Ticker symbol

A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.

In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.

Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.

While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Australia the Australian Securities Exchange uses the following conventions: 3 character base symbol, with the first and third character being alphanumeric, the second alphabetic. ETFs, ETMFs can be either 4 characters. Exchange traded exchange-traded options are 6 characters. ETOs can have numbers in the sixth character. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs.

Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets; the term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, the Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN"

Tor douronensis

Tor douronensis known as Labeobarbus douronensis, is a species of ray-finned fish of the family Cyprinidae in the genus Tor. This Asian fresh water river carp can be discovered in southern Thailand, east to Vietnam and south to Indonesia; the species is known from the Chao Mekong rivers. This fish has been attributed to Valenciennes however, in his original notes, he claims that the fish he described "formed part of the collection made in Java by Kuhl and Van Hesselt; the type locality is Java, in Indonesia and the holotype is lodged at Bogor Zoology Museum. In recent years it has been suggested that Tor douronensis is synonymous with Tor tambra, following the work of Tyson R. Roberts in 1999. Since in 2017, Ng Chee Kiat et al. have published a paper on the fish diversity of Sabah state in Malaysian Borneo. They reference the work of Roberts and more recent work by Maurice Kottelat to conclude that Tor tambra is the only valid species of mahseer in the rivers of Indonesia and Malaysia. Along with many mahseer species in other parts of the region, there is much confusion around the taxonomic and genetic differences between species.

Tor douronensis as described from Java has a body length 4.5 times the maximum body height, a short head measuring 1/5 of the body length and 21 lateral line scales. In most places where the locals understand their fish to be Tor douronensis, the fish displays a shorter head and deeper body than Tor tambra; these fish appear to have unusually long barbels compared to other mahseer in the area. There are studies that have looked at the genetics of the Indonesian mahseers but with the exception of Walton's study of Tor tambra none of the known studies have made comparisons with specimens collected from the type locality. Therefore, the specimens studied cannot be validated as the species named; the only way that the validity of Tor douronensis can be moved forward is by a concerted study in the river basin of the type locality. In Indonesia this fish is locally known as ikan dewa, it is found in rivers and ponds in Indonesia in Java and Borneo. Because of its rarity, the Sundanese people consider it as a sacred fish.

It can be found in rivers and ponds around Mount Cereme, West Java, such as Cibulan, Pasawahan, dan Darmaloka sacred ponds. Because of its rarity in Indonesia, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences considering to propose to CITES to give it the status as protected endangered species. In Thailand, this fish is known as pla pluang chomphu or pla vien chomphu by the colour of the scales and fins are light red or pink. In 1981, this species was in an endangered status. Due to the habitat was destroyed from the Bang Lang Dam, the new dam was built. Subsequently, specimens were collected from nature for breeding. Which was successful, but it yields less. In the year of 1999, Queen Sirikit proceeded to the Bang Lang Dam and released the fish back to nature, she had the initiative to find fish to farm on the Royal Project. It can be grown in large quantities nowadays by Yala Inland Fisheries Station under Department of Fisheries. Presently, this fish has a expensive price, they sell at 2,000 baht per kg. and in Hong Kong at 8,000 baht per kg..

Rajang River

Conseil du Roi

The Conseil du Roi known as the Royal Council, is a general term for the administrative and governmental apparatus around the King of France during the Ancien Régime designed to prepare his decisions and give him advice. It should not be confused with the role and title of a "Conseil du Roi", a type of public prosecutor in the French legal system at the same period. One of the established principles of the French monarchy was that the king could not act without the advice of his council. Under Charles V, it was put forward that the king made decisions only after "good and careful deliberation", this principle was maintained by his successors. During the period of French absolutism, the expression "car tel est notre bon plaisir" applied to royal decisions made with consultation; the administration of the French state in the early modern period went through a long evolution, as a administrative apparatus – relying on old nobility, newer chancellor nobility and administrative professionals – substituted the feudal clientele system.

The exact divisions and names of these councils varied over time. The kings of France traditionally always sought the advice of their entourage before making important decisions, but only in the 12th century did this deliberation take the form of a specific institution called the King's Court; the Council had only a consultational role: the final decision was always the king's. Although jurists frequented praised the advantages of consultative government, mainstream legal opinion never held that the king was bound by the decisions of his council; the opposite was however put forward by the States General of 1355–1358, by the Huguenots and by the Catholic League in the second half of the 16th century. The Council's purview concerned all matters pertaining to government and royal administration, both in times of war and of peace. In his council, the king received ambassadors, signed treaties, appointed administrators and gave them instructions, elaborated on the laws of the realm; the council served as a supreme court and rendered royal justice on those matters that the king reserved for himself or decided to discuss personally.

Council meetings irregular, took on a regular schedule which became daily from the middle of the 15th century. In addition to the King's Council, the consultative governing of the country depended on other intermittent and permanent institutions, such as the States General, the Parlements and the Provincial Estates; the Parliament of Paris – as indeed all of the sovereign courts of the realm – was itself born out of the King's Council: a consultative body of the Curia Regis endowed with judicial functions, the Parliament was separated from the King's Council in 1254. The composition of the King's Council changed over the centuries and according to the needs and desires of the king. Medieval councils included: the crown prince – if he was of age to attend the council the "grands" – the most powerful members of the church and of the nobility. Medieval councils excluded: the queen – the influence of the queen lost direct political control as early as the 13th century, except in periods of regency.

Close relations to the king, including younger sons and princes of the royal bloodline from junior branches of the family – these individuals were suspected of political ambition and of plotting. The feudal aristocracy would maintain great control over the king's council up until the 14th and 15th centuries; the most important positions in the court were those of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, headed by the connétable and the chancellor. Certain kings were unable to reduce their importance. In the 16th century, those "grands" with administrative or governmental competencies were called to the council by a special certificate and were termed "conseillers à brevet". Over the centuries, the number of jurists educated by the université de Paris increased as the technical aspects of the matters studied in the council mandated specialized counsellers. Coming from the lesser nobility or the bourgeoisie, these jurists helped in preparing and putting into legal form the king's decisions, they formed the early elements of a true civil service and royal administration which would – because of their permanence – provide a sense of stability and continuity to the royal council, despite its many reorganizations.

These counsellors, called conseillers d'État from the reign of Henry III on, were aided in their tasks by the maître des requêtes. In their attempts at greater efficie