Ravensden is a village and civil parish located in the Borough of Bedford in Bedfordshire, England. The parish borders the town of Bedford, with Mowsbury Park and farmland acting as a buffer between the two settlements; the village hosts Ravensden Primary School, a pub called The Horse and Jockey, as well as All Saints Church. There is a village hall. For elections to Bedford Borough Council, Ravensden is part of Great Barford ward. A housing estate called Woodlands Park was established in the southern part of Ravensden parish in the late 2000s; the estate is separated from the village by farmland, with vehicular access to the community coming from the Brickhill area of Bedford. In April 2015 Woodlands Park became part of Brickhill parish, but remains part of Great Barford ward for elections to Bedford Borough Council. Ravensden community site Ravensden Church of England VA Primary School Horse and Jockey Ravensden
Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic. The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons; this process occurred from the mid-fifth to early seventh centuries, following the end of Roman rule in Britain around the year 410. The settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain followed by the rest of modern England; the available evidence includes the scanty contemporary and near-contemporary written record, archaeological and genetic information. The few literary sources tell of hostility between natives, they describe violence, destruction and the flight of the Romano-British population. Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English; these factors have suggested a large-scale invasion by various Germanic peoples.
In this view, held by the majority of historians until the mid to late twentieth century, much of what is now England was cleared of its prior inhabitants. If this traditional viewpoint were to be correct, the genes of the English people would have been overwhelmingly inherited from Germanic migrants. However, another view the most held today, is that the migrants were fewer centred on a warrior elite; this hypothesis suggests that the incomers, having achieved a position of political and social dominance, initiated a process of acculturation by the natives to their language and material culture, intermarried with them to a significant degree. Archaeologists have found that settlement patterns and land-use show no clear break with the Romano-British past, though there are marked changes in material culture; this view predicts that the ancestry of the people of Anglo-Saxon and modern England would be derived from the native Romano-British. The uncertain results of genetic studies have tended to support both a predominant amount of native British Celtic ancestry, as well as a significant continental contribution resulting from Germanic immigration.
So, if these incomers established themselves as a social elite, this could have allowed them enhanced reproductive success. In this case, the prevalent genes of Anglo-Saxon England could have been derived from moderate numbers of Germanic migrants; this theory, originating in a population genetics study, has proven controversial, has been critically received by a number of scholars. By 400, the Roman provinces in Britain were a peripheral part of the Roman Empire lost to rebellion or invasion, but until always recovered; that cycle of loss and recapture collapsed over the next decade. Around 410, although Roman power remained a force to be reckoned with for a further three generations across much of Gaul, Britain slipped beyond direct imperial control into a phase, termed "sub-Roman"; the history of this period has traditionally been a narrative of fall. However, evidence from Verulamium suggests that urban-type rebuilding, featuring piped water, was continuing late on in the 5th century, if not beyond.
At Silchester, there are signs of sub-Roman occupation down to around 500, at Wroxeter new baths have been identified as of Roman-type. The writing of Patrick and Gildas demonstrates the survival in Britain of Latin literacy and Roman education and law within elite society and Christianity, throughout the bulk of the 5th and 6th centuries. There are signs in Gildas' works that the economy was thriving without Roman taxation, as he complains of luxuria and self-indulgence. In the mid 5th century, Anglo-Saxons begin to appear in an still functionally Romanised Britain. Surveying the historical sources for signs of the Anglo-Saxon settlement, the people, assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as "Anglo-Saxon" is fraught with difficulties and the term itself only began to be used in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent; the Chronica Gallica of 452 records for the year 441: "The British provinces, which to this time had suffered various defeats and misfortunes, are reduced to Saxon rule."
The Chronicle was written some distance from Britain. There is uncertainty about precise dates for fifth-century events before 446. This, does not undermine the position of the Gallic Chronicles as a important contemporary source, which suggests that Bede's date for'the arrival of the Saxons' was mistaken. In the Chronicle, Britain is grouped with four other Roman territories which came under'Germanic' dominion around the same time, the list being intended as an explanation of the end of the Roman empire in the west; the four share a similar history, as they were all given into the "power of the barbarians" by Roman authority: three were deliberately settled with German federates and though the Vandals took Africa by force their dominion was confirmed by treaty. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons, each ruled by its own king; each race was so prolific that it sent large numbers of individuals every year to the Franks, who planted them in unpopulated regions of its territory.
Writing in the mid-sixth century, he states that after the overthrow of Constantine III in 411, "the Romans never succeeded in recovering Britain, but it remained from that time under tyrants." In
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England. The town has an estimated population of 87,590, whereas the Borough of Bedford had an estimated population of 169,912. Bedford was founded at a ford on the River Great Ouse, is thought to have been the burial place of Offa of Mercia. Bedford Castle was built by Henry I, although it was destroyed in 1224. Bedford was granted borough status in 1165 and has been represented in Parliament since 1265, it is well known for its large population of Italian descent. Bedford is on the Midland Main Line, with stopping services to London and Brighton operated by Thameslink, express services to London and the East Midlands operated by East Midlands Trains; the name of the town is thought to derive from the name of a Saxon chief called Beda, a ford crossing the River Great Ouse. Bedford was a market town for the surrounding agricultural region from the early Middle Ages The Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia was buried in the town in 796. In 886 it became a boundary town separating Danelaw.
It was the seat of the Barony of Bedford. In 919 Edward the Elder built the town's first known fortress, on the south side of the River Great Ouse and there received the area's submission; this fortress was destroyed by the Danes. William II gave the barony of Bedford to Paine de Beauchamp who built a strong castle. Bedford traces its borough charter in 1166 by Henry II and elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons, it remained a small agricultural town, with wool being an important industry in the area for much of the Middle Ages. The new Bedford Castle was razed in 1224 and today only a mound remains. From the 16th century Bedford and much of Bedfordshire became one of the main centres of England's lace industry, lace continued to be an important industry in Bedford until the early 20th century. In 1660 John Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in Bedford Gaol, it was here. The River Great Ouse became navigable as far as Bedford in 1689. Wool declined in importance with brewing becoming a major industry in the town.
The 19th century saw Bedford transform into an important engineering hub. In 1832 gas lighting was introduced, the railway reached Bedford in 1846; the first corn exchange was built 1849, the first drains and sewers were dug in 1864. Bedford is the largest settlement in Borough of Bedford; the borough council is led by a directly elected mayor who holds the title'Mayor of Bedford', an office, first held by Frank Branston, until his death in 2009. The current Mayor of Bedford is Dave Hodgson from the Liberal Democrat Party. Bedford itself is divided into 10 wards: Brickhill, Cauldwell, De Parys, Harpur, Newnham, Queens Park, Kempston East and Kempston West. Brickhill elects its own parish council. Bedford is served by Bedfordshire Police; the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner of that force is Kathryn Holloway. Bedford forms part of the Bedford constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament; the current Member of Parliament for Bedford is Mohammad Yasin, a member of the Labour Party.
Bedford is 46 miles miles north-northwest of London, 65 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles west of Cambridge and 19 miles east-southeast of Northampton. The town of Kempston is adjacent to Bedford, as are the villages of Elstow and Ravensden. Wixams is a new town, being developed to the south of Bedford. Villages in the Borough of Bedford with populations of more than 2,000 as of 2005 were Biddenham, Clapham, Oakley, Shortstown and Wootton. There are many smaller villages in the borough; the villages in the borough are popular with commuters to Bedford, with people who commute to Milton Keynes and towns in Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. Nearby small towns include Ampthill, Biggleswade and Sandy, all of which are in Central Bedfordshire, as well as Rushden in Northamptonshire and St Neots in Cambridgeshire; the nearest towns and cities with larger populations than Bedford are Northampton to the north west, Cambridge to the east, Milton Keynes to the south west, Luton to the south, all of which have urban area populations of 150,000 or more.
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, Bedford has a maritime climate, with a limited range of temperatures, even rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office weather station to Bedford is Bedford airport, about 6.5 miles north of Bedford town centre at an elevation of 85 metres. Since 1980, temperature extremes at the site have ranged from 35.9 °C in August 2003 and 35.3 °C during July 2006 down to −15.3 °C in January 1982. However, such extremes would be superseded if longer term records were available – Historically, the nearest weather station to Bedford was Cardington about 2.4 miles south south east of the town centre with an elevation of 30 metres. This location recorded a minimum of −18.3 °C during January 1963. Rainfall averages around 585mm a year, with an excess of 1mm falling on 109 days. Sunshine at around 1500 hours a year is typical of inland areas of southern-central England. Bedford is home to one of the largest concentrations of Italian immigrants in the United Kingdom.
According to the 2001 census 30% of Bedford's population were of at least partial Italian descent. This is as a result of labour recruitment in the early 1950s by the London Brick Company from Southern Italy. From 1954 to 20
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Hundred of Willey
The Hundred of Willey is a historical land division, a hundred in northwest corner of Bedfordshire, England. Its northwestern boundary is the county border with Northamptonshire, its southwestern boundary the border with Buckinghamshire; some of its parishes and settlements lay on the River Great Ouse. The hundred of Willey was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 and included the parishes of: Carlton, Farndish, Felmersham with Radwell, Odell, Podington with Hinwick, Thurleigh and Wymington; the hundred added the parishes of Biddenham, Bromham, Pavenham and Stevington from the ancient hundred of Buckelowe and the parish of Souldrop. In 1934 the parishes of Carlton and Chellington merged to become one parish, Carlton with Chellington. Farndish ceased to be its own parish and was absorbed into the Podington with Hinwick parish. What was the northeast corner of the Hundred of Willey was the Half Hundred of Bucklow, it had long been associated with the Hundred of Willey and became absorbed into it in 1831, causing it to gain some of the extra parishes.
In the 13th century the two were royal hundreds recorded as The bailiwick of Wilie and half bailiwick of Bukkelowe. A man named Hugh de Willey was recorded as The keeper of the bailiwick of Wilie and half bailiwick of Bukkelowe, at his death in 1278 his son Roger succeeded him. Although there are many small settlements the majority of land in the hundred remains rural and is still used for farming. There is a railway line running close to the northeast border, however some stations on this line are now closed such as Sharnbrook closed in 1960. Today the area of the Hundred of Willey is within the Borough of Bedford; the hundred contained the following parishes:Biddenham, Bromham, Chellington, Felmersham, Odell, Podington, Souldrop, Stevington, Turvey Hundreds of Bedfordshire