Cerdocyonina is a tribe which appeared around 6.0 million years ago in North America as Cerdocyon avius becoming extinct by around 1. 4–1.3 Mya. living about 4.7 million years. This genus has persisted in South America from a time, possibly around 3.1 Mya. As one of the species of the tribe Canini, it is related to the Canis genus, the crab-eating foxs nearest living relative, as theorized at present, is the short-eared dog. This relationship, has yet to be supported by mitochondrial investigations, two subgenera were long ago included in Cerdocyon. The crab-eating fox has been sighted in Panama since the 1990s and its habitat includes wooded riverbanks such as riparian forest. In the rainy season, their range moves uphill, whilst in drier times they move to lower ground and their habitat covers all environments except rainforests, high mountains, and open grassy savannas. In some regions of their range, they are threatened with extirpation, Cerdocyon thous, C. avius and other species of the genus Cerdocyon underwent radiational evolution on the South American continent.
All close relatives of the fox are extinct. It is the living representative at present of the genus Cerdocyon. Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes, the crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown, with areas of red on the face and legs, and black-tipped ears and tail. It has short, strong legs and its tail is long and it may reach an adult weight of 10 to 17 pounds. The head and body length averages 64.3 centimetres, and this fox weighs between 5 to 8 kilograms. It is mainly nocturnal and is active at dusk, spending its day in dens that were dug by other animals and it either hunts individually or lives in pairs, it eats crabs and different flying animals. It is easy to domesticate and farm, but its fur is not so highly valued as that of other species, the coat is short and thick. Coloration varies from grey to brown, to yellowish, to pale, there is a black streak along the back legs, with a black stripe along the spine. On muzzle and paws there is more-reddish fur, the tail and ear tips are black.
The ears are wide and round, the torso is somewhat narrow, legs are short but strong. The dense hairy tail stays upright when they are excited, the crab-eating fox creates monogamic teams for hunting, groups of several monogamic pairs may form during the reproductive season
This cave system is one of the first evidences of human settlement in the Americas, dated at 12,400 ±160 years BP, used by the hunter-gatherers of the late Pleistocene epoch. The rock shelter, containing petroglyphs, is situated at the edge of the Bogotá savanna. In 1960, the Indiana University collaborated in a deeper research, the Fúquene stadial, named after Lake Fúquene, close to the village of the same name, is defined from 15,000 to 12,500 BP. It is characterized by a climate, flora typical of páramo ecosystems. About 12,500 years ago, a rise of temperature allowed the return of Andean cloud forest. Articles of this period are abrienses, flint s, and chopper cores, while the climate was more benign, the cave system was gradually abandoned. Dated 11,000 BP, it is characterized by a new cooling of the climate, recession of the forests, around 10,000 years BP the last glaciation ended, the Andean forest appeared again. The lithic instruments show a rise in recollecting activities, with rodents and vegetables consumed, the El Abra caves were abandoned gradually.
In Aguazuque, around 5,000 BP, agriculture was established on elevated terraces, list of Muisca and pre-Muisca sites Andean preceramic Aguazuque, Tequendama, Tibitó Gómez Mejía, Juliana. Aceituno Bocanegra, Francisco Javier, and Sneider Rojas Mora, Evidence of hunter-gatherers and growers on the high plains of the Eastern Ranges, 1-316. Banco de la República, Fundación de Investigaciones Arqueológicas Nacionales, evidencias culturales durante el Pleistocene y Holoceno de Colombia - Cultural evidences during the Pleistocene and Holocene of Colombia. Estado actual de las investigaciones sobre la etapa lítica en Colombia, Correal Urrego, Thomas van der Hammen, and J. C. Lerman. Artefactos líticos de abrigos en El Abra, Checua, Una secuencia cultural entre 8500 y 3000 años antes del presente - Checua, a cultural sequence between 8500 and 3000 years before present, 1-95. Hurt, Thomas van der Hammen, and Gonzalo Correal Urrego, la ecología y tecnología de los abrigos rocosos en El Abra, Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia.
Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica Colombiana 109, Thomas van der, and E González. Historia de clima y vegetación del Pleistoceno superior y Holoceno de la Sabana de Bogotá, Thomas van der, and Gonzalo Correal Urrego. Prehistoric man on the Sabana de Bogota, data for an ecological prehistory, stratigraphic Dating and Cultural Sequences of Pre-Hispanic Northern South America, 381-393. El hombre prehistórico en la Sabana de Bogotá, datos para una prehistoria ecológica
The white-tailed deer, known as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has introduced to New Zealand, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, and some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate, in North America, the species is widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains, but elsewhere, it is mostly replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer. Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies, genetic studies, suggest fewer subspecies within the animals range, as compared to the 30 to 40 subspecies that some scientists described in the last century. The Florida Key deer, O. virginianus clavium, and the Columbian white-tailed deer, in the United States, the Virginia white-tail, O. virginianus virginianus, is among the most widespread subspecies. The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments, several local deer populations, especially in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide.
Some of these populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are quite at home in the Appalachian. These deer over time have intermixed with the indigenous deer populations. Central and South America have a number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala as far south as Peru. This list of subspecies of deer is more exhaustive than the list of North American subspecies, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection. Some areas no longer carry deer, so it is difficult to assess the genetic difference of these animals, the deer can be recognized by the characteristic white underside to its tail. It raises its tail when it is alarmed to warn the predator that it has been detected, a population of white-tailed deer in New York is entirely white —not albino—in color. The former Seneca Army Depot in Romulus, New York, has the largest known concentration of white deer, strong conservation efforts have allowed white deer to thrive within the confines of the depot.
White-tailed deers horizontally slit pupils allow for night vision and color vision during the day. The white-tailed deer is highly variable in size, generally following Bergmanns rule that the size is larger farther away from the Equator. North American male deer usually weigh 45 kilograms, but in rare cases, mature bucks over 180 kilograms have been recorded in the northernmost reaches of their native range, specifically and Ontario. In 1926, Carl J. Lenander, Jr. took a white-tailed buck near Tofte, MN, the female in North America usually weighs from 40 to 90 kg. White-tailed deer from the tropics and the Florida Keys are markedly smaller-bodied than temperate populations, averaging 35 to 50 kg, white-tailed deer from the Andes are larger than other tropical deer of this species and have thick, slightly woolly looking fur
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found
The Muisca are the Chibcha-speaking people that formed the Muisca Confederation of the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombias Eastern Range, in particular the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. As one out of four advanced civilizations of the Americas, they were encountered by the Spanish Empire in 1537 and it bordered the territories of the Panche and Pijao tribes. At the time of the conquest, the area had a large population, estimates vary from half a million to up to three million inhabitants. The Muisca spoke muysccubun, a dialect of Chibcha, called Muysca and Mosca, the economy was based on agriculture, salt mining and manufacturing. Today the Muisca population has almost died out, although in the municipalities and districts Cota, Chía, Suba, Engativá, Tocancipá, Gachancipá, a census by the Ministry of Interior Affairs in 2005 provided a total of 14,051 Muisca persons in Colombia. Excavations in the Altiplano Cundiboyacense show evidence of activity since the Archaic stage at the beginning of the Holocene era.
Colombia has one of the most ancient archaeological sites of the Americas, El Abra, human skeletons were found that date to 5000 BCE. Analysis demonstrated that the people were members of the El Abra Culture, scholars agree that the group identified as Muisca migrated to the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Formative stage, as shown by evidence found at Aguazuque and Soacha. Like the other cultures of America, the Muiscas were in a transition between being hunter-gatherers and becoming sedentary farmers. Around 1500 BCE, groups of agrarians with ceramic traditions came to the region from the lowlands and they had permanent housing and stationary camps, and worked the salty water to extract salt. In Zipacón there is evidence of agriculture and ceramics, the most ancient settlement of the highlands dates to 1270 BCE. Between 500 BCE and 800 BCE, a wave of migrants came to the highlands. Their presence is identified by multicolor ceramics and farms and these groups were still in residence upon the arrival of the Spanish conquerors.
They left abundant traces of their occupation that have been studied since the 16th century and it is possible that the Muisca integrated with more ancient inhabitants, but the Muisca were the ones who molded the cultural profile and the social and political organization. Their language, a dialect of Chibcha, was similar to those peoples of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Zipa Saguamanchica was in a constant war against aggressive tribes such as the Sutagao, and especially the Panche, the Caribs were a permanent threat as rivals of the zaque of Hunza, especially for the possession of the salt mines of Zipaquirá, Nemocón and Tausa. The Muisca people were organized in a confederation that was a union of states that each retained sovereignty. The confederation was not a kingdom, as there was no monarch, nor was it an empire
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanitys first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history, following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their activity with horticulture and/or keeping animals. In the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that humans were obtaining food via scavenging. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging. Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view and this hypothesis does not necessarily contradict the scavenging hypothesis, both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or even simultaneously.
It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago and this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as, fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated and spread in different areas including the Middle East, Mesoamerica. Forest gardening was being used as a production system in various parts of the world over this period. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens, many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined, partly as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities.
Many of them reside in the world, either in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods, as the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. As a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are nomadic or semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements, mobile communities typically construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available
Cuvieronius is an extinct New World genus of gomphothere and is named after the French naturalist Georges Cuvier. Alive, species stood, on average, about 2.3 m tall at the shoulder, weighed about 3.5 tonnes, the species now known as Cuvieronius hyodon was among the first fossil animals from the New World to be studied. The first remains of species were recovered from Ecuador by Alexander von Humboldt. It was not until 1824 that Cuvier formally named the species and he referred both to the genus Mastodon, calling them M. andium and M. humboldtii. Unknown to Cuvier, Fischer had, in 1814, already named the two based on Cuviers original description, in the new genus Mastotherium as M. hyodon. The idea of two distinct species continued to be accepted into the 20th century, usually using Cuviers names, in 1923, Henry Fairfield Osborn recognized that these species were distinct from Mastodon, and assigned each to its own new genus, as Cuvieronius humboldtii and Cordillerion andium. However, by the 1930s, general agreement had shifted to regard both forms as representing a single, geographically widespread species, with Cuvieronius humboldtii considered to be the correct name, in 2011, Opinion 2276 of the ICZN ruled to conserve the names.
This animal probably initially evolved in North America, around 5. 3—5.2 million years ago with fossil evidence uncovered at the Tehuichila site in Hidalgo, Mexico. During the Great American Interchange of around 3 million years ago and they were the only proboscid mammals to colonize South America as part of the Great American Biotic Interchange. Living as far south as Chile, with specimens unearthed at the Quereo I site dating to the Late Pleistocene 11, 600—11,400 BP. The oldest fossil remains to date are of Cuvieronius species found in Lincoln County, Nevada and it was found as far east as South Carolina and North Carolinain Pleistocene rocks dating to 1.81 million to 126,000 years ago. In Florida, remains show both Cuvieronius sp. and C. tropicus living from 3.7 to 1.5 million years ago, the most recent findings of Cuvieronius sp. in North America are in Sonora, that date to 13,390 years BP. Remains of Cuvieronius have been found in association with man, and pieces of its hide, the site has yielded 38 small pieces of animal hide and muscle tissue, some still preserved on bones of Cuvieronius.
Pieces of hide were recovered from hearth areas, living floors, some pieces were still attached to wooden poles, possibly suggesting the presence of hide-draped huts. Pathological and other analyses of these pieces suggest that they are of a proboscidean, South American fossils formerly attributed to mastodons are now believed to be Cuvieronius. Fossil remains of Cuvieronius have been discovered at the archeological site Tibitó in the north of the Bogotá savanna on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and this high plateau in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes was populated by humans at least from 12,500 years BP. The bones of Cuvieronius at Tibitó have been dated at 11,740 ±110 years old, the climate of the region during this stadial was colder than today, a páramo paleoclimate has been inferred from palynological data. The related Stegomastodon occupied warmer, lower-altitude habitats in South America, while the smaller C. hyodon occupied cooler, Cuvieronius was a mixed feeder, and has been dated at least as recently as 9,100 BP in Monte Verde, Chile