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Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico

Tierra Amarilla is a small unincorporated community near the Carson National Forest in the northern part of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the county seat of Rio Arriba County. Tierra Amarilla is Spanish for "Yellow Soil"; the name refers to clay deposits found in the Chama River Valley and used by Native American peoples. Tewa and Navajo toponyms for the area refer to the yellow clay. There is evidence of 5000 years of habitation in the Chama River Valley including pueblo sites south of Abiquiu; the area served as a trade route for peoples in the present-day Four Corners region and the Rio Grande Valley. Navajos used the valley as a staging area for raids on Spanish settlements along the Rio Grande. Written accounts of the Tierra Amarilla locality by pathfinding Spanish friars in 1776 described it as suitable for pastoral and agricultural use; the route taken by the friars from Santa Fe to California became the Spanish Trail. During the Californian Gold Rush the area became a staging point for westward fortune seekers.

The Tierra Amarilla Grant was created in 1832 by the Mexican government for Manuel Martinez and settlers from Abiquiu. The land grant encompassed a more general area than the contemporary community known as Tierra Amarilla; the grant holders were unable to maintain a permanent settlement due to "raids by Utes and Jicarilla Apaches" until early in the 1860s. In 1860 the United States Congress confirmed the land grant as a private grant, rather than a community grant, due to mistranslated and concealed documents. Although a land patent for the grant required the completion of a geographical survey before issuance, some of Manuel Martinez' heirs began to sell the land to Anglo speculators. In 1880 Thomas Catron sold some of the grant to the Denver and Rio Grande Railway for the construction of their San Juan line and a service center at Chama. By 1883 Catron had consolidated the deeds he held for the whole of the grant sans the original villages and their associated fields. In 1950, the descendants of the original grant holder's court petitions to reclaim communal land were rebuked.

In 1866 the United States Army established Camp Plummer just south of Los Ojos to rein in decreased Native American activity on the grant. The military encampment was deserted in 1869. Las Nutrias, the site of the contemporary community, was founded nearby c.1862. The first post office in Las Nutrias was established in 1866 and bore the name Tierra Amarilla, as did the present one, established in 1870 after an two-year absence. In 1877 a U. S. Army lieutenant described the village as "the center of the Mexican population of northwestern New Mexico"; the territorial legislature located Rio Arriba's county seat in Las Nutrias and renamed the village in 1880. The Denver and Rio Grande Railway's 1881 arrival at Chama, about ten miles to the north, had profound effects on the development of the region by bringing the area out of economic and cultural isolation; when Tierra Amarilla was designated as the county seat the villagers set about building a courthouse. This structure was demolished to make way for the present one, built in 1917 and gained notoriety fifty years when it was the location of a gunfight between land rights activists and authorities.

The neoclassical design by Isaac Rapp is now on the National Register of Historic Places. The Alianza Federal de Mercedes, led by Reies Tijerina, raided the Rio Arriba County Courthouse in 1967. Attempting to make a citizen's arrest of the district attorney "to bring attention to the unscrupulous means by which government and Anglo settlers had usurped Hispanic land grant properties", an armed struggle in the courthouse ensued resulting in Tijerina and his group fleeing to the south with two prisoners as hostages. Eulogio Salazar, a prison guard, was shot and Daniel Rivera, a sheriff's deputy, was badly injured; the National Guard, FBI and New Mexico State Police pursued Tijerina, sentenced to less than three years. The Brazos Cliffs are attraction. Nearby are the artificial Heron Lake and El Vado Lake. Tierra Amarillas' Elevation is 7,524 feet above sea level; the settlement is situated in a cluster of villages along United States Route 84 and the Chama River. The layout of the villages, including the one that became Tierra Amarilla, do not follow the urban planning principles of the Laws of the Indies.

Tierra Amarilla has a humid continental climate with cold, though sunny winters, summers featuring warm to hot afternoons and cold to cool mornings. During the winter, mornings are frigid, with as many as 26.7 falling to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C, although maxima top freezing on all but nineteen afternoons during an average winter. The coldest temperature has been −39 °F on January 6, 1971. Snowfall is much heavier than in more populated parts of New Mexico as Tierra Amarilla is located on a western slope rather than in a valley: the annual average is 62.2 inches or 1.58 metres with a maximum of 55.9 inches in January 1997 and a maximum annual total of 125.5 inches between July 1996 and June 1997. The maximum snow depth has been 44 inches or 1.12 metres on 30 November 1983. The spring season sees the sunniest weather of all and warming temperatures, although over the year as a whole 224.9 mornings fall to or below freezing, with four freezes to be expected as late as June. The summer, although seeing diurnal temperature ranges of over 34 °F or 18.9 °C, is the wettest period due to frequent monsoonal thunderstorms.

The wettest months have been September 1927 and August 1967 which each saw 5.96 inches of precipitation, the wettest calendar year 1986 with 24.85 inches, the driest 1956 with 8.63 inch

Croatia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2017

Croatia participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 2017, which took place in Kiev, Ukraine, in May 2017. After the successful return in 2016, Croatian national broadcaster Croatian Radiotelevision confirmed on 17 September 2016 that they would participate in 2017. Prior to the 2017 contest, Croatia had participated in the Eurovision Song Contest twenty-two times since their debut in Millstreet 1993; the nation's highest placing in the contest was fourth, which they achieved two times: in 1996 with the song "Sveta ljubav" performed by Maja Blagdan and in 1999 with "Marija Magdalena" performed by Doris Dragović. Following the introduction of semi-finals for the 2004 contest, Croatia had featured in six finals. Croatia's least successful result in the final has been twenty-third place, which they achieved in 2016 with the song "Lighthouse" performed by Nina Kraljić, their first final performance after 7 years, and Croatia's least successful result in semi final has been sixteenth place, which they achieved in 2007 with the song "Vjerujem u ljubav", performed by Dragonfly and Dado Topić.

The Croatian broadcaster HRT confirmed on 17 September 2016 their intention to participate in the 2017 edition. However they haven't announced the way; as there wasn't anything said about submitting for any new national selection, it was most that HRT will select the entry internally again. On 17 February 2017 five months after they confirmed their participation, they announced that Jacques Houdek was selected internally to represent the country; the song title, "My Friend", was released on 20 February 2017. According to Eurovision rules, all nations with the exceptions of the host country and the "Big 5" are required to qualify from one of two semi-finals in order to compete for the final; the European Broadcasting Union split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from previous contests, with countries with favourable voting histories put into the same pot. On 31 January 2017, a special allocation draw was held which placed each country into one of the two semi-finals, as well as which half of the show they would perform in.

Croatia was placed into the second semi-final, to be held on 11 May 2017, was scheduled to perform in the second half of the show. After the official semi final draw was released, Croatia was supposed to perform 12th. After Russia's withdrawal, Croatia was set to perform 11th. Jacques Houdek managed to qualify to the grand final placing 8th in the semi with 141 points; this was second year in a row. In the final, he performed 13th and finished on the 13th place with 128 points, Croatia's best result in 10 years. Croatia in the Eurovision Song Contest Eurovision Song Contest 2017

1923 Wimbledon Championships

The 1923 Wimbledon Championships took place on the outdoor grass courts at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, United Kingdom. The tournament ran from 25 June until 7 July, it was the 43rd staging of the Wimbledon Championships, the first Grand Slam tennis event of 1923. Bill Johnston defeated Frank Hunter, 6–0, 6–3, 6–1 Suzanne Lenglen defeated Kitty McKane, 6–2, 6–2 Leslie Godfree / Randolph Lycett defeated Eduardo Flaquer / Manuel de Gomar, 6–3, 6–4, 3–6, 6–3 Suzanne Lenglen / Elizabeth Ryan defeated Joan Austin / Evelyn Colyer, 6–3, 6–1 Randolph Lycett / Elizabeth Ryan defeated Lewis Deane / Dorothy Shepherd-Barron, 6–4, 7–5 Official Wimbledon Championships website

Expanded polyethylene

Expanded polyethylene refers to foams made from polyethylene. It is made from expanded pellets made with use of a blowing agent, followed by expansion into a mold in a steam chest - the process is similar to that used to make expanded polystyrene foam. EPE foams are low density, semi-rigid, closed cell foam that are somewhere in stiffness/compliance between Expanded polystyrene and Polyurethane. Production of EPE foams is similar to that of expanded polystyrene. Typical densities are 29 to 120 kg/m3 with the lower figure being common. Densities as low as 14 kg/m3 can be produced. Base polymer for EPE foams range from Low-density polyethylene to High-density polyethylene. Expanded polyethylene copolymers are known - such as 50:50 materials with polystyrene. Though other properties are intermediate between the two bases, toughness for the copolymer exceeds either, with good tensile and puncture resistance, it is applicable for re-usable products. EPE foams were first manufactured in the 1970s. Production of the PE beads is by extrusion, followed by chopping, producing a'pellet'.

Autoclave expansion is the most common route the bead foam. Butane or pentane is used as a blowing agent. Depending on the specific process uses the beads may be cross-linked either by electron beam irradiation, or by the addition of a chemical agent such as Dicumyl peroxide. An alternate route to the beads uses carbon dioxide as a blowing agent, impregnated into the pellets in an autoclave at a temperature close to the plastic's crystalline melting point; the pellets are foamed by "flashing" into the atmosphere to expand. Molding is done by steam chest compression molding. Polyethylene bead foams EPE can be used to replace both polystyrene foam, both rigid and flexible polyurethane. Uses include cushioning applications, impact absorption applications including packaging. Consumption of polyethylene for PE foam was estimated at 114x106 kg in 2001; the majority was used for non-crosslinked foams, but crosslinked PE foams represented a significant fraction of demand. Use in protective packaging represented the largest use sector for such foams

Tupi, South Cotabato

Tupi the Municipality of Tupi, Hiligaynon: Banwa sang Tupi. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 69,976 people. Nestled at the foot of a dormant volcano, Mount Matutum, Tupi is considered as the fruit and flower basket of South Cotabato. Tupi is politically subdivided into 15 barangays: Tupi derived from the word "Tufi", a vine chewed by native Blaan tribes who first inhabited the land. Tufi had a refreshing taste; as it lies in the dormant foot of Mt. Matutum, Tupi's fertile soil of volcanic ash offers a great enticement to speculators and investors in the field of agriculture. In 1936 during the commonwealth government, President Manuel L. Quezon appointed Major General Paulino Santos as General Manager for the development of Koronadal and the vast land in the Allah Valley. Settlers from Luzon and the Visayas starting to arrive transforming the once large forest into a flourishing area of agriculture; the Bario of Tupi was created into a municipality of Tupi by virtue of executive order 612 of President Elpidio Quirino on September 11, 1953.

The first set of appointed officials were inducted on October 2 of that year. Tupi's climate and soil type makes it suitable to all types of livestock production. Tupi aside from pineapple, tropical fruits and vegetables is identified as suited for high-value commercial crops like asparagus and papaya. Cutflower production is one crop, putting Tupi on the regional map. Tupi is identified as one of the areas in the province well suited for poultry production. To date, there are around 34 major poultry raisers scattered in the municipality with minimum of 10,000 heads capacity. Tupi had been identified in the SOCCSKSARGEN Growth Plan as one of the areas where a satellite Food Terminal shall be located. To date, a private organization, the DARBCI initiated the establishment of an initial 70 hectare Economic Zone within the Municipality of Tupi. One of the future investment eyed as an economic booster is the establishment of an Integrated Food Terminal. On this aspect, private investors are welcome to finance major economic endeavors within the economic zone.

Tupi, an agricultural municipality, devotes 19% of its total land area to agricultural production. Major agricultural crops are pineapple, asparagus, vegetables, coffee, cut-flowers. Other high value commercial products include processed food; the exports products are pineapple, bottled fruit preserves, Bongolan Banana. The existing major business establishments are Progressive Farms, Kablon Farms, Stanfilco of Dole Philippines, Blooming Petals, Inc. Eden's Flowers, Central Universal Corporation and other large scale livestock and poultry raisers distributed all over the municipality. Kasadyahan Festival, "Sagana Sayaw sa Kadalanan-Kasadyahan": Celebration featuring street dancing competition coined from Visayan word "Kasadya", it is a convergence of various ethnic and cultural dances featuring Tupi as the province's flower and vegetable basket and a town where various cultures abode. Held every September 11 in celebration of the town's foundation anniversary. Linggo ng Matutum: A weeklong festivity every March 13–20 of each year in celebration of the declaration of Mt. Matutum as protected Landscape: highlighting "Amyak Maleh", a climb and plant mountaineering activities and the Mindanao wide "Amyak Maleh Mt Matutum Bike Challenge".

Kariton Festival: Annual parade of animal-drawn carts bedecked with vegetables and flowers. Held every October and is being sponsored by the barangay Poblacion. Ati-Atihan: A yearly festival of Barangay Crossing Rubber same with that of Kalibo, Aklan; the Tupi Transport Terminal has its daily trip to General Santos City and Koronadal City 24 hours daily. The estimated time allotment from Tupi to General Santos City and vice versa is only 45~60 minutes without traffic. From General Santos City, there are trips to Tupi, the PUVs are available at the mall terminals. General Santos International Airport is 1 hour away from Tupi's town proper by using the newly constructed General Santos Diversion Road to avoid heavy traffic in General Santos City; the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company provides fixed line services. Wireless mobile communications services are provided by Smart Communications, Globe Telecommunications and Sun Cellular. Official Website of the Local Government of Tupi Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information

Swale Brook

Swale Brook is a tributary of Tunkhannock Creek in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 2.9 miles long and flows through Tunkhannock Township and Tunkhannock. The watershed of the stream has an area of 4.01 square miles. The stream is not designated as an impaired waterbody; the surficial geology near it consists of alluvium, alluvial terrace, Wisconsinan Outwash, Wisconsinan Till, Wisconsinan Ice-Contact Stratified Drift, a wetland. There are a railroad bridge crossing over Swale Brook. A number of industries historically operated near the stream; the stream's watershed is designated as a Coldwater Fishery and a Migratory Fishery and the stream itself has a high level of fish diversity. Swale Brook begins in Cruver Pond in Tunkhannock Township, it flows south-southwest for a few tenths of a mile before receiving an unnamed tributary from the right. After several tenths of a mile, the stream turns east-southeast for more than a mile, entering Tunkhannock and receiving an unnamed tributary from the left.

It crosses Pennsylvania Route 29 and turns south-southeast. A short distance further downstream, the stream crosses US Route 6 and reaches its confluence with Tunkhannock Creek. Swale Brook joins Tunkhannock Creek 0.64 miles upstream of its mouth. Swale Brook is not designated as an impaired waterbody; the Tunkhannock Area School District once applied for and/or received a permit to discharge stormwater into the stream during construction activities. Swale Brook was once described as a stream of "pure, cold water"; the elevation near the mouth of Swale Brook is 607 feet above sea level. The elevation of the stream's source is between 1,060 feet above sea level; the stream has been described as "small enough to step across". The surficial geology in the vicinity of the lower and middle reaches of Swale Brook consists of alluvium, Wisconsinan Outwash, Wisconsinan Ice-Contact Stratified Drift, alluvial terrace. In the upper reaches, the surficial geology near the stream consists of a till known as Wisconsinan Till.

The watershed of Swale Brook has an area of 4.01 square miles. The stream is within the United States Geological Survey quadrangle of Tunkhannock, its mouth is located at Tunkhannock. A pond known as Cruver Pond is located at the headwaters of Swale Brook. There are several road crossings along the stream's course. Additionally, the stream crosses a railroad bridge. Swale Brook was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979, its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1189122. The stream is known as Quaker Swamp Brook; this variant name appears in Israel C. White's 1883 book The geology of the North Branch Susquehanna River Region in the six counties of Wyoming, Luzerne, Columbia and Northumberland. By the middle of the 19th century, a tannery had been built on Swale Brook. By 1888, a mill had been constructed on the stream in Tunkhannock, it produced wooden butter pails and tubs and cider. In 1902, wood from a covered bridge damaged by flooding was processed at the mill.

A steam-powered electric plant operated in the vicinity of Swale Brook until 1903. Shortly before 1906, a canning factory on the stream closed. Swale Brook was impacted by flooding during Hurricane Agnes in 1972, it experienced flooding in 2011. The Federal Emergency Management Agency once purchased some homes along the stream as part of a buyout program; the drainage basin of Swale Brook is designated as a Migratory Fishery. The stream has a high level of fish diversity and has been described as "packed with fish diversity". At least ten fish species of fish have been observed in the stream, including eastern blacknose dace, common shiners, yellow bullheads, the rare brook stickleback; the riparian buffer of Swale Brook is densely vegetated in some reaches. Billings Mill Brook, next tributary of Tunkhannock Creek going upstream List of rivers of Pennsylvania