MD-4H was a speeded-up MD4, with the gearing increased by 1.5 and the voltage raised to the standard capable, motor. There is one additional gold contact pin surrounding the rewind spigot, that joins with the electrical connection on the base of the camera; the front face of the drive features a extended area with a switch that enables the option of using the drive at a constant 6 frames per second. Production was short, official reports from Nikon claiming only around 100 such cameras made, however its that the real number exceeds that by many hundreds, as serial numbers in the high 800's have been noted. Serial numbers on the camera body begin with H9600... and the front features the signature F3 logo with a H added. Inste