Tiberius II Constantine

Tiberius II Constantine was Eastern Roman Emperor from 574 to 582. Tiberius rose to power in 574 when Justin II, prior to a mental breakdown proclaimed Tiberius Caesar and adopted him as his own son. In 578, Justin II, before he died, gave him the title of Augustus, under which title he reigned until his death on 14 August 582. Born in Thrace in the mid-6th century, Tiberius was appointed to the post of Notarius. There, sometime after 552, he was introduced by the Patriarch Eutychius to the future emperor, Justin II, with whom he became firm friends. Under Justin's patronage, Tiberius was promoted to the position of Comes excubitorum, which he held from 565 through to 574, he was present during Justin's imperial accession on 14 November 565 and attended his inauguration as consul on 1 January 566. Justin ceased making payments to the Avars, implemented by his predecessor, Justinian. In 569, he appointed Tiberius to the post of Magister utriusque militiae, with instructions to deal with the Avars and their demands.

After a series of negotiations, Tiberius agreed to allow the Avars to settle on Roman territory in the Balkans, in exchange for male hostages taken from various Avar chiefs. Justin, rejected the agreement, insisting on taking hostages from the family of the Avar Khan himself; that condition was rejected by the Avars and so Tiberius mobilized for war. In 570, he returned to Constantinople. While attempting to follow up that victory in late 570 or early 571, Tiberius was defeated in a battle in which he narrowly escaped death, as his army was fleeing the battlefield. Agreeing to a truce, Tiberius provided an escort to the Avar envoys to discuss the terms of a treaty with Justin. On their return, the Avar envoys were attacked and robbed by local tribesmen, prompting them to appeal to Tiberius for help, he returned the stolen goods. In 574, Justin had a mental breakdown, forcing Empress Sophia to turn to Tiberius to manage the empire, fighting the Persians to the east and dealing with the internal crisis of the plague.

To achieve a measure of breathing space and Sophia agreed to a one-year truce with the Persians, at the cost of 45,000 nomismata. On 7 December 574, Justin, in one of his more lucid moments, had Tiberius proclaimed Caesar and adopted him as his own son. Tiberius added the name Constantine to his own. Although his position was now official, he was still subordinate to Justin. Sophia was determined to remain in power and kept Tiberius controlled until Justin died, in 578; the day after his appointment as Caesar, the plague abated, giving Tiberius more freedom of movement than Justin had been able to achieve. Tiberius charted a different course from his predecessor and proceeded to spend the money that Justin had doggedly saved in order to defend the imperial frontiers and win over the populace who had turned against him. According to Paul the Deacon, Tiberius found two treasures: the treasure of Narses and 1,000 centenaria: 100,000 pounds of gold or 7,200,000 solidi, under a slab; the treasures were given away to the consternation of Sophia.

Alongside generous donations, he proceeded to reduce state revenue by removing taxes on wine and bread instituted by Justinian I. He continued the official ban on the sale of governorships, popular, he negotiated a truce with the Avars, paying them 80,000 nomismata per year for which the Avars agreed to defend the Danube frontier, thereby allowing Tiberius to transfer troops across to the east for a planned renewal of the conflict against the Persians. In 575, Tiberius began moving the armies of Illyricum to the eastern provinces. Buying time to make the necessary preparations, he agreed to a three-year truce with the Persians, paying 30,000 nomismata, though the truce excluded action in the region around Armenia. Not content with making preparations, Tiberius used this period to send reinforcements to Italy under the command of Baduarius with orders to stem the Lombard invasion, he saved Rome from the Lombards and allied the Empire with Childebert II, the King of the Franks, to defeat them.

Baduarius was defeated and killed in 576, allowing more imperial territory in Italy to slip away. Tiberius was unable to respond as the Sassanid Emperor Khosrau I struck at the empire's Armenian provinces in 576, sacking Melitene and Sebastea. Shifting his attention eastward, Tiberius sent his general Justinian with the eastern armies to push the Persians back across the Euphrates; the Byzantines followed, pushed deep into Persian territory, culminating in a raid on Atropatene. In 577, Justinian was defeated in Persian Armenia, forcing a Byzantine withdrawal. In response to that defeat, Tiberius replaced Justinian with the future emperor Maurice. During the truce that Tiberius concluded with Khosrau, he busily enhanced the army of the east not only with transfers from his western armies but through barbarian recruits, which he formed into a new foederati unit, amounting to some 15,000 troops by the end of his reign. Throughout 577 and into 578, Tiberius avoided all other entanglements that would have distracted him from the approaching Persian conflict.

He appeased, quite both Chalcedonian and Monophysite Christians by the use of strategic appointments and the easing of persecutions. He paid the Lombard tribal chieftains some 200,000 nomismata in an attempt to keep them divided and to prevent the election of a king; when the Slavs invaded Illyricum, he transported Avar armies to force their retreat. When Khosrau invaded Roman Mesopotamia in 578, his general

Kalinga, Queensland

Kalinga is a suburb of Brisbane in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Kalinga is predominantly flat, with a mix of small apartment blocks and houses, with some older style Queenslanders still extant; the area borders with Kalinga Park. This area is notable for the original residence of Alfred Lutwyche, known as Kedron Lodge; the name Kalinga derives from Aboriginal word Ngalinnga from the Yuggera language, Turrbal dialect, meaning belonging to us. Between 1927 and 1962 an electric tram service operated by the Brisbane City Council served the suburb, branching off the Chermside line at Kedron Park Road; the name Kalinga had been in use for the area for many years as a neighbourhood within the suburb of Wooloowin, but it was not until 16 October 2015 that Kalinga was gazetted as a suburb, having been excised from Wooloowin following requests from local residents. Kalinga has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 100 Bertha Street: Kalinga Park 123 Nelson Street: Kedron Lodge Media related to Kalinga, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons "Kalinga".

Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland

Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy comes from an engine or electric motor, they are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber, from which it exits. Common uses include water, agriculture and petrochemical pumping. Centrifugal pumps are chosen for their high flow rate capabilities, abrasive solution compatibility, mixing potential, as well as their simple engineering. A centrifugal fan is used to implement a vacuum cleaner; the reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy. According to Reti, the first machine that could be characterized as a centrifugal pump was a mud lifting machine which appeared as early as 1475 in a treatise by the Italian Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini.

True centrifugal pumps were not developed until the late 17th century, when Denis Papin built one using straight vanes. The curved vane was introduced by British inventor John Appold in 1851. Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts rotational energy from a motor, to energy in a moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid enters axially through eye of the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades, is whirled tangentially and radially outward until it leaves through all circumferential parts of the impeller into the diffuser part of the casing; the fluid gains both pressure while passing through the impeller. The doughnut-shaped diffuser, or scroll, section of the casing decelerates the flow and further increases the pressure, it is important to note that the water is not pushed radially outward by centrifugal force, but rather by inertia, the natural tendency of an object to continue in a straight line when traveling around circle. This can be compared to the way.

A consequence of Newton’s second law of mechanics is the conservation of the angular momentum, of fundamental significance to all turbomachines. Accordingly, the change of the angular momentum is equal to the sum of the external moments. Angular momentums ρ×Q×r×cu at inlet and outlet, an external torque M and friction moments due to shear stresses Mτ are acting on an impeller or a diffuser. Since no pressure forces are created on cylindrical surfaces in the circumferential direction, it is possible to write Eq. as: ρ Q = M + M τ Based on Eq. Euler developed the head pressure equation created by the impeller see Fig.2.2 Y t h. G = H t = c 2 u. u 2 − c 1 u. u 1 Y t h = 1 / 2 In Eq. the sum of 4 front element number call static pressure, the sum of last 2 element number call velocity pressure look on the Fig 2.2 and the detail equation. Ht theory head pressure; this rule was helpful to detail Eq. become Eq. and wide explained how the pump works. Fig 2.3 shows triangle velocity of forward curved vanes impeller.

It illustrates rather energy added to the flow inversely change upon flow rate Q. Η = ρ. G Q H P m, where: P m is the mechanics input power required ρ is the fluid density g is the standard acceleration of gravity H is the energy Head added to the flow Q is the flow rate η is the efficiency of the pump plant as a decimalThe head added by the pump is a sum of the static lift, the head loss due to friction and any loss