The haka, a traditional dance of the Māori people, has been used in sports in New Zealand and overseas. The challenge has been adopted by the New Zealand national rugby union team, the "All Blacks", a number of other New Zealand national teams perform before their international matches. During 1888–89, the New Zealand Native team toured the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, the first team from a colony to do so, it was intended that only Māori players would be selected, but four non-Māori were included. As the non-Māori were born in New Zealand, the name "Native" was considered justified; the team performed a haka before the start of their first match on 3 October 1888 against Surrey. They were described as using the words "Ake ake kia kaha" which suggests that the haka was not "Ka Mate", it was intended that before each match they would perform the haka dressed in traditional Māori costume but the costumes were soon discarded. The "Ka Mate" haka was not well known at this time. In 1900, a newspaper reported New Zealand soldiers in the Boer War chanting "Ka Mate!
Ka Mate! Ka ora! Ka ora! Hae-haea! Ha!" The soldiers thought it meant "Kill him! Chop him up! Baste him!"But during the 1901 Royal Tour, Ngati Kahungunu warriors revived "Ka Mate" when they performed it to welcome the Duke of Cornwall at Rotorua. Newspapers described the full actions of this "ancient ngeri", printing its complete Maori words and an accurate translation. A movie cameraman recorded the performance. "Ka Mate" became famous, was performed throughout New Zealand. When New Zealand played its first full international test match against Australia in Sydney in August 1903, the New Zealanders' war cry was "Tena Koe Kangaroo." In 1905 New Zealand made their first tour of Britain. This was the first time the team were referred to as the All Blacks and this particular team became known as the'Originals', it is uncertain whether they performed a haka before every match, but they at least performed "Ka Mate" before their first test, against Scotland, before the match against Wales. The Welsh crowd, led by the Welsh team, responded by singing the Welsh national anthem.
When a New Zealand Army team played Wales in 1916, the words of "Ka Mate" were included in the printed programme, indicating that the haka was established as an accompaniment to New Zealand rugby teams playing overseas. The 1924–25 New Zealand rugby team which toured the United Kingdom, Irish Free State and Canada and, nicknamed the Invincibles, performed a haka, written for them during the voyage to England by two supporters, Judge Frank Acheson of the Native Land Court and Wiremu Rangi of Gisborne; the haka was led by star player George Nepia. It was performed. Reporters criticised the team for disappointing the crowd on the two occasions it was not performed. A pre-match haka was not always performed on All Blacks tours; the team that toured Britain in 1935–36 did not perform one before matches, although they did some impromptu performances at social functions. In the early decades, haka were only performed at home matches, such as the third test of the 1921 Springboks tour, played in Wellington.
The All Blacks are believed to have first performed a choreographed and synchronized version of the "Ka Mate" haka in 1906. It is said that this Haka was composed by Te Rauparaha of Ngāti Toa to commemorate his escape from death during an incident in 1810. Chased by his enemies, he hid in a food-storage pit under the skirt of a woman, he climbed out to find someone standing over him, instead of killing Te Rauparaha, turned out to be another chief friendly to him. In relief, Te Rauparaha performed this ancient haka, performed all through Aotearoa for centuries; the story of Te Rauparaha was woven into several older stories about this haka. The "Ka Mate" haka opens with a set of five preparatory instructions shouted by the leader, before the whole team joins in: Early in July 1903, when the New Zealand players were assembling in Wellington for their Australian tour, The Evening Post reported that "A unique souvenir has been prepared for the New Zealand team by Mr C. Parata, it contains the following warcry": The Post's rugby correspondent reported that the war-cry was first practised by the New Zealand team in mid-Tasman on Monday 13 July, first performed "in response to several calls" at their official reception at Sydney on Thursday 16 July.
The reported wording and translation were published next day in the Sydney Morning Herald and in the Sunday Times on 19 July 1903, after the first match against NSW. The New Zealanders played; the warcry was performed before all their matches although a search in PapersPast only located mention of its use before "the first test match". The Invincibles performed this haka during their unbeaten 1924–1925 tour, it was written during their voyage to England by Wiremu Rangi of Gisborne, polished up by Judge Acheson of the Native Land Court. It had two verses, but the second verse was omitted in matches. Newspaper reports of early games spoke of the "weird war cry of the visitors" in response to the crowds' singing, thus the fifth game at Swansea began with 40,000 waiting Welshmen singing Cwm Rhondda, Sospan Fach, Land of My Fathers and God Save the Queen, to which the All Blacks responded with a "weird chant led by Nepia". But as fame of their unbeaten status spread, so did the status of their haka.
At the beginning of their 22nd game in Wales at Llanelli, we read On the appearance of the men in
The term sports memorabilia refers to a souvenir, keepsake or token of remembrance, directly connected to a famous athlete, sporting event or personality. These items are collected by fans that find sentimental and/ or monetary value of the item. There is no set parameter regarding the number of items, type of sport, or the era that an item may reflect. A piece of certain kind may be considered a collectable item. Items that have been in direct contact with a famous athlete can have significant monetary value. Game used items such as the ball which Mark McGwire hit for his 70th home run of the 1998 season sold for $3 million; the most expensive piece of sports memorabilia sold, a New York Yankees baseball jersey worn by Babe Ruth during the 1920 season, sold for $4,415,658 in 2012. In 2016, the ten most valuable sports cards and memorabilia sold for a record-setting combined $12,186,294. Autographed pieces of memorabilia are more valuable that non-autographed items. Items that have been personalized can add sentimental value.
Collectors who are interested in purchasing sports memorabilia look for a certificate of authenticity. Several companies have developed systems to prove authenticity of game-used or autographed memorabilia, collectors will seek out dealers that offer a lifetime, money-back, authenticity guarantee; the value of a signed item will be relative to the profile of the signer and the scarcity of similar items. When a high-profile sports star dies, the value rises as there will no longer be an opportunity to get more. For example, the death of Muhammad Ali in 2016 raised both demand and prices for signed Muhammad Ali memorabilia, it could be said that collecting sports memorabilia goes back to the first decades of the 20th century, when many people would collect baseballs from baseball games and many asked Babe Ruth for autographs. As years passed and many other sports stars joined their sports, memorabilia collectors began to broaden their horizons; when the NBA, MLB, NHL and NFL began selling their jerseys in stores during the 1980s, game used jerseys became a hot item among sports memorabilia collectors.
Former NBA player Dennis Rodman was famous for taking off his jerseys and throwing them to the stands after his games were over. Michael Jordan is the basketball player whose memorabilia is most sought after by collectors; the highest price fetched for a football match worn shirt is $224,000. The shirt belonged to the legendary Pelé, who wore it during the 1970 World Cup final in which Brazil went on to win. Collectors like to look back in time. Items such as John L. Sullivan and Jack Johnson fight posters have sold well before. There is a boxing glove signed by Sullivan, Johnson and many Hollywood stars and American Presidents that has sold for a lot of money before; this glove is now on display at the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Other popular items in sports memorabilia are "game-used" items. Game used can refer to an item worn on the field during a game, worn during the pregame, or by a player on the bench; these can include jerseys, caps, gloves, shoes, or sunglasses. Game Used can refer to bats, turf, flags, or other items used by a player on in the stadium.
In NASCAR, other forms of automobile racing, the metal from the cars, the tires, the driver uniforms, the crew uniforms are popular collectables. Concrete from the various racetracks are popular. Trunks, used by popular boxers such as Greg Haugen in boxing fights are popular and sometimes sell for 100 dollars or more. In Europe, football memorabilia is the largest market, with high-profile players shirts and photos in demand. Event programmes from rugby union and football matches are highly collectable. Hero card
The Barmy Army is a company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. The company provides tickets and arranges touring parties for some of its members to follow the English cricket team in the UK and overseas; the name is applied to followers of the team who join in with match day activities in the crowd, but do not travel as part of an organised tour. The term "barmy" is English slang for "mad"; the group less organised, was given its name by the Australian media during the 1994-1995 Test series in Australia for the fans' hopeless audacity in travelling all the way to Australia in the near-certain knowledge that their team would lose, the fact that they kept on chanting encouragement to the England team when England were losing quite badly. It was co-founded by Paul Burnham. On the first day of the 1994–95 Ashes Series at Adelaide Oval, a group of supporters of the English Cricket team during the lunch break headed to T-Shirt City on Hindley Street and ordered 50 shirts saying "Atherton's Barmy Army" with the Union Jack emblazoned on the back.
By the end of the Test over 200 shirts had been purchased. This Test is cited as the catalyst for the formal establishment of the Barmy Army; the Barmy Army, now a limited company, states that it wants to "make watching cricket more fun and much more popular". The group uses flags, banners and chants to encourage the team and crowd participation in their activities. In contrast to the reputations of some sports fans for hooliganism, the Barmy Army organisers discourage and avoid such behaviour; the group engages in charity work and has gained a good reputation among most cricket administrators. However, many cricket followers find their constant chanting to be annoying and disruptive during the afternoon sessions of Test matches when the chanting of the Barmy Army, fuelled by their consumption of large amounts of alcohol becomes a repetitive, irritating background noise; this was because Howard Wilkinson, known as Sergeant Wilko, the manager at the time inspired the chant, "Sergeant Wilko's Barmy Army".
In conjunction with the increasing appearance of English football shirts at cricket grounds in the early 1990s, the song's droning, repetitive cry of "Barmy Army, Barmy Army, Barmy Army" transferred to domestic Test cricket arenas at Old Trafford and Headingley. It was apparent during the 1993 Ashes tour. Throughout the 1990s, increased spending power, via a stronger British Pound at the time, enabled fans to take the song overseas when following tours of the English national cricket team; because of that particular song, the fact that it seemed to represent English fans' activity of standing in the hot sun, drinking lager all day until they were sunburnt and unwell, it became a description as well as a song. David Lloyd and Ian Botham used the tag to describe the supporters whilst commentating for Sky Sports during England's tours from 1993 to 1995. Only in the mid-1990s was the tag recognised as an official title for English touring cricket fans and adopted by what is now recognised as the official Barmy Army.
In the late 1990s performers Richard Stilgoe and Peter Skellern recognised the need for an anthem for the loyal supporters of a team that seemed to lose and wrote a stirring song called "The Barmy Army" which they included in their touring repertoire. It can be found on their 1999 CD "A Quiet Night Out" and humorously celebrates the English team's skill at "snatching defeat from the jaws of victory". Most grounds now set aside areas for Barmy Army fans apart from Lord's. Supporters of English national teams in other sports are subsidiaries of the Barmy Army; the rugby equivalent was formed in 2014, they form part of the Army to support British and Irish Lions, while there is another separate subsidiary for Rugby League. Official website Article praising the Barmy Army's behaviour on tour in Australia Article challenging the view presented in the article above
Violence in sports
Violence in sports refers to violent and unnecessarily harmful intentional physical acts committed during, or motivated by, a sports game in relation to contact sports such as American football, ice hockey, rugby football, association football, mixed martial arts and water polo and, when referring to the players themselves involving excessively violent or illegal physical contact beyond the normal levels of contact expected while playing the sport. These acts of violence can include intentional attempts to injure a player or coach by another player or coach, but can include threats of physical harm or actual physical harm sustained by players or coaches by fans or those engaging in the spectating of sports, or threats and acts of violence performed by fans or spectators upon opposing fans or other spectators. There are two major theories on the cause of violence in sports. One theory holds that humans have an instinct for violence, developed during a time when early human ancestors had to resort to violence and aggressiveness to survive and reproduce.
Another theory deals with the sociological aspects of violence in sports, stating that sports are "mock battles" which can become actual battles due to their competitive nature. Through a "civilizing process", many modern sports have become less tolerant of bloodshed than past versions, although many violent aspects of these sports still remain. Athletes sometimes resort in hopes of injuring and intimidating opponents; such incidents may be part of a strategy developed by players. In boxing, unruly or violent behavior by one of the contestants results in the fighter breaking the rules being penalized with a points reduction, or, in extreme cases, disqualification. Outlawed tactics in boxing include hitting the opponent on the back of the head, under the belly during clinching, to the back. Other tactics that are outlawed, but less seen, are pushing an opponent hard to the floor, kicking, or hitting after the round has ended. Similar actions have happened in ice hockey and Australian Football League matches.
High school and professional sports teams include initiation ceremonies as a rite of passage. A 1999 study by Alfred University and the NCAA found that four out of five college US athletes experienced hazing. Half were required to take part in alcohol-related initiations, while two-thirds were subjected to humiliation rituals. Violence may be related to nationalism or as an outlet for underlying social tensions, it is alcohol-related. Violence by supporters of sports teams dates back to Roman times, when supporters of chariot racing teams were involved in major riots. Underlying political and/or theological issues helped fuel riots related to sporting events in the Roman era; the Nika riots of 532 were deadly, with tens of thousands killed. In periods when theatre was considered a form of mass entertainment, there were phenomena of rival fans supporting rival actors or theatrical teams leading to violent outbursts having many similarities to present-day violence of sports fans – the Astor Place Riot in 1849 New York City being a conspicuous example.
The actions of English football hooligans and firms in the 1980s caused English teams to be banned from European competition for six years after the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. Although the level of football-related violence was reduced in England after this event, in the recent Euro 2004 tournament, England were publicly warned that any violence by supporters at matches could result in their ejection from the tournament. Many known hooligans were prevented from traveling to the tournament in Portugal. There was a collective sigh of relief from security experts in the USA when England failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. Alan Rothenberg said: In 532, the rivalry between supporters of the Blue and Green chariot-racing teams in Constantinople led to 30,000 deaths in the Nika riots; the first meeting in the American football rivalry between Brigham Young University and the University of Utah took place in April 1896, when BYU was known as Brigham Young Academy. The two schools disagree to this day as to whether this game was official, but it mattered to the spectators—at the end of the game, the two sets of fans fought one another.
In the second edition of the Tour de France in 1904, as the riders climbed the Col de la République in the Loire department, supporters of regional favorite Antoine Faure physically attacked several of his opponents. The repercussions of this incident continue to this day—the Tour did not return to Loire until 1950, although the Tour has returned to the République 11 times since its appearances in the 1903 and 1904 Tours are no longer recognized as Tour climbs. In 1972, Oregon pummeled Oregon State 30–3 in their annual "Civil War" football rivalry game, held this season at Oregon State's Parker Stadium. After the game, jubilant Oregon fans tore down the south goal post, they turned to do the same to the north goal post, but were met by Oregon State fans who had come on the field, resulting in a major brawl. In 1975, cyclist Eddy Merckx was viciously punched by a spectator as he climbed the Puy-de-Dôme in the Tour de France. Merckx, who had won the Tour de France five times and at the time was in the leader's yellow jersey, finished the stage able to breathe, went on to finish the tour in second place overall.
The 1980 Scottish Cup Final betwe
Curva is an Italian term or name for curved stands of seating located at sports stadiums in Italy. The curva plays an integral part in the culture of European football; the majority of stands referred to as a "curva" are located behind the goals in their respective stadiums and contain the most vocal supporters within them known as Ultras. They are curved in shape, in some form whether minor or major due to the presence of a running track around the pitch; the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza provides an example of two prominent stands referred to as "curva", "Curva Nord" and "Curva Sud", which contain only minor curves at their corners, while the Stadio Olimpico provides an example of two curved stands. A curva may extend from one corner flag to another or be located centrally behind the goal, bordered by two separate corner sections for ticketing or organizational purposes. Being home to the most passionate supporters in a stadium, the curva is the focal point of a club's support, it is the scene of dramatic choreographed displays of support and disapproval for a team or club.
These displays take on an importance of their own in games involving rivals where both sets of supporters aim to outdo each other. In certain countries those where sports clubs and supporters are reflective of the local culture, the curva can become quite politicized in nature. Therefore, it is not uncommon for a curva to be split into individual factions or groups, either or based on politics, for one group to hold significant control of the curva and its inhabitants on match days. Ultras groups within a curva benefit from this degree of relative uniformity, when there are issues regarding supporters' rights and the commercialization of sports and football in particular. India Ultras Major football rivalries Specific GeneralTesta, A. and Armstrong, G.. "Words and actions: Italian ultras and neo-fascism" Social Identities, vol. 14, pp. 473 – 490 Testa, A. "UltraS: an Emerging Social Movement", Review of European Studies, vol. 1, 54–63 Testa, A.. Contested Meanings: the Italian Media and the UltraS.
Review of European Studies, vol 2, 15–24 Testa, A. and Armstrong, G.. Football and Fandom: The UltraS of Italian Football, A&C, Black Publishers. |}
The kiss cam is a social game that takes place during arena and court sporting events in the United States and Canada. It is intended as a light-hearted diversion to the main event during a timeout, television timeout, or similar downtime. A'kiss cam' camera scans the crowd, selects a couple, their images being shown on the jumbotron screens in the arena. A kiss is traditionally rewarded by applause, clapping and whistles, whereas a refusal to kiss is booed; when the kiss cam is in action, the audience may be alerted by a known'kiss-related' song being played, and/or an announcer warning the crowd. The crowd attending pay attention to the marked'kiss cam' video screen. Several consecutive couples are selected, appear on the screen; as each pair appear onscreen, they are expected to kiss. Additionally, sporting event staff may appear as couples who reject kisses or proposals in order to entertain or surprise the attending audience; the kiss cam tradition originated in California in the early 1980s, as a way to fill in the gaps in play in professional baseball games, taking advantage of the possibilities of the then-new giant video screens.
The couple focused on by the camera may not be in a romantic relationship. They may in fact be friends, or not know each other at all. A platonic awkward kiss then results. Sometimes a refusal can generate a humorous twist for those watching; the kiss cam screen appears on television if the event is televised. The couple focused on may not wish their attendance together at the event to be publicized; some couples, although not wishing to kiss, feel intimidated by the crowd reaction, feel forced to do so. Other instances may find the couple not noticing themselves on the screen, the resulting inaction can be humorous or embarrassing. Gay or lesbian couples may feel excluded from the Kiss Cam routine, or if included, may feel subject to homophobic expressions of disapproval from members of the watching crowd. Kissing under such public scrutiny can be embarrassing for either or both members of a couple, who may not be comfortable with public displays of affection to that level; the first positive reaction by a gay couple caught on camera happened at AT&T Park in San Francisco in August 2011.
The men embraced on the kiss cam without embarrassment. On May 2, 2015, a gay couple was applauded. On The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien, O'Brien parodied the Kiss Cam in comedy sketches, focusing on unlikely couples, such as a hunter and a bear; the Canadian group, the Arkells released a song titled "Kiss Cam" in July 2011. The Great Khali once hosted a weekly segment in his wrestling appearances called'Khali Kiss Cam', in which he would kiss a female supposed audience member, he was preceded in this by the late wrestler Rick Rude, who would kiss a woman selected from the crowd after his victories. In Family Portrait, the finale of the first season of the US television comedy Modern Family, Phil is caught on a kiss cam, feigning reluctance kisses Gloria, his step-mother-in-law
Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard
The Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard, abbreviated CSCR, is a multi-purpose sport facility, located in Montreal, Canada, in the borough of Ahuntsic-Cartierville. The Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard was built for the 1976 Summer Olympics, it played host to the handball and water polo competitions as well as being the training centre for athletics and field hockey during the games. The facility is made up of two buildings: the Michel-Normandin arena and the main building itself. At the heart of the facility lies a ten-lane Olympic-size swimming pool and smaller pool with diving towers, home to the award-winning CAMO swim club, as well as an indoor track, an omni-sport training room and a number of gymnasiums. On the grounds lie a number of other installations: a running track, a regulation-sized soccer pitch, a second pitch with an artificial surface designed for field hockey, but resurfaced in 2006 and configured for soccer and Canadian football, tennis courts, baseball diamonds, so forth.
The running track and the large soccer pitch sit in the middle of a 9,500-seat stadium. The facility plays host to many international sporting competitions. Yearly events include the Défi sportif; the facility is the headquarters for a number of clubs, some of which participate at an elite level, while others, such as Sports Montréal and APADOR, provide services to the general public. Montreal's soccer team, the Montreal Impact played its home games on the large soccer pitch from 1993 to 2007 and both the professional team and their academy trained there until 2015. Montreal Impact's USL-Pro affiliate FC Montreal play their games at Claude Robillard in 2016; the Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard was named for Claude Robillard, the first director of the City of Montreal's urban planning department. The Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard is a centre for high-performance training for a number of sports, including: 1976 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Pp. 118–23. City of Montreal Sports Montréal Défi sportif