Bror Oscar Eilert Ekwall (born 8 January 1877 in Vallsjö, known as Eilert Ekwall, was Professor of English at Sweden's Lund University from 1909 to 1942 and was one of the outstanding scholars of the English language in the first half of the 20th century. He wrote works on the history of English, but he is best known as the author of numerous important books on English placenames and personal names, his chief works in this area are The Place-Names of Lancashire, English Place-Names in -ing, English River Names, Studies on English Place- and Personal Names, Studies on English Place-Names, Street-Names of the City of London, Studies on the Population of Medieval London, the monumental Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. The Dictionary remained the standard national reference resource for over 40 years, is still valuable though some aspects of Ekwall's methodology and some of his ideas are no longer accepted. Although not a county editor of the survey conducted by the English Place-Name Society, his philological advice was sought and acknowledged by scholars preparing the county volumes, such as Allen Mawer and Frank Stenton.
He was competent not only in English philology, but in Scandinavian and Celtic, making him ideally qualified as an authority on linguistic aspects of the place-names of England. His other work on English included scholarly editions of classic early-modern works such as John Jones' Practical Phonography of 1701, the anonymous Writing Scholar's Companion of 1695, John Lydgate's Siege of Thebes. Notable other books were that on modern English phonology and morphology published in German in 1914 and still being reprinted in 1965. Ekwall left behind an extensive body of influential academic articles and notes, local working papers of Lund University, a large number of book reviews, all published over a period of some 60 years, in English and German, referenced in von Feilitzen's bibliography. From 1935, Ekwall was a Fellow of the Swedish Academy of Letters and the Swedish Academy of Sciences, he and his wife Dagny founded a bursary for students at Lund University from the Småland region. Ekwall, Eilert "The Celtic element" and "The Scandinavian element", in A. Mawer and F. M. Stenton, Introduction to the Survey.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Von Feilitzen, Olof The Published Writings of Eilert Ekwall: a Bibliography. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup WorldCat catalogue record
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Eske is a hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated 3 miles north-east of the town of Beverley and 1 mile north of the village of Tickton, it lies just to the east of the River Hull. The hamlet forms part of the civil parish of Tickton. Eske was the ancestral home of the Jackson family, beginning with Richard, his great-grandson, Sir Anthony Jackson II was a prominent courtier with both Charles I and Charles II Stuart, is interred at the Temple Church of the Inner Temple in London. Eske Manor is a mid-17th-century house, designated a Grade II* listed building in 1987 and is now recorded in the National Heritage List for England, maintained by Historic England. Media related to Eske at Wikimedia Commons Eske in the Domesday Book
East Riding of Yorkshire
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or East Riding, is an area in Northern England and can refer either to the administrative county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, a unitary authority, to the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire or to the easternmost of the three subdivisions of the traditional county of Yorkshire. No two of these areas share the same geographical boundaries despite sharing the same name; the traditional East Riding of Yorkshire includes parts of ceremonial North Yorkshire such as Filey but not Goole, whereas both the administrative and ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire include Goole but not those parts of North Yorkshire. Both the traditional and ceremonial East Riding include Kingston upon Hull, but the administrative East Riding does not as Kingston upon Hull is in its own unitary authority; the traditional East Riding covers a larger area than both the ceremonial and administrative East Riding. The East Riding, North Riding and West Riding were treated as three separate counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions.
In 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, administrative counties with a county council were created on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the Local Government Area and the Lieutenancy of the East Riding of Yorkshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, being succeeded in most of the riding by the newly created Humberside which included parts of the West Riding and parts of Lincolnshire; the modern Local Government Area and the ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire were formed in 1996 from the northern part of Humberside upon its abolition. At the 2011 Census, the population was 334,179; the landscape consists of a crescent of low chalk hills, the Yorkshire Wolds, surrounded by the low-lying fertile plains of Holderness and the Vale of York. The Humber Estuary and North Sea mark its eastern limits. Archaeological investigations have revealed artefacts and structures from all historical periods since the last ice age. There are no industrial centres; the area is administered from the ancient ecclesiastical town of Beverley.
Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area and there is a higher than average percentage of retired people. The economy is based on agriculture and tourism, contributing to the rural and seaside character of the Riding with its historic buildings, nature reserves and the Yorkshire Wolds Way long-distance footpath; the open and maritime aspects and lack of major urban development have led to the high levels of energy generation from renewable sources. Major sporting and entertainment venues are concentrated in Kingston upon Hull, while the seaside and market towns support semi-professional and amateur sports clubs and provide seasonal entertainment for visitors. Bishop Burton is the site of an agricultural college, Hull provides the region's only university. On the southern border, close to Hull, the Humber Bridge spans the Humber Estuary to enable the A15 to link Hessle with Barton-upon-Humber in North Lincolnshire; when the last glacial period ended, the hunter gatherers of the Palaeolithic period followed the animal herds across the land between continental Europe and Britain.
As conditions continued to improve and vegetation became more able to support a greater diversity of animals, the annual range of seasonal movement by Mesolithic communities decreased, people became more fixed to particular localities. Until about 6,000 BC, Mesolithic people appear to have exploited their environment; as communities came to rely on a smaller territorial range and as population levels increased, attempts began to be made to modify or control the natural world. In the Great Wold Valley, pollen samples of Mesolithic date indicate that the forest cover in the area was being disturbed and altered by man, that open grasslands were being created; the Yorkshire Wolds became a major focus for human settlement during the Neolithic period as they had a wide range of natural resources. The oldest monuments found on the Wolds are the Neolithic long barrows and round barrows. Two earthen long barrows in the region are found at Fordon, on Willerby Wold, at Kilham, both of which have radiocarbon dates of around 3700 BC.
From around 2000 to 800 BC, the people of the Bronze Age built the 1,400 Bronze Age round barrows that are known to exist on the Yorkshire Wolds. These are grouped together to form cemeteries. Many of these sites can still be seen as prominent features in the present-day landscape. By the Bronze Age, an open, landscape predominated on the Wolds, it was used for grazing and for arable cultivation. The wetlands on either side of the Wolds in the River Hull valley and the Vale of York were being used for animal rearing at this time. In the Iron Age there were further cultural changes in the area. There emerged a distinctive local tradition known as the Arras Culture, named after a site at Arras, near Market Weighton. There are similarities between the chariot burials of the Arras Culture and groups of La Tene burials in northern Europe, where the burial of carts was practised; the area became the kingdom of the tribe known as the Parisi. After invading Britain in AD 43, the Romans crossed the Humber Estuary in AD 71 to invade the Northumbrian territory of the Parisi tribe.
From their bridgehead at Petuaria they travelled northwards and built roads along the Wolds to Derventio, present day Malton, westwards to the River Ouse where they built the fort of Eboracum. There is evidence of extensive use of the light soils of the Wolds for grain farming in the Roman era. Several Roman villas which were the centres of large agric
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Weel is a hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated 2 miles east of the town of Beverley and 1.5 miles south of the village of Tickton. It lies on the east bank of the River Hull, it forms part of the civil parish of Tickton. Telephone services are provided by KC and in 2013 a superfast fibre optic broadband service was made available. Weel in the Domesday Book
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri