Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Hiking equipment is the equipment taken on outdoor walking trips. Hiking is divided into day-hikes and multiple-day hikes, called backpacking and walking tours; the equipment selected varies according to the duration, planned activities, the environment. Additional factors include preparedness for unplanned events; the level of preparedness can relate to potential hazards. The length and duration of a walk can influence the amount of weight carried; the nature of a hike is both by the natural environment and the applicable government regulations and hikers plan accordingly when considering equipment. To minimize the impact on the natural environment, many hikers follow the principles of "Leave No Trace". According to Tom Brown, the basic plan for survival is in the order of shelter, water and food. Cody Lundin writes about the "Rule of 3s". Hikers may take with them equipment ranging from a stout knife to ultralight backpacking, to the heaviest, most durable gear a hiker can carry. Checklists help to minimize the chance of forgetting something important.
Considerations for choice of hiking equipment may include: Length and remoteness of trip Optimal weight and capacity Special medical considerations Weather: temperature range, sun/shade, snow, ice Terrain: trail conditions, sand, river crossings Shelter and clothes Water plan Food Overnight shelter Protection from animals: insect repellent, anaphylactic medication, snakebite first-aid, mace, bear spray, bear-resistant food storage container Equipment for special activities A pack's capacity to carry items is determined by: Carrying methods on the body Bag volume Construction strength, design and construction qualityCommonly-used carrying methods include: A wristband, belt loop, a thin neck lanyard, clothing pockets are among the smaller, lighter methods. A small belt pouch that can attach to a belt A bodypack or tactical vest is a load-bearing vest, may be as simple as a fishing vest. A single-shoulder pack uses one shoulder strap, such as sling bag. A waistpack can range in size from a belt pouch to a haversack.
Waistpacks may be carried over a shoulder. Day packs are small to mid-sized backpacks that have two shoulder straps, smaller ones may not include a waist belt. A harness system may include a small backpack, a waistpack, a vest, several belt pouches. Larger cargo backpacks that have substantial, well-padded shoulder straps and a waist belt; some hikers divide their backpack into sections associated with specific needs, i.e. kitchen, bathroom, etc. or by clothes, water and food. Military and law-enforcement personnel use a variety of modular and attachment systems, like duty belts, tactical vests, All-purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment, MOLLE, Improved Load Bearing Equipment, FILBE, PLCE. Military surplus outlets are optional sources for backpacking equipment. Construction quality may be determined by design, manufacturer reputation, advertised purpose, field testing. Customer reviews are posted online. Heavy pack fabrics are made from 800–1000 denier nylon material. A large, heavy pack of 100 liters weighs 100 pounds, 1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogram.
The best-made packs may carry up to twice their weight in water. The British army bergen backpack, which has a capacity of 120 liters carrying up to 90 kilograms is made from 1000 denier nylon. Backpacks carrying more than 30 pounds have waist-belts to help with posture by transferring the weight to the hips; some experts recommend keeping the equipment's total weight to less than 25% of the hiker's weight. Apparel, including clothing, shoes, etc. provides insulation from heat, water or fire. It protects it from injury from thorns and insect bites. Basic outdoor clothing materials are goose down, wool and polyolefin, which provide similar degrees of insulation when dry. Wool and polyesters perform reasonably well for most weather conditions and provide some insulation while wet. Cotton/linen wicks moisture, good for hot/humid weather. Cotton and down lose insulation when wet unless they are treated to be water-resistant. Natural fabrics, such as cotton and wool have higher burn temperatures, they char instead of melting when exposed to flame.
When a fabric melts onto skin it is difficult to remove, unlike a material. Nomex is used for fire-resistant clothing. Wool is a good all-around fabric. Cotton and linen are worst for cold, wet weather. Synthetics can be about the same as wool in the winter. Fabrics can be treated to help reduce their disadvantages. Down is compresses the most. Synthetics are next best. Wool is heavier than down and synthetics, does not compress well. Stuff sacks and compression sacks are used for carrying insulated clothing and sleeping bags. Layered clothing allows for fine tuning of body temperature; the inner-base layer should wick away moisture. The mid-layer is used for the appropriate insulation, the outer-shell
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not
A blanket is a piece of soft cloth large enough either to cover or to enfold a great portion of the user's body when sleeping or otherwise at rest, thereby trapping radiant bodily heat that otherwise would be lost through convection, so keeping the body warm. The term arose from the generalization of a specific fabric called Blanket fabric, a napped woolen weave pioneered by Thomas Blanket, a Flemish weaver who lived in Bristol, England in the 14th century. Earlier usage of the term is blanc. Many types of blanket material, such as wool, are used because they are thicker and have more substantial fabric to them, but cotton can be used for light blankets. Wool blankets are warmer and relatively slow to burn compared to cotton; the most common types of blankets are woven acrylic, knitted polyester, cotton and wool. Blankets come with exotic crafting and exotic material such as crocheted afghan or a silk covering; the term blanket is interchanged with comforter and duvet, as they all have similar uses.
Blankets have been used by militaries for many centuries. Most militaries have blankets as compulsory for sleeping quarters in preference to duvets. Militaries are some of the biggest single consumers of woolen blankets. Military blankets tend to be coarse grey with a high level of microns over 20. Suppliers include J. E. Ashworth & Sons and Faribault Woolen Mills who made half of all blankets in America at one time. Throw blankets are smaller blankets in decorative colors and patterns, that can be used for extra warmth and decoration on the outside of bed. Blankets are sometimes used as comfort objects by small children. Blankets may be spread on the ground for a picnic or where people want to sit in a grassy or muddy area without soiling their clothing. Temporary blankets have been designed for this purpose. Media related to Blankets at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of blanket at Wiktionary
Emma Rowena Gatewood, known as Grandma Gatewood, was an extreme hiker and ultra-light hiking pioneer, the first woman to hike the 2,168-mile Appalachian Trail from Mount Oglethorpe in Georgia to Mount Katahdin in Maine solo, in one season. After this feat, she continued to forge new fronts in the hiking world and became the first person to hike the A. T. three times, with her last venture completed in sections. Gatewood was born to a family of 15 children in Gallia County, Ohio, her father, a farmer, turned to a life of drinking and gambling after his leg was amputated in the Civil War. The child-rearing of the family, who slept four to a bed in their log cabin, was left to her mother, Evelyn Caldwell. At the age of 19 she married 27-year-old P. C. Gatewood, a college educated primary school teacher, tobacco farmer, with whom she had 11 children, he sent her to work burning tobacco beds, building fences, mixing cement in addition to her expected housework duties. Within months of the marriage, he started to beat her, a vicious pattern that continued for the entirety of their marriage.
She recalled being beaten nearly to death on several occasions. She survived broken ribs, broken teeth, other injuries during the abusive marriage; when her husband became violent, she would, on occasion, run from the house into the woods where she found peace and solitude. She successfully divorced P. C. Gatewood in 1940, she had 24 grandchildren, 30 greatgrandchildren, one great-greatgrandchild living at the time of her death at 85. In 1955, at the age of 67, Gatewood told her grown children, they did not ask where or for how long, as they knew she was resilient and would take care of herself. About 5 years earlier, Gatewood read an article in National Geographic about the A. T. and thought "it would be a nice lark," though in retrospect considering the difficulty she added "It wasn't." The magazine gave her the impression of easy walks and clean cabins at the end of each day's expedition. Thus she took little in the way of outdoor gear, she wore Keds shoes and carried an army blanket, a raincoat, a plastic shower curtain in a homemade denim bag slung over one shoulder.
She would say "For some fool reason, they always lead you right up over the biggest rock to the top of the biggest mountain they can find."Local newspapers picked up on her story in the southern states the Associated Press did a national profile of her while in Maryland, leading to an article in Sports Illustrated when she had reached Connecticut. After the hike she was invited on the Today Show; these appearances made her a celebrity before the hike was over and she was recognized and received "trail magic" in the form of friends and places to sleep. She hiked the AT again in 1960, again at age 75 in 1963, making her the first person to hike the trail three times, she was credited with being the oldest female thru-hiker by the Appalachian Trail Conference. In addition, she walked 2,000 miles of the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri, to Portland, averaging 22 miles a day, she traveled to every state of the continental United States. In 1970, at age 83, while visiting Appalachian Outfitters in Oakton, Virginia she was asked what she thought about the latest lightweight backpacking gear.
Emma advised: "Make a rain cape, an over the shoulder sling bag, buy a sturdy pair of Keds tennis shoes. Stop at local groceries and pick up Vienna sausages... most everything else to eat you can find beside the trail... and by the way those wild onions are not called "Ramps"... they are "Rampions"... a ramp is an inclined plane." Gatewood was a life member of the National Campers and Hikers Association and the Roanoke Appalachian Trail Club. She was a lifetime member of the Buckeye Trail Association, her legacy lives on through various tributes, artistic works, other commemorative projects. In fact, the A. T. recognized her by including her odyssey in exhibits in The Appalachian Trail Museum. Additionally, in June 2012, she was inducted into the Appalachian Trail Hall of Fame. Other trails in the industry recognized her feats including Hocking Hills State Park in Ohio, where the North Country Trail, Buckeye Trail, the American Discovery Trail coincide and a six-mile section is designated as the Grandma Gatewood Trail.
It connects Old Man's Cave to Cedar Falls to Ash Cave. She has been the subject of projects and films, including a story-telling program and one act play designed by Eden Valley Enterprises. Additionally,Trail Magic, a 60-minute documentary by Put-in-Bay filmmaker Peter Huston, is about Emma Gatewood. Jeff & Paige, a children's music duo based in Boulder, released a song in her honor, titled "Grandma Gatewood", on their 2015 album "Mighty Wolf". In 2018, her story was revived by her feature in the New York Times Overlooked series, which adds stories of remarkable people whose deaths went unreported in the male-dominated obituaries of the Times; the piece, a belated obituary, details abusive family life. Ben Montgomery. Grandma Gatewood's Walk: The Inspiring Story of the Woman Who Saved the Appalachian Trail. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1613747186. Michelle Houts; when Grandma Gatewood Took a Hike. Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-2235-9. Trail Magic: The Grandma Gatewood Story. Eden Valley Enterprises and FilmAff
The Bering Strait is a strait of the Pacific, which separates Russia and Alaska south of the Arctic Circle at about 65° 40' N latitude. The present Russia-US east-west boundary is at 168° 58' 37" W; the Strait is named after an explorer in the service of the Russian Empire. The Strait has been the subject of the scientific hypothesis that humans migrated from Asia to North America across a land bridge known as Beringia when lower ocean levels – a result of glaciers locking up vast amounts of water – exposed a wide stretch of the sea floor, both at the present strait and in the shallow sea north and south of it; this view of how Paleo-Indians entered America has been the dominant one for several decades and continues to be the most accepted one. Numerous successful crossings without the use of a boat have been recorded since at least the early 20th century. Since 2012, the Russian coast of the Bering Strait has been a closed military zone. Through organized trips and the use of special permits, it is possible for foreigners to visit.
All arrivals must be through an airport or a cruise port, near the Bering Strait only at Anadyr or Provideniya. Unauthorized travelers who arrive on shore after crossing the strait those with visas, may be arrested, imprisoned fined and banned from future visas; the Bering Strait is about 82 kilometres wide at its narrowest point, between Cape Dezhnev, Chungu Peninsula, the easternmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, United States, the westernmost point of the North American continent. Its depth varies between 50 metres, it borders with the Chukchi Sea with the Bering Sea to south. The International Date Line runs equidistant between the Strait's Diomede Islands at a distance of 1.5 km, leaving the Russian and American sides on different calendar days, with Cape Dezhnev 21 hours ahead of the American side. The area is sparsely populated; the eastern coast belongs to the U. S. state of Alaska. Notable towns on the American coast of the Strait include the small settlement of Teller.
The western coast belongs to a federal subject of Russia. Major towns that lie along the Strait include Lavrentiya; the Diomede Islands lie midway in the Strait. The village in Little Diomede has a school; the earliest reference of the strait were from maps from the Polo family, based on the adventures of Marco Polo. From at least 1562, European geographers thought that there was a Strait of Anián between Asia and North America. In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov passed through the strait, but his report did not reach Europe. Danish-born Russian navigator Vitus Bering entered it in 1728. In 1732, Mikhail Gvozdev crossed it from Asia to America. Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld in 1878–79 sailed along the northern coast of Siberia, thereby proving that there was no northern land bridge from Asia to North America. In March 1913, Captain Max Gottschalk crossed from the east cape of Siberia to Shishmaref, Alaska, on dogsled via Little and Big Diomede islands, he was the first documented modern voyager to cross from Russia to North America without the use of a boat.
In 1987, swimmer Lynne Cox swam a 4.3-kilometre course between the Diomede Islands from Alaska to the Soviet Union in 3.3 °C water during the last years of the Cold War. In June and July 1989, three teams of sea kayakers combined to attempt the first modern sea kayak crossing of the Bering Strait; the groups were seven Alaskans referring to their effort as'Paddling Into Tomorrow', a four-man British expedition, Kayaks Across the Bering Strait and an unnamed group of three Californians. In 1998, Russian adventurer Dmitry Shparo and his son Matvey crossed the frozen Bering Strait on skis. In March 2006, Briton Karl Bushby and French-American adventurer Dimitri Kieffer crossed the strait on foot, walking across a frozen 90-kilometre section in 15 days, they were soon arrested for not entering Russia through a border control. August 2008 marked the first crossing of the Bering Strait using an amphibious road-going vehicle; the specially modified Land Rover Defender 110 was driven by Steve Burgess and Dan Evans across the straits on its second attempt following the interruption of the first by bad weather.
In February 2012, a Korean team led by Hong Sung-Taek crossed the straits on foot in six days. They started from Chukotka Peninsula, the east coast of Russia on February 23 and arrived in Wales, the western coastal town in Alaska on February 29. In July 2012, six adventurers associated with "Dangerous Waters", a reality adventure show under production, made the crossing on Sea-Doos but were arrested and permitted to return to Alaska on their Sea-Doos after being detained in Lavrentiya, administrative center of the Chukotsky District, they were treated well and given a tour of the village's museum, but not permitted to continue south along the Pacific coast. The men had visas but the western coast of the Bering Strait is a closed military zone. Between August 4 and 10, 2013, a team of 65 swimmers from 17 countries performed a relay swim across the Bering Strait, the first such swim in history, they swam from Russia, to Cape Prince of Wales, United States. They had direct support from the Russian Navy, using one of its ships, assistance with permission.
A physical link between Asia and North America via the Bering Strait nearly became a reality in 186
Sneakers are shoes designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now widely used for everyday wear. The term describes a type of footwear with a flexible sole made of rubber or synthetic material and an upper part made of leather, synthetic substitutes or cloth; the shoes have gone by a variety of names, depending on geography, changing over the decades. The term "sneakers" is most used in the Northeastern United States, South Florida, North Carolina, parts of Canada and New Zealand; the British English equivalent of "sneaker" in its modern form is "trainer". In some urban areas in the United States, the slang for sneakers is kicks. Other terms include training shoes or trainers, gym boots or joggers, running shoes, runners or gutties, daps in Wales, runners in Hiberno-English, tennis shoes, gym shoes, sports shoes, takkies, rubber shoes or canvas shoes. Plimsolls are "low tech" athletic shoes, are called'sneakers' in American English; the word "sneaker" is attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney, an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son.
In 1917, he used the term. The word was in use at least as early as 1887, as The Boston Journal made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes." The name "sneakers" referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground, in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes. Someone wearing sneakers could "sneak up" on someone. Earlier, the name "sneaks" had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber-soled shoes they wore; these shoes acquired the nickname'plimsoll' in the 1870s, derived according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet. Plimsolls were worn by vacationers and began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army.
Athletic shoes were used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century - plimsolls were found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were worn by pupils in schools' physical education lessons in the UK from the 1950s until the early 1970s. British company J. W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895; the company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics. Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100-m and 400-m events, kitted out with Foster's running gear; this style of footwear became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called'sneakers'. In 1892, the U. S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production; the first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907.
The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U. S. market for sneakers grew as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor. During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, differentiated designs were made available for men and women. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole. Adolf "Adi" Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, after his return from World War I, went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas, he successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation.
Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II. During the 1950s, leisure opportunities expanded, children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely affect the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late'50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became popular, trainers designed for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies started to target some of their products at the casual fashion market. Soon, shoes were available for football, basketball, etc. Many sports had their relevant shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology. During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their marketing skills. Sports endorsements with famous athletes grew larger, marketing budgets went t