Thuban, designation Alpha Draconis, is a star in the constellation of Draco. A inconspicuous star in the night sky of the Northern Hemisphere, it is significant as having been the north pole star from the 4th to 2nd millennium BCE. Though Johann Bayer gave Thuban the designation Alpha, its apparent magnitude of 3.65 means it is 3.7 times fainter than the brightest star in the constellation, Gamma Draconis, whose apparent magnitude is 2.24. Α Draconis is the star's Bayer designation. The traditional name Thuban is derived from the Arabic word ثعبان thuʿbān,'large snake', it is sometimes known as Adib. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalog and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN. It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names. In Chinese, 紫微右垣, meaning Right Wall of Purple Forbidden Enclosure, refers to an asterism consisting of Alpha Draconis, Kappa Draconis, Lambda Draconis, 24 Ursae Majoris, 43 Camelopardalis, Alpha Camelopardalis and BK Camelopardalis.
The Chinese name for Alpha Draconis itself is 紫微右垣一, representing 右樞, meaning Right Pivot. 右樞 is westernized into Yu Choo by R. H. Allen with the same meaning. Given good viewing conditions, Thuban is easy to spot in the night sky, due to its location in relation to the Big Dipper asterism of Ursa Major. While it is well known that the two outer stars of the'dipper' point to the modern-day pole star Polaris, it is less well known that the two inner stars and Megrez, point to Thuban, just 15 degrees of arc from Megrez. Thuban is not bright enough to be viewed from badly light-polluted areas. Due to the precession of Earth's rotational axis, Thuban was the naked-eye star closest to the north pole from 3942 BCE, when it superseded Iota Draconis as the Pole Star, until 1793 BCE, when it was superseded by Kappa Draconis, it was closest to the pole in 2830 BCE. It remained within one degree of celestial north for nearly 200 years afterwards, 900 years after its closest approach, was just five degrees off the pole.
Thuban was considered the pole star until about 1800 BCE, when the much brighter Beta Ursae Minoris began to approach the pole as well. Having drifted away from the pole over the last 4,800 years, Thuban is now seen in the night sky at a declination of 64° 20' 45.6", RA 14h 04m 33.58s. After moving nearly 47 degrees off the pole by 10000 CE, Thuban will move back toward the north celestial pole. In 20346 CE, it will again be the pole star, that year reaching a maximum declination of 88° 43′ 17.3″, at right ascension 19h 08m 54.17s. Thuban is a single-lined spectroscopic binary. Only the primary star can be detected in the spectrum; the radial velocity variations of the primary can be measured and the pair have a somewhat eccentric orbit of 51.4 days. Making some assumptions based on the faintness of the secondary, the stars are to be about 0.46 astronomical units apart and the secondary is a little less massive than the primary. The secondary is to be a main sequence star cooler than the primary an A2 spectral class.
The secondary star was detected in high spatial resolution observations using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. The secondary star is 1.8 magnitudes fainter than the primary star and was detected at separations ranging from 6.2 to 2.6 milli-arcseconds. Eclipses were detected using data obtained with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite; the presence of eclipses places Thuban into the class of binaries known as eclipsing binaries. Thuban has a spectral class of A0III, indicating its similarity to Vega in temperature and spectrum, but more luminous and more massive, it has been used as an MK spectral standard for the A0III type. Thuban is not a main sequence star; that makes being 120 times more luminous than the Sun. It is 300 light years away and its brightness is only decreased by 0.003 magnitudes by intervening gas and dust. The United States Navy ship USS Thuban was built in 1943 and decommissioned in 1967. Thuban has featured in works of fiction. Jim Kaler's Stars, University of Illinois: THUBAN NASA's: History of Precession Crystalinks: Precession of the Equinoxes
Sadao Bekku, was a Japanese classical composer. His works include five symphonies, film scores, a flute sonata, a piano concerto, choral work and art songs, the opera, Prince Arima, his work took strong influence from jazz. His most famous works include Matango. A Story of Three Women Prince Arima Deux mouvements pour orchestre Suite classique Introduction et Allegro Deux prières Symphonietta for String Orchestra Symphony No. 1 Concerto pour violon et orchestre Concerto pour alto et orchestre Symphony No. 2 Concerto pour piano et orchestre Festival Overture Symphony No. 3 "Spring" Memories of Pictures: Suite for Wind Band March "Be Pure, Be Fresh" for wind orchestra Symphony No. 4 "The Summer 1945" Concerto pour violoncelle et orchestre "Autumn" Symphony No. 5 "Man" Trio d'anches for bassoon and clarinet Sonate pour flûte et piano Suite japonaise Nr. 1 for wind quintet Quatuor à cordes Nr. 1 1er sonate pour violon et piano Sonate pour violoncelle et piano Aubade for flute and piano Suite "Chants de ville" for alto saxophone and piano Petit pastoral for flute and piano 《Hide and Seek》 and 《Tag》: Two Players for Two Marimbas Trio for Violin and Piano Kaleidoscope No. 2 for marimba Autumn for violoncello and piano Sonatine Suite "Kaleidescope" Three Paraphrases Based on Folksongs of Southern Japan Sonatine in Classical Style Festa in the north: Japanese Suite No. 2 for piano by 4 hands Light-coloured Pictures for voice and piano 2 Rondels for voice and piano Three Songs Based Man-yō-shū poems Giant's Garden for narrator, mixed choir and electronic sound The Four Seasons of the Mountain for mixed choir Bekku composed about 40 film scores from 1954 to 1978.
Ghost of Hanging in Utusunomiya aka The Ceiling at Utsunomiya 姫君剣法 謎の紫頭巾 日本南極地域観測隊の記録 南極大陸 南極大陸 天下の鬼夜叉姫 literally: The Quiet Man 密告者は誰か 黒部侠谷 第二部 地底の凱歌 Matango aka Attack of the Mushroom People 恐怖の時間 White Rose of Hong Kong Key of Keys literally: International Secret Police: Key of Keys Yoko Narasaki ed. Orchestral Works by Japanese Composers 1912-1992. Tokyo: Japan Symphony Foundation, 1994. Sadao Bekku's profile with music sample Sadao Bekku on IMDb JMDB - Sadao Bekku
The George Street Co-op is a food cooperative located in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The George Street Co-op runs a retail store at 89 Morris Street, selling foods and select hygiene and household products to the general public and to its membership; the Co-op, as it is known to its members, maintains a focus on offering vegetarian, local food grown and fair trade products. This focus on vegetarian fare extends to The Namaste Cafe upstairs; the space upstairs serves as a community space for everything from yoga classes to comedy shows. The George Street Co-op was formed in 1973 when ten people from the Rutgers Vegetarian Club started a buying club out of a garage near George Street in New Brunswick. A year the Co-op moved to a new building on George Street and opened a small retail store. In May 1988 the George Street Co-op moved into a new building at 89 Morris Street. List of food cooperatives Official website
Philip Hyde was a pioneer landscape photographer and conservationist. His photographs of the American West were used in more environmental campaigns than those of any other photographer. Hyde first attended Ansel Adams' photography program at the California School of Fine Arts, now the San Francisco Art Institute, beginning with the Summer Session in 1946 and enrolling in the full-time professional photography training, the first of its kind, in the Fall of 1947, studying under photographers such as Edward Weston, Minor White, Imogen Cunningham and Dorothea Lange. Out of thousands of Ansel Adams' students, Hyde was one of the few Ansel Adams asked to teach with him. Hyde became a contributing photographer for the Sierra Club Annual in 1950, he photographed for This is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and Its Magic Rivers, a 1955 book edited by Wallace Stegner highlighting a proposed dam on the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument in Utah and Colorado. Hyde became the primary conservation photographer for the Sierra Club.
David Brower commissioned him to photograph for what came to be known as "battle books", that helped the Sierra Club lead a coalition of environmental groups to establish or expand numerous national parks, wilderness areas and national seashores. This series of books the Sierra Club called The Exhibit Format Series; the most well-known photographers for the series were Eliot Porter and Philip Hyde. The Exhibit Format Series helped bring national attention to the Sierra Club and the cause of conservation and popularized the coffee table photography book paving the way for thousands of books of this type in the years since. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the US Bureau of Reclamation proposed two dams in the Colorado River on either end of the Grand Canyon; the Sierra Club published a book called Time and the River Flowing: Grand Canyon in 1964 in a successful campaign to turn public opinion against these dam projects that threatened the integrity of the wild river and its canyon. Hyde was the primary photographer.
This book reshaped the image of the Grand Canyon for Americans and triggered an outpouring of support and letters from all over the world to prevent the flooding of the canyon. Hyde's photographs appeared in campaigns to create North Cascades National Park, Redwood National Park, Point Reyes National Seashore, High Sierra wilderness, the Wind River Range, islands off Puerto Rico, Big Sur, Kings Canyon, Sequoia National Park, Denali National Park, Tongass National Forest, the Navajo Tribal Parks, the Oregon Cascades, many other national treasures. Hyde said, "For every place there will always be people that want to exploit it, there will always be people—hopefully—that want to save it and keep it as it is. With the risk of inviting the crowds into paradise, better to publish your photographs and rally the troops. What’s in the frame of the photograph matters artistically, to be sure, but what’s outside the frame can destroy it." Hyde began making color photographs in 1948. In 1949, the California School of Fine Arts photography department supplemented its usual black and white training with a color photography class that Philip Hyde attended.
The Sierra Club Exhibit Format Series began to introduce color photography to their books in 1962. In Wildness Is The Preservation of the World by Eliot Porter was in color and Island In Time: The Point Reyes Peninsula contained a significant number of color photographic reproductions. Philip Hyde's color photographs appeared in Time and The River Flowing: Grand Canyon, Navajo Wildlands and other Sierra Club books before the 1970s. After spending time in the desert and discovering improvements in the dye transfer printing process, in the 1970s Hyde transitioned away from black-and-white photography to focus on color, he collaborated with author Edward Abbey on the desert classic, "Slickrock: The Canyon Country of Southeast Utah," yet another Sierra Club book published to highlight the threats to wilderness, in this case, the Utah Redrock country of Canyonlands National Park, Capitol Reef National Park, the Escalante River wilderness.. Hyde had 15 books of contributions to more than 70 others.
In those following he was the primary illustrator: 2009: The Ghosts of Glen Canyon: History Beneath Lake Powell by C. Gregory Crampton Foreword by Edward Abbey 1992: The Range of Light by Philip Hyde with Selections from John Muir - ISBN 0-87905-480-8 1991: Sierra Club: 100 Years of Protecting Nature by Tom Turner. 1968: South of Yosemite: Selected Writings of John Muir ed. by Frederic R. Gunsky 1967: Navajo Wildlands: As Long as the Rivers Shall Run by Stephen C. Jett, with selections from Willa Cather and others. Edited by Kenneth Brow
In automated journalism known as algorithmic journalism or robot journalism, news articles are generated by computer programs. Through artificial intelligence software, stories are produced automatically by computers rather than human reporters; these programs interpret and present data in human-readable ways. The process involves an algorithm that scans large amounts of provided data, selects from an assortment of pre-programmed article structures, orders key points, inserts details such as names, amounts, rankings and other figures; the output can be customized to fit a certain voice, tone, or style. Data science and AI companies such as Automated Insights, Narrative Science, United Robots and Yseop develop and provide these algorithms to news outlets; as of 2016, only a few media organizations have used automated journalism. Early adopters include news providers such as the Associated Press, ProPublica, the Los Angeles Times. Due to the formulaic nature of automation, it is used for stories based on statistics and numerical figures.
Common topics include sports recaps, financial reports, real estate analysis, earnings reviews. StatSheet, an online platform covering college basketball, runs on an automated program; the Associated Press began using automation to cover 10,000 minor baseball leagues games annually, using a program from Automated Insights and statistics from MLB Advanced Media. Outside of sports, the Associated Press uses automation to produce stories on corporate earnings. In 2006, Thomson Reuters announced their switch to automation to generate financial news stories on its online news platform. More famously, an algorithm called Quakebot published a story about a 2014 California earthquake on The Los Angeles Times website within three minutes after the shaking had stopped. Automated journalism is sometimes seen as an opportunity to free journalists from routine reporting, providing them with more time for complex tasks, it allows efficiency and cost-cutting, alleviating some financial burden that many news organizations face.
However, automated journalism is perceived as a threat to the authorship and quality of news and the precarity of employment within the industry. Robot reporters are built to produce large quantities of information at quicker speeds; the Associated Press announced that their use of automation has increased the volume of earnings reports from customers by more than ten times. With software from Automated Insights and data from other companies, they can produce 150 to 300-word articles in the same time it takes journalists to crunch numbers and prepare information. By automating routine stories and tasks, journalists are promised more time for complex jobs such as investigative reporting and in-depth analysis of events. Francesco Marconi of the Associated Press stated that, through automation, the news agency freed up 20 percent of reporters’ time to focus on higher-impact projects. Automated journalism is cheaper, it lowers labour costs for news organizations. Reduced human input means less expenses on wages or salaries, paid leaves and employment insurance.
Automation serves as a cost-cutting tool for news outlets struggling with tight budgets but still wish to maintain the scope and quality of their coverage. In an automated story, there is confusion about who should be credited as the author. Several participants of a study on algorithmic authorship attributed the credit to the programmer. There is no way for the reader to verify whether an article was written by a robot or human, which raises issues of transparency although such issues arise with respect to authorship attribution between human authors too. Concerns about the perceived credibility of automated news is not any different from concerns about the perceived credibility of news in general. Critics doubt if algorithms are "fair and accurate, free from subjectivity, error, or attempted influence." Again, these issues about fairness, subjectivity and attempts at influence or propaganda has been present in articles written by humans over thousands of years. It is remarked that machines do not replace human capabilities such as creativity and critical-thinking.
Substantial research in automated authoring has been pursued with some success at mimicking human humor and thinking abilities although a lot of improvement still needs to be done to existing techniques. At this point, computers alone lack the ability to write stories with perspective, thorough analysis, surprising observations. Beyond human evaluation, there are now numerous algorithmic methods to identify machine written articles. Although some articles may still contain errors that are obvious for a human to identify they can at times score better with these automatic identifiers than human-written articles. Among the concerns about automation is the loss of employment for journalists not dissimilar to the loss of jobs of hand-scribes before the invention of the printing press or those of telephone operators who connected "trunks" to enable long-distance calling. In the interest of saving costs, as mentioned news organizations are inclined to cut staff when switching to cheaper, faster machines.
In 2014, an annual census from The American Society of News Editors announced that the newspaper industry lost 3,800 full-time, professional editors. Falling by more than 10% within a year, this is the biggest drop since the industry cut over 10,000 jobs in 2007 and 2008; the future of automated journalism can be seen as benefici
Otto Sidharta is an Indonesian Composer. He is known for his electronic music. Otto Sidharta finished his post-graduate study in composition and electronic music composition at Sweelinck Conservatorium in Amsterdam under the guidance of Professor Ton de Leeuw, on he gained his doctoral degree at Institute Seni Indonesia Surakarta. Sidharta's interest in using environmental sounds to express his musical ideas developed when he was a student at the Jakarta Institute of Arts, he performed his first electronic music piece, based on water sounds in the First Indonesian Young Composer Festival in 1979. In 1979 he collected some nature and animal sounds on Nias, in the Borneo jungle, Riau islands, some other remote places; these sounds were used as material for some of his works such as Ngendau, Hutan Plastik and East wind. And some others. Beside being a composer, Sidharta used to be a chairman of both the Music Committee of Jakarta Art Council and Indonesian Composers Association, he teaches in Cantus.
Furthermore, he used to be the Music Director for the Nusantara Symphony Orchestra for several years. For Supplement/Upstream, Sidharta created Wind of trade, a soundscape based on the sounds and voices associated with old Dutch and Indonesian culture, such as sounds from nature, street vendors, trains and children playing. Kemelut – live electronic music Meta Ekologi – mix live and pre-recorded electronic music Ngendau – soundscape Hutan Plastik – soundscape East Wind – mix soundscape & live performer Untitled – a piece for clarinet, cello and tape Gong – electronic music Gaung – electronic music Stringquartet – string quartet Saluang – electronic music Quintet for oboe, violin and cello Trio for clarinet and piano Waves – computer-controlled electronic music Marimba – for marimba solo Pulses – computer music 1 Technophobia – live computer music with voice and dance 3 in 1 – music for percussion and computer Rim's – computer music RamayanaKu – for voice and computer Matra – for percussion and computer Topeng Monyet – computer music Mitsuno Hibiki – for violin and computer Goro-goro – for eight percussion players Soundscape I – soundscape Music for Clarinet and Computer Music for Flute and Computer Music for Biwa and Computer Music for Piano and Computer and a few untitled short works for non musical instruments and computer, gamelan instruments and computer.