The Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region in southwest China. It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area, an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, which took over from the Republic of China about five years after the dismissal of the Kashag by the PRC after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, about 13 years after Tibet's incorporation into the PRC in 1951; the current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were established in the 18th century and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet Autonomous Region is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, spanning over 1,200,000 km2, after Xinjiang, due to its harsh and rugged terrain, is the least densely populated provincial-level division of the PRC. There is a politically-charged historical debate on the exact nature of relations between Tibet and the Chinese Ming dynasty and whether the Ming Dynasty had sovereignty over Tibet after the Mongol conquest of Tibet and Yuan administrative rule in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Qing dynasty rule in Tibet began with their 1720 expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars, Tibet was first controlled by central government. From 1912 to 1950 Tibet was under de jure suzerainty of the Republic of China, the difficulties of establishing a new government in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, the fractious Warlord Era, the Chinese Civil War, the overwhelming Japanese invasion and occupation before and during World War II left the Republic unable to exert any effective administration. Other parts of ethno-cultural Tibet had been under de jure administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid-18th century. In 1950, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo. In 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Central People's Government affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet; the agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later.
Although the 17-point agreement had provided for an autonomous administration led by the Dalai Lama, a "Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet" was established in 1955 to exclude the Dalai Lama's government and create a system of administration along Communist lines. Under threat of his life from Chinese forces the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet a provincial-level division of China; the Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the highest region on earth. In northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres. Mount Everest is located on Tibet's border with Nepal. China's provincial-level areas of Xinjiang and Sichuan lie to the north and east of the Tibet AR. There is a short border with Yunnan province to the southeast. Tibet Autonomous Region contains South Tibet, administered by India as part of Arunachal Pradesh. Tibet Autonomous Region contains Doklam, in dispute with Bhutan.
The other countries to the south are Myanmar and Nepal. Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the lakes region in the west and north-west, the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east and west. Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, however the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures, in contrasting their different cultural uses, nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region. On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, on the north by a broad mountain system; the system at no point narrows to a single range. As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean − the Indus and Salween and its tributaries − and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north; the lake region extends from the Pangong Tso Lake in Ladakh, Lake Rakshastal, Yamdrok Lake and Lake Manasarovar near the source of the Indus River, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtze.
Other lakes include Dagze Co, Pagsum Co. The lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland; this region is called the Chang Tang or'Northern Plateau' by the people of Tibet. It is some 1,100 km broad, covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its great distance from the ocean it is arid and possesses no river outlet; the mountain ranges are spread out, disconnected, separated by flat valleys. The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes salt or alkaline, intersected by streams. Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled; the lakes are without outlet, or have only a small effluent. The deposits consist of soda, potash and common salt; the lake region
William Stanley "Bill" Carpenter, Jr. is a retired American military officer and former college football player. While playing college football at the United States Military Academy, he gained national prominence as the "Lonesome End" of the Army football team. During his military service in the Vietnam War, he again achieved fame when he saved his company by directing airstrikes on his own position. For the action, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. Carpenter. Was born to William Stanley Carpenter, Sr. and Helen Carpenter. Private First Class Carpenter, Sr. served in the U. S. Army as an ammunition bearer in the 393rd Infantry Regiment, 99th Infantry Division and was killed in action in the Ruhr Pocket, he is interred in Netherlands, at the Netherlands American Cemetery. Helen relocated the family to the Philadelphia area, he was a 1955 graduate of Springfield High School, Springfield and attended the Manlius School in Manlius, New York. Carpenter married Toni M. Vigliotti in 1961 and had three children: William S. Carpenter III, Kenneth Carpenter, Stephen Carpenter.
While attending the United States Military Academy at West Point, Carpenter played as a split end on the football team, alongside Heisman Trophy-winning halfback and fellow combat infantryman Pete Dawkins. Carpenter earned the nickname the "Lonesome End" as a result of the team's tactic of aligning him near the far sideline and leaving him outside of huddles, he played on the undefeated 1958 West Point team, in 1959, while team captain, was named an All-American. Legendary Army head coach Earl Blaik, who spent twenty years on the Army coaching staff, called Carpenter "the greatest end I coached at West Point." In 1982, Carpenter was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. Upon graduation, Carpenter was commissioned as an infantry officer and went on to serve at least two tours in Vietnam. In 1964, he was an adviser assigned to an airborne brigade of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam; that unit came under heavy enemy fire after being inserted by helicopter into a sugar cane field. Bill Carpenter was wounded by a gunshot through the arm while changing rifle magazines.
His radio set was hit with another bullet and he was spun around and knocked to the ground. He proceeded to eliminate the source of the enemy fire, by knocking out a bunker with a hand grenade. For his actions he was awarded the Silver Star, the U. S. Army's third highest award for valor in combat. In 1966 Captain Carpenter's C Company, 2/502nd Parachute Infantry of the 101st Airborne Division took part in Operation Hawthorne, fighting North Vietnamese forces near Dak To on the Kontum plateau in the Central Highlands; as it maneuvered in an attempt to relieve Major David Hackworth's engaged 1/327th Infantry, C Company became isolated and in danger of being overrun. As the situation grew desperate, Carpenter radioed the battalion air traffic controller for a napalm airstrike on his own position: "We're overrun, they're right in among us. I need an air strike on my position." Several of his soldiers were wounded by the close air support, but it blunted the enemy attack and prevented the envelopment of his company.
C Company was able to consolidate and break out. For his actions, he was again awarded the Silver Star, upgraded to the U. S. Army's second highest wartime medal, the Distinguished Service Cross. Carpenter committed another act of heroism on February 1, 1967 at Tan Son Nhut Air Base in Saigon when he carried an injured man to safety after a plane crash landed. After a C-123 Provider military transport aircraft made a belly landing on the runway, Captain Carpenter "hoisted the injured man onto his shoulders and scampered from the gasoline-soaked plane."In 1984, Carpenter went on to take command of the newly activated 10th Mountain Division and the Combined Field Army in Korea. He retired as a lieutenant general and settled in Montana. List of people with surname Carpenter Charles Goodman, Hell's Brigade, 1966, New York, Prestige, ASIN: B000UCG92Q
A Mother's Ordeal: One Woman's Fight Against China's One-child Policy is a book written by Steven W. Mosher, President of Population Research Institute; the book is written in biographical style that takes the reader from the earliest memories of Chi-An, a Chinese female born on the year of the founding of the People's Republic of China, through to her seeking asylum in the United States due to her pregnancy, illegal due to China's one-child policy. With names changed to prevent retribution by the Communist Party of China, Mosher writes in the first person about "Chi An", a girl born to a Chinese family with the traditional beliefs that boys were worth more than girls; as such, her family did not mark the date of her birth down. The first few chapters cover significant memories from childhood, including the death of her father and the trials underwent by her family during the Great Chinese Famine brought about by agricultural mismanagement as well as inflated reports of crop production figures.
Chi An grew up surrounded by the ideologies of the Communist Party and in her youth worked for the CPC. In life, Chi An studied to become a nurse where she performed her first abortion at age 16, thus beginning her career as a nurse carrying out the One-child Policy through abortion and sterilizations all in efforts to meet the birth quotas imposed by party officials. Chi An finds a suitor and they become married, after a fashion, have a healthy baby boy as their first child; the couple were forced to abort the baby as it was illegal. Chi An takes a job at the Liaoning Truck Factory as a company nurse, where all female employees are required once a month to write down on a public message board that they are obeying the CPC and its single-child directives by not becoming pregnant. Around this time, Chi An's husband is granted a student visa to study abroad in the United States. Chi An's husband invited her and their child to the United States to be with him after they had received temporary visas.
During their time in the United States, Chi An becomes pregnant. Her superiors at the Liaoning Truck Factory and those involved in the enforcement of the One-child policy pressure Chi An to abort her child as it is a second child and thus illegal. In the story, Chi An reveals that CPC members visit her family and threaten them with punitive action unless "remedial measures" are taken, to say, an abortion on the second child. Chi An and her husband seek asylum in the United States in order to live there and have their second child far away from the reach of the CPC. With the help of Mosher, Chi An and family are granted asylum