Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center

The Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center in Barrio Tibes, Ponce municipality, Puerto Rico, houses one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in the Antilles. The discovery provides an insight as to how the indigenous tribes of the Igneri and Taínos lived and played during and before the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the New World. Tibes is the oldest Antillean Indian ceremonial and sports complex yet uncovered in Puerto Rico. Within its boundaries is the largest indigenous cemetery discovered to date – consisting of 186 human skeletons, most from the Igneri and the rest from the pre-Taíno cultures. Based on the orientation of the ceremonial plazas, this is believed to be the oldest astronomical observatory in the Antilles; the museum was established in 1982 and restored in 1991. The Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center is one of the largest and most significant indigenous sites in the Caribbean islands, is the largest ceremonial site in Puerto Rico; the continuous occupation from Igneri to Taíno times, the presence of the large stone constructions, the presence of shell middens and stratified deposits, all afford an opportunity to investigate some of the major substantive and theoretical problems in Caribbean archeology.

Besides lending itself to the traditional problems of culture and chronology, the site provides the ideal setting for the study of the cultural processes responsible for the transition from Igneri to Taíno cultural manifestation. There has been some controversy in the literature as to whether there was a direct unilinear, in situ, transition from one to the other or whether the two manifestations represent two different groups; the data at this site can contribute to the resolution of this research problem, as well as to other basic questions pertaining to the changes in sociopolitical organization which may have gone along with the changes evidenced in the material culture. The site lends itself to the study of problems relating to extra-Antillean influences on the Caribbean; the evidence from the site indicates that possible influences from Mesoamerica, e.g. the ball game, are in evidence in Puerto Rico as early as 700 A. D; the presence of shell middens and refuse heaps at the site will afford an opportunity to study subsistence patterns as well as some information on the paleo-environment.

The burials and associated grave goods will provide an insight into social, ceremonial/symbolic systems of these occupants, as well as provide information on prehistoric demographic patterns, nutrition and other prehistoric population characteristics. Over 186 human remains were found within the boundaries of the ceremonial center, in what is considered to be the largest indigenous cemetery in the region. Most of the remains were from the Igneri Culture and DNA samples have been taken from the remains for further studies. Information such as the ceremonies, eating habits, ceramic styles and much more has been provided from these remains and from the excavations; the site is now a tourist attraction, opened to the public on 30 April 1982. Artifacts found on the site are on display and can be seen in a museum on the site and at the Ponce Museum of Art, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on 14 April 1978. It is known as the Centro Ceremonial Indígena de Tibes; the Centro Ceremonial Indigena at Tibes, Puerto Rico, was discovered during the days after heavy rain downpours.

The survey was conducted by the Sociedad Guaynia de Arqueologia e Historia and was sponsored by the Puerto Rico Institute of Culture. Clearing the area's high brush revealed a number of shell middens, as well as the major features of the site which were the laid out stone constructions traditionally referred to as ball courts. A total of seven ball courts and a quadrangular plaza are distributed throughout the site. Five of the ball courts are rectangular, consisting of two parallel lines of flat stones and open at both ends; the remaining two ball courts are U-shaped, bounded on each side by a walk paved with flat river cobbles and boulders. Another major feature of the site is a series of triangular stone arrangements surrounding a flat excavated area; the main feature of the site is the nearly quadrangular enclosure, called a plaza. It is bounded on two sides by a walk paved with flat stones while the other two sides are defined with flat slabs. Many of the stones surrounding the plaza bear petroglyphs.

The terrain within the ball courts and plaza have been artificially modified. Several shell middens are scattered irregularly throughout the site and is some instances the ball courts intrude into them, indicating that the site was occupied for an extended period of time with a gradual evolution into a ceremonial center. A number of test pits have been excavated to establish an absolute and relative chronology as well as to define the potential for the site; these indicate that the site was occupied by the earliest agricultural immigrants into the greater Antilles, the Igneri. Radiocarbon dates and pottery analyses have revealed a continuous period of occupation between 400 A. D. and 1000 A. D; the last inhabitants of the site were the Taínos. The Taínos who inhabited Puerto Rico before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, played a series of games which were both ceremonial and recreational, such as races, contests involving body strength and fishing. However, the two most important of these sports were ball playing.

According to the eyewitness account of Spanish historian Pedro Martir de Angleria, the body strength games were played in front of the whole village in the presence of the "Cacique" and in some occasions an invite

Georgia State Route 135

State Route 135 is a 130-mile-long state highway in the south-central part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It connects the Florida state line with Higgston, via Lakeland, Willacoochee and Hazlehurst, it travels concurrently with U. S. Route 221 for extensive distances, a short piece in Lakeland and a longer one from Douglas to Uvalda. SR 135 begins at the Florida state line intersecting with County Road 141 south. In Echols County it intersects SR 94, SR 376. SR 135 enters Lowndes County west of Valdosta; the only major junction in the county is with US 84/SR 38. SR 135 enters Lanier County south of Stoctkon. In downtown, it travels concurrently with US 221/SR 31 for a short distance. North of Lakeland, it travels concurrently with SR 64. SR 135 enters southeast of Nashville. Just north of the county line, SR 64 splits off and joins SR 168. SR 135 intersects SR 76, which terminates at SR 135. SR 135 enters Atkinson County south of Willacoochee. In Willacoochee, it travels concurrently for a short distance with US 82 and SR 520.

SR 135 enters Coffee County south of Douglas, where it travels parallel to a former Central of Georgia Railway right-of-way. In Douglas, it travels concurrently with SR 206 before the latter terminates. At the terminus, SR 135 travels concurrently with US 221 again. Together, they intersect SR 32, SR 158, SR 206 Conn. before leaving Douglas. SR 135 enters Jeff Davis County southwest of Hazlehurst, it intersects SR 107 just north of Denton. In Hazlehurst, US 221 splits off for a short way. SR 135 picks US 221 back up, heading north, they travel concurrently with US 23, US 341, SR 19, SR 27. After intersecting SR 19 Conn, these roads split off. SR 135 enters Montgomery County south of Uvalda. In Uvalda, US 221 splits off at an intersection with SR 56. North of Uvalda, SR 135 intersects SR 130. In Higgston, SR 135 terminates at US 280, SR 15, SR 29, SR 30. State Route 135 Loop is a 2.5-mile-long unsigned loop route south of the city limits of Lakeland, consisting of Burnt Church Road. It begins at an intersection with SR 135 south of Darsey Pond curves to the northeast.

At Union Church and the cemetery across the street from it, the road begins to curve to the northwest and travels to the west just south of the Lakeland city limits. The highway intersects SR 135 Byp. before terminating at another intersection with the SR 135 mainline. Burnt Church Road continues to the west as an unnumbered street leading to US 221; the entire route is in Lanier County. State Route 135 Bypass is a 1.6-mile-long bypass route of SR 135, within the city limits of Lakeland. It begins at an intersection with the SR 135 mainline just south of the Lakeland city limits intersects SR 135 Loop before entering the city. SR 135 Byp. intersects US 129/US 221/SR 11/SR 31/SR 37/SR 122 and travels concurrently with them for two blocks turns north onto North College Street in a one-block concurrency with SR 11 Byp. which turns left at East Church Avenue. SR 135 Byp. ends at another intersection with the SR 135 mainline near the Charles Knight Cemetery. The entire route is in Lanier County. State Route 135 Connector is a 0.7-mile-long connecting route of SR 135 that exists within the city limits of Hazlehurst.

It connects US 23/SR 19 with US 221/SR 135. It consists of a southern part of Jefferson Street; the highway is concurrent with US 221 Truck / SR 135 Truck. The entire route is in Jeff Davis County. State Route 135 Truck is a 2.0-mile-long truck route of SR 135 that exists within the city limits of Hazlehurst. It is concurrent with US 221 Truck, it begins at an intersection with US 221/SR 135. It travels to the southeast on Jefferson Street, concurrent with US 221 Truck and SR 135 Conn. which both begin at this intersection, as well. The three highways cross over some railroad tracks of Norfolk Southern Railway and leave the city limits, they intersect US 23/SR 19. Here, SR 135 meets its southern terminus, US 221 Truck and SR 135 Truck turn left onto US 23/SR 19 onto Larry Contos Boulevard; the four highways travel to the north-northeast. Just before passing a Walmart Supercenter, they re-enter Hazlehurst, they cross over some railroad tracks of NS Railway and intersect US 341/SR 27. Here, all six highways travel to the northwest.

At Plum Street, the concurrency intersects the northbound lanes of US 221/SR 135. At this intersection, US 221 Truck and SR 135 Truck meet their northern terminus; the entire route is in Jeff Davis County. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 135 at Wikimedia Commons

2013 Cambodian League

2013 Cambodian League is the 29th season of the Cambodian League. A total of 10 teams are competing in the league; the regular season will be played from January 12 to June 2 and will once again feature playoffs at the end of the season to determine the league champions. The season has been brought forward by 2 months. Boeung Ket Rubber Field Build Bright United Asia Europe University Kirivong Sok Sen Chey Nagacorp FC National Defense Ministry Phnom Penh Crown National Police Commissary Svay Rieng Senate Secretariat The number of foreign players is restricted to five per team. A team can use three foreign players on the field in each game. Champions qualify to 2014 AFC President's Cup