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Tiberias

Tiberias is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor of the Roman Empire, Tiberius. In 2018 it had a population of 44,234. Tiberias has been held in great respect in Judaism since the mid-2nd century CE, since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem and Safed. In the 2nd–10th centuries, Tiberias was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee and the political and religious hub of the Jews in the Land of Israel, its immediate neighbour to the south, Hammat Tiberias, now part of modern Tiberias, has been known for its hot springs, believed to cure skin and other ailments, for some two thousand years. See Diocese of Tiberias for ecclesiastical history Jewish tradition holds that Tiberias was built on the site of the ancient Israelite village of Rakkath or Rakkat, first mentioned in the Book of Joshua. In Talmudic times, the Jews still referred to it by this name.

Tiberias was founded sometime around 20 CE in the Herodian Tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea by the Roman client king Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great. Herod Antipas made it the capital of his realm in the Galilee and named it for the Roman Emperor Tiberius; the city was built in immediate proximity to a spa which had developed around 17 natural mineral hot springs, Hammat Tiberias. Tiberias was at first a pagan city, but became populated by Jews, with its growing spiritual and religious status exerting a strong influence on balneological practices. Conversely, in The Antiquities of the Jews, the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus calls the village with hot springs Emmaus, today's Hammat Tiberias, located near Tiberias; this name appears in his work The Wars of the Jews. In the days of Herod Antipas, some of the most religiously orthodox Jews, who were struggling against the process of Hellenization, which had affected some priestly groups, refused to settle there: the presence of a cemetery rendered the site ritually unclean for the Jews and for the priestly caste.

Antipas settled many non-Jews there from rural Galilee and other parts of his domains in order to populate his new capital, built a palace on the acropolis. The prestige of Tiberias was so great that the Sea of Galilee soon came to be named the Sea of Tiberias; the city was governed by a city council of 600 with a committee of 10 until 44 CE when a Roman procurator was set over the city after the death of Herod Agrippa I. Tiberias is mentioned in John 6:23 as the location from which boats had sailed to the opposite, eastern side of the Sea of Galilee; the crowd seeking Jesus after the miraculous feeding of the 5000 used these boats to travel back to Capernaum on the north-western part of the lake. Under the Roman Empire, the city was known by its Greek name Τιβεριάς, an adaptation of the taw-suffixed Semitic form that preserved its feminine grammatical gender. In 61 CE Herod Agrippa II annexed the city to his kingdom. During the First Jewish–Roman War, the seditious took control of the city and destroyed Herod's palace, were able to prevent the city from being pillaged by the army of Agrippa II, the Jewish ruler who had remained loyal to Rome.

The seditious were expelled from Tiberias, while most other cities in the provinces of Judaea and Idumea were razed, Tiberias was spared this fate because its inhabitants had decided not to fight against Rome. It became a mixed city after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE. There is no direct indication that Tiberias, as well as the rest of Galilee, took part in the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, thus allowing it to exist, despite a heavy economic decline due to the war. Following the expulsion of Jews from Judea after 135 CE, Tiberias and its neighbour Sepphoris became the major Jewish cultural centres. According to the Talmud, in 145 CE, Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai, familiar with the Galilee, hiding there for over a decade, "cleansed the city of ritual impurity", allowing the Jewish leadership to resettle there from the Judea, which they were forced to leave as fugitives; the Sanhedrin, the Jewish court fled from Jerusalem during the Great Jewish Revolt against Rome, after several attempted moves, in search of stability settled in Tiberias in about 150 CE.

It was to be its final meeting place before its disbanding in the Early Byzantine period. When Johanan bar Nappaha settled in Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious scholarship in the land; the Mishnah, the collected theological discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel – in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea – was compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Judah haNasi around 200 CE. The Jerusalem Talmud would follow being compiled by Rabbi Jochanan between 230–270 CE. Tiberias' 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs of a growing Jewish population. In the 6th century Tiberias was still the seat of Jewish religious learning. In light of this, a letter of Syriac bishop Simeon of Beth Arsham urged the Christians of Palaestina to seize the leaders of Judaism in Tiberias, to put them to the rack, to compel them to command the Jewish king, Dhu Nuwas, to desist from persecuting the Christians in Najran. In 614, Tiberias was the site where, during the final Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Empire, parts of the Jewish population supported the Persian invaders.

1931 Pittsburgh Panthers football team

The 1931 Pittsburgh Panthers football team, coached by Jock Sutherland, represented the University of Pittsburgh in the 1931 college football season. The Panthers finished the regular season with eight wins and a single loss at Notre Dame and were considered the champions of the East. Parke H. Davis, recognized as a "major selector" in the official NCAA football records book, named Pitt as one of that season's co-national champions; the team is recognized as national champion in 1931 by College Football Data Warehouse and according to a Sports Illustrated study that has served as the historical basis of the university's historical national championship claims since its original publication. The 1915 team was selected or recognized as national champions by multiple selectors, of which Parke H. Davis's selection is recognized as "major" by the official NCAA football records book. College Football Data Warehouse recognizes Pitt as a national champion in 1915, as did a 1970 Sports Illustrated study that has served as the historical basis of the university's historical national championship claims since its original publication.

These are the selectors that determined Pitt to be national champions in 1931. 1st-N-Goal Bob Kirlin Parke H. Davis** A "major" selector, "national scope" according to the official NCAA football records book. Ralph Daugherty, center James MacMurdo, tackle Jesse Quatse, Tackle *Bold – Consensus All-American

NuVinci Continuously Variable Transmission

The NuVinci Continuously Variable Planetary Transmission is a type of roller-based continuously variable transmission manufactured and marketed by the American company Fallbrook Technologies Inc. The design saw its initial market application as a bicycle gearing system, first available in December 2006 in the Netherlands and United States. NuVinci CVP technology is currently under development for other applications, including wind turbines, light electric vehicles, outdoor power equipment, automotive front-end accessory drives. Mechanical variators have existed since the 1800s, they have been used in machinery the Kopp tilting ball variator. Various attempts have been made to implement them in vehicle transmissions, but commercial success has been elusive; the NuVinci CVT gear system uses a set of rotating and tilting balls positioned between the input and output discs of a transmission. Tilting the balls changes their contact diameters and varies the speed ratio; as a result, the NuVinci CVT system offers seamless and continuous transition to any ratio within its range.

The gear ratio is shifted by tilting the axles of the spheres in a continuous fashion, to provide different contact radii, which in turn drive input and output discs. The system has multiple "planets" to transfer torque through multiple fluid patches; the spheres are placed in a circular array around a central idler and contact separate input and output traction discs. This configuration allows output to be concentric and compact; the result is the ability to sweep the transmission through the entire ratio range smoothly, while in motion, under load, or stopped. Two factors allow the NuVinci CVT to provide a continuously variable ratio range in a compact package: The first is the geometric configuration of the drive, based on differing contact ratio of a sphere. Contacting a rotating sphere at two different locations relative to the sphere’s rotational axis will provide a “gear ratio”, which can range from underdrive to overdrive depending on the location of the contact points for input and output torque and speed.

The second factor is elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Transmissions that use EHL to transfer power are known as traction drives. A traction drive transmission operates utilizing a traction fluid that, under normal circumstances, provides lubrication for the drive; when this fluid undergoes high contact pressures under rolling contact between the two hard elements, the spheres and the discs, the fluid undergoes a near-instantaneous phase transition to an elastic solid. Within this patch of traction the molecules of the fluid stack up and link to form a solid, through which shear force and thus torque can be transferred. Note that the rolling elements are not in physical contact; the NuVinci CVT system has a small number of parts. Most CVTs have lower mechanical efficiency than competitive conventional transmissions. Since any CVT may allow a power plant, human or motorized, to operate at its speed of optimal efficiency, output torque or output power, the NuVinci CVT may improve a system's overall efficiency or performance compared to a'conventional' geared transmission, but only if such gain in the efficiency or performance of the power plant exceeds any loss in efficiency or performance that may be introduced by replacing the conventional transmission with the NuVinci CVT.

For example, if the NuVinci CVT were only 90% as efficient as the conventional transmission it replaced, the gain in operating efficiency from the power plant would have to be 11% before the overall efficiency improved. The company does not provide any numbers relating to efficiency of their transmissions, has declined to do so when requested; the NuVinci CVT further offers the ability to accept multiple inputs while varying speed and ratio, managing torque and providing single or multiple power outlets. By supporting a torque-demand rather than a speed-demand control solution, the NuVinci CVT solves the low-speed acceleration problem inherent in some torque-demand vehicles; the NuVinci CVT's simple design and low part count make it scalable, with tooling that can be used across a wide variety of applications. The NuVinci uses rolling traction to transfer torque, just as do toroidal transmissions. However, unlike toroidal CVTs, it distributes the transmitted torque over several spheres, thus lowering total clamping force required.

This arrangement allows the NuVinci CVT to combine the smooth, continuous power transfer of a CVT with the utility of a conventional planetary gear drive. As with other traction-type CVTs, transmission of torque through the NuVinci CVT involves some relative sliding between the torque-transmitting contact patches; this is because, for any given contact patch, parts of the ball are going in a different direction and at different speeds than the disc. "The spin velocity is defined as the difference in the rotational speed of the driving and driven rollers in a direction perpendicular to the contact patch plane. It is caused by the relative difference in surface speeds of both elements across the contact patch and is a major source of power loss in traction drive CVT’s." In all traction-type CVTs, this relative sliding occurs between surfaces which are under the high clamping pressures required to ensure torques are transmitted reliably. This relative sliding under high pressures cause transmission losses.

Fallbrook Technology refuse to publish any efficiency data for the NuVinci CVT. However, the NuVinci is a variant on the "Tilting-ball drive" type of continuously variable transmission, the efficiency of "Tilting-ball driv