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Thuggee refers to the acts of Thugs, an organised gang of professional robbers and murderers. The English language word thug traces its roots to the Hindi ठग, which means'swindler' or'deceiver'. Related words are the verb thugna, from the Sanskrit स्थग and स्थगति; this term, describing the murder and robbery of travellers, is popular in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent and India. Thugs are said to have travelled in groups across the Indian subcontinent. There were numerous traditions about their origin. One recorded by D. F. McLeod traced it to some Muslim tribes formed from those who fled Delhi after murdering a physician. Another traced it to some great Muslim families; these original Muslim Thugs spread Thuggee amongst Rajputs, Hindus and Ahirs. According to other traditions by Thugs, they were Kanjars or descended from those who worked in the Mughal camps. Others have blamed the rise of Thugs on the disbanding of armies in employment of Indian rulers after the British conquest. Thugs are said to have operated as gangs of highway robbers and strangling their victims.

To take advantage of their victims, the thugs would gain their confidence. They would rob and bury their victims; this led to the thugs being called Phansigar, a term more used in southern India. During the 1830s, the thugs were targeted for eradication by the Governor-General of India, Lord William Bentinck, his chief captain, William Henry Sleeman. Contemporary scholarship is skeptical of the thuggee concept, has questioned the existence of such a phenomenon, which has led historians to describe thuggee as the invention of the British colonial regime; the Thuggee units would resemble the physical appearance of travellers. They wore turbans and carried with themselves some kinds of baggage, their attire as travelers would deceive peasants and royalty alike. The methods used by Thuggee were meant to reap maximum loot without being caught, they did not accost travelers. They flattered travelers they met, which gave them a chance to assess what wealth their targets might have. Many of them avoided committing thuggee near the areas they lived, making discovering their crimes a difficult task.

They pretended to be either Hindu or Muslim to fool their victims. They attacked in the evening. A common method used by them was to distract their targets while striking to strangle them from behind. In order to avoid suspicion, they avoided carrying more than a few swords. Sometimes they mutilated corpses of their victims to avoid detection; the corpses were hidden or buried. A leader of a gang was called jemadar. Usage of military-style ranks such as jemadar and subedar among Thugs as well as reference to individual members as a "private", suggests that the organisation of their gangs had a military link, they used a jargon known as Ramasee to disguise their true intentions from their targets. Although strangulation is one of their most-recognised methods of murder, they used blades and poison; the thugs comprised both men who had inherited thuggee as a family vocation, as well as those who were forced to turn to it out of necessity. The leadership of many of the groups tended to be hereditary with family members sometimes serving together in the same band.

Such Thugs were known as aseel. Many Thugs insisted, that novices were not taught Thuggee by their family but by others who were more experienced Thugs, sometimes called a guru. While they kept their acts a secret, female thugs existed and were called baronee in Ramasee, while an important male Thug was called baroo, they would avoid killing children of victims and instead adopted them. They sometimes tended to murder women and children to eliminate witnesses or in case they had substantial loot; some of the thugs avoided murdering victims they considered proscribed according to their beliefs and let other unscrupulous members commit the murder or were forced to let them by those who did not believe in their customs like the Muslim thugs. The earliest known reference to the Thugs as a band or fraternity, rather than ordinary thieves, is found in Ziau-d din Barni's History of Firoz Shah, he narrated an incident of the sultan Jalal-ud-din Khalji having 1,000 arrested thugs being sent to Lakhnauti or Gaur: In the reign of that sultan, some Thugs were taken in Delhi, a man belonging to that fraternity was the means of about a thousand being captured.

But not one of these did. He gave orders for them to be put into boats and to be conveyed into the lower country, to the neighbourhood of Lakhnauti, where they were to be set free; the Thugs would thus have to dwell about Lakhnauti and would not trouble the neighbourhood of Delhi any more. Surdas, in his allegorical couplet, mentioned robbers called "thags" who lured a victim while killing and looting his property; the Janamsakhis used the term thag to refer to a robber. Jean de Thévenot in his account referred to a band of robbers who used a "certain Slip with a running noose" to strangle their victims. John Fryer mentions a similar method of strangling used by robbers from Surat whom he saw being given capital punishment by the Mughals in 1675, he mentioned that three of them were relatives, which Kim Wagner notices is similar to the Thugs who were thought to have engaged in this as a family profession. A decree issued by Aurangzeb in 1672 refers to a si

Central Information Commission

The Central Information Commission is a statutory body, set up under the Right to Information Act in 2005 under the Government of India to act upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests to a Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer due to either the officer not have been appointed, or because the respective Central Assistant Public Information Officer or State Assistant Public Information Officer refused to receive the application for information under the Right to Information Act. The commission includes one chief information commissioner and not more than ten information commissioners who are appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a committee consisting of the Prime Minister as Chairperson, the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha. Two women have been chief information commissioners: Sushma Singh; the following have held the post of the chief Information Commissioners

Fruela (usurper)

Fruela was the king of Asturias in 866 after usurping the throne from Alfonso III. Prior to seizing the throne, Fruela was a count of Galicia. There he presided over a legal hearing in Lugo on 5 June 861; the hearing took place "in the presence of the lord count Fruela adjudicated it". He got into a legal dispute over the villa of Carcacía with the diocese of Iria Flavia. After assuming power, he confiscated the land in question; when Ordoño I died on 27 May 866, his son Alfonso, either fourteen or eighteen years old, succeeded him. A charter issued by Alfonso on 18 June 866 attests to his succession. Sometime after that date, Fruela seized the throne and forced Alfonso into exile in Castile or Álava. Within a few months, the usurper had been assassinated in Oviedo. Alfonso's restoration had taken place by 20 January 867, when he restored to Iria Flavia the land that Fruela had confiscated; this charter was confirmed by Count Rodrigo of Castile, who had evidently returned with Alfonso to Oviedo. He may have had a role in defeating Fruela.

The usurpation of Fruela is not recorded in the Chronicle of Alfonso III, a historical compilation ordered by Alfonso III towards the end of his reign, although Alfonso's charter of January 867 makes oblique reference to it: "the villa of Carcacía, which by reason to the church in Iria and that of Saint Eulalia, that the unfortunate Fruela seized for himself." It is mentioned in the work of Sampiro, writing in the early 11th century, from Sampiro it was incorporated into the 12th-century Historia Silense. The fullest and earliest account, however, is found in the Chronicle of Albelda; this was written around 881: Alfonso, the son of Ordoño, assumed the kingship in his eighteenth year. In the first flower of his adolescence—in the first year of his kingship and the eighteenth since his birth—he was deprived of his rule as the result of a rebellion by the apostate count of Galicia, Fruela; the king left for Castile. After a short time, this same rebel and unfortunate king, was killed by those faithful to our prince in Oviedo, the glorious young man was brought back from Castile.

Sampiro gives Fruela the patronymic surname "Jemúndez", implying. "Jemúndez" may, however, be an error for Vermúdez. The given name Fruela was used by the ruling dynasty of Asturias, suggesting that Fruela may have been a distant royal relative. Sampiro refers to Fruela as a "son of perdition", a reference to Judas Iscariot: Alfonso, son of the lord Ordoño, succeeded in the kingdom, he was warlike, in all skills well trained. Upon his entry into the kingship, being fourteen years of age, a son of perdition, a certain Fruela Jemúndez, from the Galician regions came to claim the kingdom, which did not belong to him, but the king Alfonso, upon hearing this, retreated to the region of Álava. But the nefarious Fruela. Hearing this, the king was joyously received; the Chronicon Lusitanum repeats the Chronicle of Albelda word for word, but agrees with Sampiro about Alfonso's age in 866: In the first year of his reign and fourteenth since his birth, the apostate Fruela, count of Galicia, deprived him of the kingdom by usurpation.

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The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)

The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 adult animated high fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. It is an adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien's high fantasy epic The Lord of the Rings, comprising The Fellowship of the Ring and the first half of The Two Towers. Set in Middle-earth, the film follows a group of hobbits, men and wizards who form a fellowship, they embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring made by the Dark Lord Sauron, ensure his destruction. Ralph Bakshi encountered Tolkien's writing early in his career, had made several attempts to produce The Lord of the Rings as an animated film before being given funding by producer Saul Zaentz and distributor United Artists; the film is notable for its extensive use of rotoscoping, a technique in which scenes are first shot in live-action traced onto animation cels. It rotoscoped live action footage; the film features the voices of William Squire, John Hurt, Michael Graham Cox, Anthony Daniels, was one of the first animated films to be presented theatrically in the Dolby Stereo sound system.

The screenplay was written based on an earlier draft by Chris Conkling. Although Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings was a financial success, it received mixed reactions from critics, there was no official sequel to cover the remainder of the story. Nonetheless, the film became a cult classic that continued to run as a matinee and a midnight movie for nearly two decades, was an influence on Peter Jackson's trilogy, as detailed in the DVD extras of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Early in the Second Age of Middle-earth, elven smiths forge nine Rings of Power for mortal men, seven for the Dwarf-Lords, three for the Elf-Kings. Soon after, the Dark Lord Sauron makes the One Ring, uses it to attempt to conquer Middle-earth. After defeating Sauron, Prince Isildur takes the Ring, but after he is killed by orcs, the Ring lies at the bottom of the river Anduin for over 2,500 years. Over time, Sauron transforms their owners into the Ringwraiths; the One Ring is discovered by Déagol, whose relative, Sméagol, kills him and takes the Ring for himself.

The Ring twists his body and mind, he becomes the creature Gollum and takes with him into the Misty Mountains. Hundreds of years Bilbo Baggins finds the Ring in Gollum's cave and takes it back to the Shire. Decades during Bilbo's birthday celebration, the wizard Gandalf tells him to leave the Ring for his relative Frodo. Bilbo reluctantly agrees, leaves the Shire. Seventeen years pass, during which Gandalf learns that evil forces have discovered that the Ring is in the possession of a Baggins. Gandalf meets with Frodo to explain the danger it poses, he is accompanied by three hobbit friends, Pippin and Sam. After a narrow escape from the Ringwraiths, the hobbits come to Bree, from which Aragorn leads them to Rivendell. Frodo is stabbed atop Weathertop mountain by the chief of the Ringwraiths, becomes sickened as the journey progresses; the Ringwraiths catch up with them shortly. At Rivendell, Frodo is healed by Elrond, he meets Gandalf again, after the latter escapes the corrupt wizard Saruman, who plans to ally with Sauron but wants the Ring for himself.

Frodo volunteers to go to Mordor. Thereafter Frodo sets off from Rivendell with eight companions: Gandalf, their attempt to cross the Misty Mountains is foiled by heavy snow, they are forced into Moria. There, they are attacked by orcs, Gandalf falls into an abyss while battling a balrog; the remaining Fellowship continue through the elf-haven Lothlórien, where they meet the elf queen Galadriel. Boromir tries to take the Ring from Frodo, Frodo decides to continue his quest alone. Boromir is killed by orcs while trying to defend Pippin, they are captured by the orcs. The hobbits flee into Fangorn Forest, where they meet Treebeard. Aragorn and Legolas track Merry and Pippin into the forest, where they are re-united with Gandalf, reborn after destroying the balrog; the four ride to Rohan's capital, where Gandalf persuades King Théoden that his people are in danger. Aragorn and Legolas travel to the Helm's Deep. Frodo and Sam discover Gollum stalking them in an attempt to reclaim the ring, capture him.

Gollum begins plotting against them, wonders if "she" might help. At Helm's Deep, Théoden's forces resist the orcs sent by Saruman, until Gandalf arrives with the absent Riders of Rohan, destroying the orc army. Frodo – Christopher Guard Gandalf – William Squire Sam – Michael Scholes Aragorn – John Hurt Merry – Simon Chandler Pippin – Dominic Guard Bilbo – Norman Bird Boromir – Michael Graham Cox Legolas – Anthony Daniels GimliDavid Buck Gollum – Peter Woodthorpe Saruman – Fraser Kerr Théoden – Philip Stone WormtongueMichael Deacon Elrond – Andre Morell Innkepper – Alan Tilvern Galadriel – Annette Crosbie Treebeard – John Westbrook John A. Neris – Gandalf Sharon Baird – Frodo Michael Lee Gogin Paul Gale Patrick Sullivan Bur

Leisure City, Florida

Leisure City is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, United States. The population was 22,152 at the 2000 census. Leisure City is most notable for its neighboring proximity to the Coral Castle Museum. Leisure City is located at 25°29′39″N 80°26′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.4 square miles, of which, 3.4 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Leisure City borders the communities of Naranja and Redland. At the 2000 census, there were 22,152 people, 6,063 households and 5,044 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 6,490.0 per square mile. There were 6,615 housing units at an average density of 1,938.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 65.03% White 18.00% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 11.42% from other races, 4.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 65.30% of the population. There were 6,063 households of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 21.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families.

12.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.65 and the average family size was 3.94. 36.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 16.5% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. The median household income was $29,091 and the median family income was $29,277. Males had a median income of $22,320 and females $18,619; the per capita income was $9,966. About 22.4% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.3% of those under age 18 and 18.3% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, speakers of Spanish as a first language accounted for 64.83% of residents, while English made up 31.02%, French Creole was at 4.01%, Tagalog was the mother tongue of 0.12% of the population. In 2000, Leisure City had the twenty-ninth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 17.15% of the population.

It had the 100th highest percentage of Puerto Rican residents in the US, at 8.85%, the forty-fifth highest percentage of Haitian residents in the US, at 3.60% It had the thirty-first most Nicaraguans in the US, at 1.37%, while it had the 103rd highest percentage of Guatemalans, at 1.07%. Leisure City is a part of the Miami-Dade County Public Schools system and has three schools: Leisure City K-8, Homestead High School and South Dade High School; the Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Aw"

Fiat 1400 and 1900

The Fiat 1400 and Fiat 1900 are passenger cars produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat from 1950 to 1958 and from 1952 to 1959 respectively. The two models shared body and platform, but while the 1.4-litre 1400 was Fiat's intermediate offering, the upmarket 1900 had an enlarged 1.9-litre engine and more luxurious trim and equipment, to serve as flagship in the manufacturer's range. The 1400 marked Fiat's first all-new postwar model, its first unibody car, its first passenger car offered with a diesel engine, it was the first passenger car produced by Spanish manufacturer SEAT and by Yugoslavian manufacturer Zastava. The Fiat 1400 was introduced at the 1950 Geneva Motor Show, it was the first unibody Fiat automobile. In 1953, the introduction of a diesel version with a 1900 cc engine marked another Fiat first, although the diesel version was known as the 1400 Diesel. In 1953, the 1400 entered production in Spain as the SEAT 1400, the first model produced by SEAT; the following year it became the first passenger car produced by Crvena Zastava in FNRY, the Zastava 1400 BJ.

Equipped with a 2.0 litre Steyr engine, it was produced as "Steyr 2000" by Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG in Austria from 1953. The Fiat 1900, introduced in 1952, was an upmarket model that used the same body as the 1400, but came with a 1.9 litre engine and more standard features. The petrol-engined Fiat 1900 A, introduced in 1954, now offered a claimed 70 bhp. Unusually for that time, it featured, it offered a hydraulically operated clutch, Fiat's first tentative foray into automatic transmissions. The engine had a power output of 44 hp at 4400 rpm; the larger engine offered from 1952 had a power output of 70 CV at 4400 rpm. It had a maximum speed of 120 km/h. Unloaded weight of 1,120 kg. Hand brake handle under instrument panel, Retaining loops for front seat passengers at the roof and at the backrests, Armrests in the doors Fuel filler access was through a trap door in the floor of the trunk/boot, thus keeping the fuel safe once the car was closed and locked The 1900 came standard with a radio and a rudimental "trip computer" that showed the average speed.

About 179,000 1400s and 19,000 1900s were built. A 1400 cc model tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1950 had a top speed of 74.4 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 35.7 seconds. A fuel consumption of 24.2 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The car was never sold in the UK, but the Italian market price would have equated to £750 including taxes. Having eulogised the performance and "quite gear flexibility", British journalists went on to praise the "astonishing silence and comfort provided by the vehicle", highlighting various "unique features designed to prevent the transmission of noise and vibration to the passengers". Great use was made of rubber and of "a sound-proofing compound...liberally coated......integral structure". The Motor tested a 1901 cc diesel model in 1954 and recorded a top speed of 63.8 mph, acceleration from 0-60 mph in 45.2 seconds and a fuel consumption of 33.9 miles per imperial gallon. The car was not at the time available on the UK market but a price in Italy of 1,545,000 Lire was quoted which they worked out as equivalent to £909.

Fiat 1400, Fiat 1400 A and B history at