Tibetan Empire

The Tibetan Empire existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, ruled an area larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. Traditional Tibetan history described the exploits of a lengthy list of rulers. External corroboration is available from the 7th century in Chinese histories. From the 7th to the 9th century a series of emperors ruled Tibet. From the time of the emperor Songtsen Gampo the power of the empire increased over a diverse terrain. By the reign of the emperor Ralpacan, in the opening years of the 9th century, it controlled territories extending from the Tarim basin to the Himalayas and Bengal, from the Pamirs to what are now the Chinese provinces of Gansu and Yunnan; the varied terrain of the empire and the difficulty of transportation, coupled with the new ideas that came into the empire as a result of its expansion, helped to create stresses and power blocs that were in competition with the ruler at the center of the empire.

Thus, for example, adherents of the Bön religion and the supporters of the ancient noble families came to find themselves in competition with the introduced Buddhism. The empire collapsed into civil war in the 840s; the power that became the Tibetan state originated at the Taktsé Castle in the Chingba district of Chonggyä. There, according to the Old Tibetan Chronicle, a group convinced Tagbu Nyazig to rebel against Gudri Zingpoje, who was, in turn, a vassal of the Zhangzhung empire under the Lig myi dynasty; the group prevailed against Zingpoje. At this point Namri Songtsen was the leader of a clan which one by one prevailed over all his neighboring clans, he gained control of all the area around what is now Lhasa, before his assassination around 618. This new-born regional state would become known as the Tibetan Empire; the government of Namri Songtsen sent two embassies to the Chinese Sui Dynasty in 608 and 609, marking the appearance of Tibet on the international scene. The historic name for the Tibetan Empire is different from Tibet's present name.

"This first mention of the name Bod, the usual name for Tibet in the Tibetan historical sources, is significant in that it is used to refer to a conquered region. In other words, the ancient name Bod referred only to a part of the Tibetan Plateau, a part which, together with Rtsaṅ has come to be called Dbus-gtsaṅ." Songtsen Gampo was the first great emperor who expanded Tibet's power beyond Lhasa and the Yarlung Valley, is traditionally credited with introducing Buddhism to Tibet. When his father Namri Songtsen died by poisoning, Songtsen Gampo took control after putting down a brief rebellion. Songtsen Gampo proved adept at diplomacy as well as combat; the emperor's minister, Myang Mangpoje, defeated. 627. Six years Myang Mangpoje was accused of treason and executed, he was succeeded by minister Gar Songtsen. The Chinese records mention an envoy to Tibet in 634. On that occasion, the Tibetan Emperor was refused. In 635-36 the Emperor attacked and defeated the Tuyuhun, who lived around Lake Koko Nur and controlled important trade routes into China.

After a series of military campaigns between Tibet and the Tang dynasty in 635-8,(see Tibetan attack on Songzhou) the Chinese emperor agreed to provide a Chinese princess to Songtsen Gampo. Circa 639, after Songtsen Gampo had a dispute with his younger brother Tsänsong, the younger brother was burned to death by his own minister Khäsreg; the Chinese Princess Wencheng departed China in 640 to marry Songtsen Gampo's son. She arrived a year later; this is traditionally credited with being the first time that Buddhism came to Tibet, but it is unlikely Buddhism extended beyond foreigners at the court. Songtsen Gampo’s sister Sämakar was sent to marry Lig-myi-rhya, the king of Zhangzhung in what is now Western Tibet. However, when the king refused to consummate the marriage, she helped her brother to defeat Lig myi-rhya and incorporate Zhangzhung into the Tibetan Empire. In 645, Songtsen Gampo overran the kingdom of Zhangzhung. Songtsen Gampo died in 650, he was succeeded by his infant grandson Trimang Lön.

Real power was left in the hands of the minister Gar Songtsen. There is some confusion as to whether Central Tibet conquered Zhangzhung during the reign of Songtsen Gampo or in the reign of Trisong Detsen; the records of the Tang Annals do, seem to place these events in the reign of Songtsen Gampo for they say that in 634, Zhangzhung and various Qiang tribes "altogether submitted to him." Following this, he united with the country of Zhangzhung to defeat the Tuyuhun conquered two more Qiang tribes before threatening the Chinese region of Songzhou with a large army. He sent an envoy with gifts of gold and silk to the Chinese emperor to ask for a Chinese princess in marriage and, when refused, attacked Songzhou. According to the Tang Annals, he retreated and apologized, after which the emperor granted his request. After the dea


Huncote is a village and civil parish in the district of Blaby in the county of Leicestershire, England. It is just west of Narborough, is on the Thurlaston Brook; the place-name Huncote is the etymological root of the American surnames Hunnicutt, Honeycut. The village is small but still benefits from several amenities including a village pub, the Post office, a Spar shop, a Newsagent's shop, three hairdressers, a fish and chip shop, an Indian takeaway and a local park.. At the edge of the village is Huncote Leisure Centre and further along the Forest Road, near to the M69 motorway, is the home of Leicester Animal Aid, a pet rescue centre. Huncote has a woodyard, a residential care home for the elderly. In October 2015, the post office now caters for both needs. Huncote provides sporting facilities with a running club and BMX club whose home track is based behind the Leisure Centre and is one of the top BMX tracks in the country. Huncote have a football team, Huncote Sports F. C. who play in the Leicester & District Premier Division and who used to be members of the Leicestershire Senior League.

In the 2014/15 season Huncote won the'3 Sons Trophy' knockout competition, beating local rivals Magna 73 F. C. after a penalty shoot-out. Huncote's home ground is based on the outskirts of neighbouring village Thurlaston; the club have a Football Foundation standard clubhouse and share the facilities with Huncote Cricket Club. Richard Armitage, grew up in Huncote

Traction splint

A traction splint most refers to a splinting device that uses straps attaching over the pelvis or hip as an anchor, a metal rod to mimic normal bone stability and limb length, a mechanical device to apply traction to the limb. The use of traction splints to treat complete long bone fractures of the femur is common in prehospital care. Evidence to support their usage, however, is poor. A dynamic traction splint has been developed for intra-articular fractures of the phalanges of the hand. Traction splints are most used for fractures of the femur. For these fractures they may reduce pain and decrease the amount of bleeding which occurs into the soft tissues of the leg; some state. Others state. A pillow splint or rigid splint is best in this situation. All agree that traction splints should only be applied when there are no fractures of the pelvis or knee and the fracture has not broken through the skin with bone visible. Use of a traction splint while other fractures in the leg exist will cause the weaker fracture site to pull apart and not the targeted femur fracture.

There are two groups of traction splints: The Thomas half-ring group, which includes the Thomas splint, the modified Thomas splint, the QD-4 Hare traction splint and the Donway traction splint Non-half-ring group, which includes the Sager splint, the most advanced. The basic principle is that one end of the traction splint is positioned against the hip, pushes upward against the pelvic bone. A strap around the foot and ankle is connected to the other end of the splint, tightened to counteract the muscle tension and produce traction. Only are additional straps added to aid immobilization of the limb; the Thomas half-ring splints consist of a padded half-circle of steel, strapped to the hip, hinged to a U-shaped rod that extends along both sides of the leg. An ankle strap may be fashioned from cloth, tied or twisted to apply traction force, it was devised by H. O. Thomas for immobilization for tuberculosis of the knee, it is now used for the immobilization of hip and thigh injuries. The modified Thomas splint adapted the original Thomas splint to include a traction screw and foot plate and limb support built into the splint body.

The Hare traction splint is a further adaptation of the Thomas splint. Its length is adjustable via telescoping rods, it has built-in straps to support the hip and leg at several points along its length, it provides a more comfortable ankle strap and a small winch that makes it much easier to apply and adjust traction force. The Sager splint consists of a metallic splint, placed between the person's legs; some models may be placed on the side closest to the injury for bilateral femur fractures without pelvic trauma. Straps are applied, first at the thigh and at the ankle, to strap the injured leg to the pole and provide support; the pole is extended to supply the needed traction, both legs are wrapped with cravat-like straps. The Kendrick traction device eliminates the need for leg-raising and unnecessary rolling of the patient, can be applied to both pediatric and adult applications, it consists of a round pole that can be located on the lateral aspect of the leg, with straps at the upper thigh and ankle for immediate placement, three wider straps for immobilization.

It is light at 20 ounces. The KTD does not afford the rotational stability seen in long bone traction splints; the CT-6 was introduced in the 21st century and utilizes a 4:1 pulley system to achieve precise and powerful, when necessary, traction. This splint weighs 500 grams. In 2003 the CT-6 was chosen as the splint of choice by the US military and has over 30,000 in the field, its compact and light design, along with its improved traction method, had enhanced its popularity. The Donway traction splint is a pneumatic splint. Acting on the ankle and groin pressure is applied via an integrated pump; the devices itself consists of a metal frame that surrounds the leg, strapped into place. The STS is another lateral monopole traction splint, it is lightweight and compact, however, it differs from the KTD and CT-6 in that it does not stick out past the foot. It offers a proximal point of traction, rather than distal, making it better suited for tight transports in ambulances, helicopters or baskets; the STS can be used despite lower extremity trauma, because the distal strap can be applied proximal to the calf or patella.

Rotational stability is provided by one mid leg strap. In 1986, Robert R. Schenck used the same principles applied to treating femur fractures to develop a device for treating intra-articular fractures of the finger; the apparatus consists of a 6-inch-diameter circular splint that provides a rigid arc, with a 3-inch radius equidistant from the involved joint. A wire is placed horizontally through the distal head of the middle phalanx; the wire is attached by rubber band to a movable component attached to the hoop of the splint. The amount of traction can be controlled by using different types of rubber bands or tying knots in them; the first used model of traction splint was introduced by Hugh Owen Thomas, a Welsh surgeon, considered by many to be the father of modern orthopaedic surgery