Throwback uniforms, throwback jerseys or retro kits or heritage guernseys are sports uniforms styled to resemble the uniforms that a team wore in the past. One-time or limited-time retro uniforms are sometimes produced to be worn by teams in games, on special occasions such as anniversaries of significant events. Throwback uniforms have proven popular in all major pro and college sports in North America, not only with fans, but with the teams' merchandising departments; because the "authentic" uniforms and less-authentic "replicas" had been so popular at retail, the professional leagues institutionalized throwbacks as "third jerseys". Throwbacks were first popularized in Major League Baseball, where teams not only wore renditions of their past styles, but tributes to defunct minor league and Negro League baseball teams as well; the games where teams will wear throwbacks are promoted as "Turn Back The Clock Nights". Throwbacks make frequent appearances every season in college football games, National Hockey League games, in National Basketball Association games.
The first companies to produce throwback uniforms were Tiedman & Company Sportswear, Mitchell & Ness, Ebbets Field Flannels. All three companies are still in business. In some instances, teams will wear "fauxbacks": retro designed uniforms harkening back to an era which pre-dates the team itself. For example, the Tampa Bay Rays, formed in 1998, wore 1979-style baseball uniforms in 2012, the Dallas Mavericks have used a 1970s-like basketball uniform since 2004, despite having been established in 1980. Fauxback can refer to a retro style "vintage inspired" uniform that has design elements from a uniform from the past but is in itself a new and different design due to cosmetic adjustments. An example of this is the current Buffalo Bills NFL team uniforms that feature helmets resembling the team's white helmets from the 1970s but with a different, more modern looking stripe design. Throwbacks were introduced in the NFL in 1991 at retail through the NFL Throwbacks Collection; the rights to produce the vintage apparel was limited to six apparel licensees, including Tiedman & Company Sportswear, Starter, Nutmeg Mills, DeLong.
In 1994, to honor the NFL's 75th Anniversary, teams were allowed to wear modern versions of their old uniform styles. However, the designs varied in their accuracy: While no attempt was made to simulate obsolete leather helmets which were phased out in the 1950s, teams simulating uniforms from the era of leather headgear removed all decals and striping from their regular hard-shell helmets. A rule imposed by the AFL–NFL merger in 1970 adopted the AFL's policy of all jerseys displaying the player's last name on the back side; this practice was not part of the NFL until after the merger, but in order to keep consistency with current rules, the names were placed on the back side of all throwback jerseys. In most instances the fonts and typestyles used; the Arizona Cardinals, Chicago Bears and Pittsburgh Steelers wore reproductions of uniforms that pre-dated large numerals on the front of jerseys, so instead smaller numerals were worn on the right shoulder. The Dallas Cowboys and Buffalo Bills received some criticism for their portrayal of their throwbacks.
The Cowboys wore their early 1960s uniforms with their current helmet, while the Bills wore their then-current uniforms with the old "standing buffalo" logo in white on their red helmets, in place of the current blue "charging buffalo" logo. That season, the Cowboys used the "double-star" uniform, which could be considered an updated version of the 1960s jerseys. Both teams have since adopted these throwbacks more as alternates, with Dallas now using the original, plain star helmet and Buffalo using the original red "standing buffalo" helmet on white background, as well as wearing the AFL-era jerseys as opposed to the Jim Kelly/Marv Levy-era jerseys; the Bills adopted 1975-era throwbacks, with white helmets, as their main uniform in 2011. The New York Jets received similar criticism for using their throwback logo on their then-current green helmets; the Bills and Cowboys did the same. The Miami Dolphins, New Orleans Saints, Seattle Seahawks, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Indianapolis Colts and Cleveland Browns had not had major uniform redesigns up to that point or only made subtle changes, as the Seahawks and Buccaneers had joined the league just 18 years earlier.
The Seahawks and Buccaneers have since redesigned their uniforms in 2002, 2012 and 1997, 2014 while the Dolphins made some minor updates in 1997 a brand new look altogether in 2013, the Saints got new uniforms in 2000, the Browns in 2015. All the teams were informed that they would be wearing the Throwbacks during Week Three of the season; some teams continued to wear theirs throughout the season. The San Francisco 49ers wore replicas of their 1955 uniforms in their Super Bowl XXIX victory; the uniforms were well-liked enough that the 49ers brought them back, in modified form, for 1996–1997. In 1998, the gold pants from before were returned, in more modern form
The Curse of the Gloamglozer is a children's fantasy novel by Paul Stewart and Chris Riddell, first published in 2001. It is the first of the Quint Saga trilogy. Quint, the fourteen-year-old only remaining son of famous sky pirate Wind Jackal, arrives with his father in the floating city of Sanctaphrax. Wind Jackal, a good friend of Sanctaphrax's ruler, Most High Academe Linius Pallitax, agrees to allow Quint to stay in Sanctaphrax as the High Academe's personal assistant. Quint is not pleased with this turn of events, neither is Linius' daughter Maris, who believes that Linius is favouring Quint over her. At first, Maris hates Quint for this. However, when Quint tries to overcome his phobia of fire to help her, Maris begins to respect him. Quint is asked by Linius to help him use a low sky-cage. Quint steers the cage to an entrance into Sanctaphrax's floating rock, inside, consists of an ever-changing series of tunnels known as the stonecomb. Linius scratched up and exhausted. Curious about what Linius could be doing within the stonecomb, Quint follows the Academe the next time they travel into the stonecomb.
Linius is revealed to be entering the Ancient Laboratory, an unused research centre built by Sanctaphrax's first scholars, Quint is chased by an unseen monster on the way back. When Linius arrives, he is in an worse state than before, his ear nearly cut off and delirious. Maris, concerned for her father's safety, confronts Quint in school. Quint promises to take Maris into the stonecomb to find out. On the way down in the sky-cage, the chain connecting the cage to Sanctaphrax is cut. Maris and Quint escape with their lives, they enter the stonecomb. Trying to follow a chain of arrows Quint had drawn the first time he had followed Linius and Maris are attacked by the same monster, which turns out to be a massive, blood-red creature known as a "rogue glister", they are saved from the creature by Bungus Septrill, the High Librarian of the Great Library, an earth-scholar. Meanwhile, the Sub-Dean of Mistsifting, Seftus Leprix, allies himself with a disowned flat-head goblin guard, Bagswill, they resolve to try to kill Linius Pallitax in a move to seize power.
Their attempt to kill Linius by cutting the chain of the low-sky cage is futile, as Quint and Maris were the ones in the cage at the time. Their second attempt, this time using poison, backfires badly when they accidentally drink the poisoned beverage, are killed. Bungus and Maris set off out of the stonecomb, intending to demand an explanation from Linius. However, Quint sets off on his own to see what is in the Ancient Laboratory. Linius recovered from his ordeal, begins to tell how he discovered that the Ancient Laboratory was used to create life, harnessing energy from storms and the ghostlike glisters. Linius tries to follow in their footsteps, does manage to create life, but is dismayed to find out that what he created is in fact a gloamglozer, a terrible demon. After futilely trying to kill it using a substance known as chine, deadly to it, Linius resolves to leave it locked in the Ancient Laboratory. Meanwhile, Quint enters the laboratory and is knocked unconscious by the gloamglozer, being a shape-shifter, assumes Quint's form.
Bungus and Maris, returning to the stonecomb in an attempt to stop Quint releasing the gloamglozer, but are again ambushed by the rogue glister. Bungus stays behind to stave off the creature, she revives Quint and they return, only to find Bungus killed by the glister but its lair caved in: trapping it forever. The two of them return to Sanctaphrax. Linius is visited by the gloamglozer-Quint, who traps the Academe in his Palace of Shadows and sets a fire, he adopts Linius' form and goes out on the roof. Quint and Maris spot him, Quint again overcomes his fear of fire to rescue Linius. While Quint attempts to climb the building, the spindlebug Tweezel, one of Linius' servants, rescues the real High Academe. Quint is confronted on top of the burning building by the gloamglozer, now in its true form, he manages to repel the creature using chine, but not before the gloamglozer curses Quint and all of Sanctaphrax. It flees; the book ends with Maris telling Quint that Linius Pallitax and the Professor of Light have promised him a position in the Knights' Academy for his valiant attempt to rescue Linius
Edward Groff Conklin was an American science fiction anthologist. He edited 40 anthologies of science fiction, one of mystery stories, wrote books on home improvement and was a freelance writer on scientific subjects as well as a published poet. From 1950 to 1955, he was the book critic for Galaxy Science Fiction. Born in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, Conklin was educated at Dartmouth College and Harvard University, graduated from Columbia University in 1927, he drifted through a series of jobs in the 1930s and 1940s, working for several government agencies during WWII. He was a book editor for Robert M. McBride & Co. and did public relations work for the Federal Home Loan Bank, the Office of Strategic Services, the Department of Commerce, the National Cancer Institute and the American Diabetes Association. He was a former scientific researcher for the N. W. Ayer & Son advertising agency, it was as an editor of fiction that Conklin found his niche, beginning as early as 1930. At the age of 26, while employed as an assistant manager at New York's Doubleday Bookstore, he arranged for the hardcover publication of a story first published in The Smart Set, reprinting "A Flood" by the Irish writer George Moore in a limited edition of 185 signed copies.
In 1934, Conklin and Burton Rascoe published The Smart Set Anthology, the first collection of stories from that literary magazine. Conklin's interest in short fiction continued with the 1936 publication of The New Republic Anthology: 1915-1935, edited with Bruce Bliven; the following year, he married Lucy Tempkin on October 1. During the next decade, he wrote books about subways, rental libraries and home construction, in addition to poetry and numerous magazine articles. Conklin did not grow up as a reader of science fiction, but came to it in life. In his Galaxy Five-Star Shelf column of December, 1954, he states, "... I did not become an earnest devotee of the form until 1944, about a year before the Atomic Age opened.... The first item I remember reading that could be classified as science fiction was H. G. Wells' Men Like Gods, back in 1924 when I was a college sophomore, it had a tremendous effect on me...." A roommate from 1930 provided him with "bound volumes of tear-sheets of early weirds, fantastics and'scientifictions' from the old Argosy, All-Story and others...."
He sent a proposal for his first science fiction anthology to Crown Publishers in 1944, the book was issued in 1946, several months ahead of the other great sf anthology of that year, Adventures in Time and Space edited by Raymond J. Healy and J. Francis McComas. After his first science fiction anthology, The Best of Science Fiction, weighing in at 785 pages, he followed with A Treasury of Science Fiction. Readers soon began to seek out books with his strikingly unusual and exotic name on the cover—The Science Fiction Galaxy, The Big Book of Science Fiction and Possible Worlds of Science Fiction; the prominent display of Conklin's huge hardcover anthologies in the "New Titles" section of libraries led numerous American readers to discover science fiction during the genre's early 1950s boom. In the Grip of Terror was an offbeat collection of horror tales, he collaborated with Lucy Conklin on The Supernatural Reader in 1953, a year before her death. Four years he married Florence Alexander Wohlken.
His book review column, "Galaxy's Five-Star Shelf", was a key feature in Galaxy Science Fiction from its premiere issue until October 1955. During that period, he edited Grosset & Dunlap's Science Fiction Classics series, which he conceived as an inexpensive alternative to hard-to-find small-press editions of such titles as Robert A. Heinlein's Beyond This Horizon and Isaac Asimov's I, although the first title in the series was that story's first book publication; the Weather-Conditioned House is not science fiction but a practical discussion of methods involved in weather-conditioning a house. The book was authoritative enough that it was reissued with an update in 1982. In the last three years of his life, Conklin was the staff science editor for The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, he lived in New York at 150 West 96th Street. At the age of 63, he died of emphysema in his summer home at New York. A major survey of Conklin's contribution to science fiction is contained in Bud Webster's 41 Above the Rest: An Index and Checklist for the Anthologies of Groff Conklin.
Webster's study prompted this comment from Barry Malzberg: Groff Conklin was the most important science fiction anthologist through the years of the genre's true second generation, that point at which its magazine-bound masterpieces were being systematically located and placed into permanent format. His contribution over the period of two decades was irreplaceable and all of our postwar history exists in the penumbra of his work. Bud Webster has in this index granted an act of homage of equal irreplaceability. How to Run a Rental Library All About Subways All About Houses Good News About Diabetes with Lucy Conklin Insulate and Air Condition Your Home with Arthur Watkins The Weather Conditioned House Diabetics Unknown The Dangerous Cold: Its Cures and Complications with Noah D. Fabricant The Smart Set Anthology with Burton Rascoe The New Republic Anthology, 1915-1935 with Bruce Bliven The Best of Science Fiction A Treasury of Science Fiction Big Book of Science Fiction (vari