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Thurii

Thurii, called by some Latin writers Thurium, for a time Copia and Copiae, was a city of Magna Graecia, situated on the Tarentine gulf, within a short distance of the site of Sybaris, whose place it may be considered as having taken. The ruins of the city can be found in the Sybaris archaeological park near Sibari in the Province of Cosenza, Italy. Thurii was one of the latest of all the Greek colonies in this part of Italy, not having been founded until nearly 70 years after the fall of Sybaris. Justin writes that people say that the city of Thurii was built by Philoctetes and his monument is seen there to his days, as well as the arrows of Hercules which laid up in the temple of Apollo; the site of that city had remained desolate for a period of 58 years after its destruction by the Crotoniats. The fugitive Sybarites first appealed for support to Sparta, but without success: their application to the Athenians was more successful, that people determined to send out a fresh colony, at the same time that they reinstated the settlers, expelled from thence.

A body of Athenian colonists was accordingly sent out by Pericles, under the command of Lampon and Xenocritus. Pericles' expressed intent was for it to be a Panhellenic colony, the number of Athenian citizens was small, the greater part of those who took part in the colony being collected from various parts of Greece. Among them were two celebrated names – Herodotus the historian, the orator Lysias, both of whom appear to have formed part of the original colony; the laws of the new colony were established by the sophist Protagoras at the request of Pericles, adopting the laws of Zaleucus of Locri. The new colonists at first established themselves on the site of the deserted Sybaris, but shortly afterwards removed to a spot at a short distance from thence, where there was a fountain named "Thuria", from whence the new city derived its name of Thurii; the foundation of Thurii is assigned by Diodorus to the year 446 BC. The protection of the Athenian name secured the rising colony from the assaults of the Crotoniats, at least we hear nothing of any obstacles to its progress from that quarter.

These disputes at length ended in a revolution, the Sybarites were expelled from the city. They established themselves for a short time in Sybaris on the Traeis but did not maintain their footing long, being dislodged and dispersed by the neighboring barbarians; the Thurians meanwhile concluded a treaty of peace with Crotona, the new city rose to prosperity. Fresh colonists poured in from all quarters the Peloponnese; the citizens were divided, as we learn from Diodorus, into ten tribes, the names of which sufficiently indicate their origin. They were: the Arcadian, Elean, Amphictyonic, Ionian, Athenian and Nesiotic; the form of government was democratic, the city is said to have enjoyed the advantage of a well-ordered system of laws. The city itself was laid out with great regularity, being divided by four broad streets or plateae, each of, crossed in like manner by three others. Shortly after its foundation, Thurii became involved in a war with Tarentum; the subject of this was the possession of the fertile district of the Siritis, about 50 km north of Thurii, to which the Athenians had a claim of long standing, taken up by their colonists.

The Spartan general, banished from Greece some years before, taken up his abode at Thurii, became the general of the Thurians in this war, after various successes, was at length terminated by a compromise, both parties agreeing to the foundation of the new colony of Heracleia in the disputed territory. Knowledge of the history of Thurii is scanty and fragmentary. Fresh disputes arising between the Athenian citizens and the other colonists were at length allayed by the oracle of Delphi, which decided that the city had no other founder than Apollo, but the same difference appears again on occasion of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily, when the city was divided into two parties, the one desirous of favoring and supporting the Athenians, the other opposed to them. The latter faction at first prevailed, so far that the Thurians observed the same neutrality towards the Athenian fleet under Nicias and Alcibiades as the other cities of Italy. Thurii was, in fact, the city where Alcibiades escaped his Athenian captors who were taking him home for trial.

But two years after

List of Boeing 757 operators

The following is a list of past and current commercial operators of the Boeing 757, any of its variants. There were 661 Boeing 757 aircraft in service as of November 2019, comprising 607 757-200s and 54 757-300s, as listed by variant in the following table. Data at November 22, 2019. Arkia Israel AirlinesAbakan-Avia AeroContinente Aerogal Aeromexico Aeroperu Aerosur Air Aruba Air Baltic Air Bashkortostan Air Berlin Air Canada Jazz Air Finland Air Greenland Air Niugini Nepal Airlines Air Italy Blue Panorama Air Poland Air Santo Domingo America West Airlines *merged with US Airways Angkor Airways Astraeus ATA Airlines *ceased operations in 2008 Atlasjet Aurela Avianca Avianca Brazil Berkut Air Belair British Airways Canada 3000 Airlines Capital Cargo International Airlines Cebu Pacific China Cargo Airlines Continental Airlines *merged with United airlines in 2012 Eastern Airlines *ceased operations in 1991 Equatorial Congo Airlines *ceased operations in 2016 El Al EuroAtlantic Airways EVA Air Excel Airways Far Eastern Air Transport Finnair - First Choice Airways Merged with Thomsonfly, Now Thomson Airways Fischer Air Polska Freedom Air * Former operator, one aircraft only.

FlyLAL Charters Ghana International Airlines Harmony Airways Hola Airlines Iberia Ikar Airlines Inter European Airways Israir Ladeco merged with Lan Chile Lan Chile LAPA Loftleidir Icelandic Martinair Mexicana Mint Airways Monarch Airlines MyTravel Airways merged with Thomas Cook Airlines National Airlines - 19 Nordwind Airlines North American Airlines Northwest Airlines Merged with Delta Air Lines Orient Thai Airlines Pace Airlines Pluna Royal Air Maroc Royal Brunei Airlines Ryan International Airlines Shanghai Airlines Singapore Airlines Sun d'Or Sunways Airlines Tasman Cargo Airlines Thomas Cook Airlines UK Transavia.com Transmile Air Services Trans World Airlines merged with American Airlines United Nations US Airways UTair Varig VarigLog Vensecar Internacional Vuela XiamenAir Zambia Airways Zoom Airlines

Peadar Clancy

Peadar Clancy was an Irish republican who served with the Irish Volunteers in the Four Courts garrison during the 1916 Easter Rising and was second-in-command of the Dublin Brigade of the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence. Along with Dick McKee and Conor Clune, he was shot dead by British guards while under detention in Dublin Castle on the eve of Sunday, 21 November 1920, a day known as Bloody Sunday that saw the killing of a network of British spies by the Squad unit of the Irish Republican Army and the killing of 14 people in Croke Park by British forces. Clancy was one of seven sons and six daughters born to James and Mary Clancy, of Carrowreagh East, County Clare in 1888; the Clancy home had been the meeting place for local Fenians since the 1860s. Though the Fenians had been instrumental in reawakening Irish culture through the Gaelic League and the Gaelic Athletic Association, this form of "advanced nationalism" was not popular at this time. From a young age Clancy was engrossed by national activities.

Educated at the local national school, close to his family home, at sixteen he became apprenticed in the drapery business of Dan Moloney, in Kildysart. On completing his apprenticeship he went to Newcastle West, County Limerick, where he worked as an assistant in the drapery business of Michael O'Shaughnessy on Bridge Street. From there, he moved to Youghal, County Cork, where he lived at 6 North Main Street, from which address he wrote to his infant nephew in Chicago on 17 October 1912. In 1913 he went to work for Harkin's General Drapery, at 70A New Street in Dublin. On coming to Dublin, Clancy joined the Irish Volunteers at their inception, becoming a Volunteer in "CO" company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade. During the 1916 Easter Rising he served alongside Dick McKee. Clancy was to distinguish himself in combat, with a group of Volunteers, he repelled an infantry attack at Church Street Bridge and forced an enemy retreat towards the Phoenix Park on Easter Monday. Shortly afterwards, Clancy burnt out a sniper from a house, during the course of the Rising single-handedly captured Lord Dunsany and Colonel Lindsay.

Lord Dunsany, though wounded by Clancy, said of the Republicans after his release: "Although in different uniforms, we are all Irishmen and you are all gentlemen." For the "courage and intelligence" shown during this period, he was promoted to Lieutenant by Captain Frank Fahy. After the Rising he was sentenced to death for his part in the rebellion, he remained in English jails until June 1917, upon his return to Dublin he helped to re-organise the Volunteers. After his release, Peadar Clancy started a drapery business of his own, called The Republican Outfitters, located at 94 Talbot Street. According to Dan Breen, it was one of the best-known meeting places in Dublin for the IRA, was so watched that it was never advisable to remain there for long. By 1917, it was advertising as The Republican Outfitters: Clancy and Walsh. Clancy's initial partners in the business were Thomas Walsh and other comrades. By 1920, the initial partnership had been dissolved and Walsh had gone out on their own at 5 Upper O'Connell Street and Tom Hunter had become part proprietor of the Talbot Street business with Clancy.

After his release from prison he was selected as the Sinn Féin candidate in the East Clare by-election, but his candidature was not ratified by IRA General Headquarters and Éamon de Valera was chosen at a second convention in Ennis. Clancy, in a letter to his brother M. J, who lived in Chicago, wrote about the divide in Irish society over the war and the split in the Volunteers, which he believed had resulted from the position adopted by John Redmond, the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party: There is a vast range of subjects on which I should like to write to you about. There has been a pointed and sharp division of opinion in Ireland with regards to it, created to a great extent by the attitude that Mr. Redmond has taken up. I understand that diversity of opinion obtains to a great extent in America too, but our sources of information from America are altogether one sided in this country since the Government has prohibited the circulation of the Irish World and the Gaelic American in Ireland.

Clancy took part in de Valera’s election campaign, addressed a number of meetings throughout his native county in the summer of 1917. After the election, on 24 July 1917, Clancy again wrote to his brother on the outcome and the position the Republicans would adopt: My Dear Brother, I got your letter about ten days ago & as you hoped I was free. We were released about a month ago. Needless to say we were not sorry to get away from England’s jails and jailers. Since my release I had a exciting fortnight. We had an election in East Clare - a parliamentary election. There were an Irish Party man. Our man won by the magnificent majority of 2,975, he was in jail with me. His name is de Valera. For one year & two months England treated him as if he were one of the worst criminals and Ireland confers on him the highest dignity it is in her power to confer. Another comrade of mine was elected to represent South Longford; as the vacancie