The Tigrayans or Tigrinyas are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to Northeast Africa who inhabit the highlands of Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. They speak the Tigrinya language, a direct descendant of the Ge’ez language, spoken in late antiquity. In Eritrea they comprise about 55% of the population, i.e. above three million people, in Ethiopia there are about 4.5 million Tigrayans, according to the 2007 census, most of them in the Tigray Region. Over 90% of Tigrayans are Christians; the great majority are Ethiopian Orthodox Christian and Eritrean Orthodox Christian, but there are minorities of Muslims, Beta Israel, since the 19th century, Protestants in Eritrea and Catholics in Akele Guzay and Agame. Most Tigrayans are traditionally agriculturalists, practicing plough agriculture and keeping cattle and goats, in many areas bees; some Tigrayan groups have a strong local identity and used to have their own traditional, quite autonomous self-organization, sometimes dominated by egalitarian assemblies of elders, sometimes by leading families or local feudal dynasties.
In some areas the meritorious complex played a considerable role in achieving a social status, which led to the creation of local honorary titles and social institutions, to an active involvement in the warfare of Christian Ethiopia. The daily life of Tigrayans are influenced by religious concepts. For example, the Christian Orthodox fasting periods are observed in Tigray. In Tigray the language of the church remains Ge’ez. Tigrayan society is marked by a strong ideal of communitarianism and in the rural sphere, by egalitarian principles; this does not exclude an important role of gerontocratic rules and in some regions such as the wider Adwa area the prevalence of feudal lords, however, still had to respect the local land rights. The first possible mention of the group dates from around 525 AD in Adulis, in which period manuscripts preserving the inscriptions of Cosmas Indicopleustes contain notes on his writings including the mention of a tribe called Tigretes; the majority of Tigrayans trace their origin to early Semitic-speaking peoples whose presence in the region dates back to at least 2000 BC, based on linguistic evidence.
According to Ethiopian traditions, the Tigrayan nobility. Menelik I would become the first king of the Solomonic dynasty of rulers of Ethiopia that ended only with the deposing of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974; the first possible mention of the group dates from around the 8th to 10th centuries, in which period manuscripts preserving the inscriptions of Cosmas Indicopleustes contain notes on his writings including the mention of a tribe called Tigretes. A Portuguese Map in the 1660 shows Medri Bahri consisting of the three highland provinces of Eritrea and distinct from Ethiopia; the Bahre-Nagassi alternately fought with or against the Abyssinians and the neighbouring Muslim Adal Sultanate depending on the geopolitical circumstances. Medri Bahri was thus part of the Christian resistance against Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of Adal's forces, but joined the Adalite states and the Ottoman Empire front against Abyssinia in 1572; that 16th century marked the arrival of the Ottomans, who began making inroads in the Red Sea area.
Bruce noted "They next passed the Mareb, the boundary between Tigre and the Baharnagash". James Bruce in his book published in 1805 located Tigré between Red Sea and the Tekezé River and stated many large governments, such as Enderta and Antalow, the great part of Baharhagash were part of Tigré region based on the language of Tigrinya. By the beginning of the 19th century Henry Salt, who travelled in the interior of Abyssinia, divided the "Abyssinia" region, like James Bruce into three distinct and independent states; these three great divisions are Tigré, the province of Shoa. Henry considers Tigré as the more powerful state of the three, he divided the Tigré kingdom into several provinces as the centre where it was considered the seat of the state being referred as Tigré proper. Provinces of this kingdom includes Enderta, Wojjerat, Shiré and Baharanegash. Hamasien, a district of Baharanegash, is the furthest north and narrowest part of Tigré, Henry places Bejas or Bojas as the people who live north of Tigré state.
By the time Henry made his travel to Abyssinia the seat of the empire, was ruled by Gugsa of Yejju, an Oromo commander who ruled from 1798 up to 1825 as enderase to the powerless emperors with Solomonic dynasty. Tigrayans constitute 6.1% of the population of Ethiopia a
Margaret Backhouse was a successful British portrait and genre painter during the 19th century. Although she was born near Birmingham, Backhouse spent most of her life in London where she showed works on a regular basis at the Royal Academy, the Society of Women Artists and at the Royal Society of British Artists. Backhouse grew up in Woolstaston in Shropshire, her father was the Reverend H Augustus Holden and the family lived in Brighton for a time. Backhouse attended a school in Calais before taking art classes in Paris for a year, she studied under a painter named Grenier and a watercolour artist named Jean-Baptiste Desire Troivaux. When the family relocated to Britain they lived in Cheltenham for a year before Backhouse continued her art education at Sass's Academy in London. Backhouse would take further lessons from William Mulready and from the engraver Edward Goodall. In April 1845 she married the artist Henry Fleetwood Backhouse and began to raise a family while continuing to paint. In the 1860s and 1870s she visited and painted in Switzerland and Italy sketching women at work.
Backhouse exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1846 and 1882. Between 1848 and 1885, some 80 works by Backhouse featured in Society of Women Artists exhibitions and she showed thirty works at the Royal Society of British Artists in the same period. Many of her paintings were issued as chromolithographs by Rowney's. By 1850 Backhouse was living at Richmond Road in Islington and she seems to have stayed there until 1868 or 1869 and lived at Whitley Villas on the Caledonian Road until at least 1885, her daughter, Mary became an artist
Dirt 4 is a rally-themed racing video game developed by Codemasters. It is the twelfth game in the sixth title to carry the Dirt name; the game was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in June 2017, for macOS and Linux in March 2019 by Feral Interactive. Dirt 4 is a racing game focused on rallying. Players compete in timed stage events on off-road terrain in varying weather conditions. Rally stages span five locations: Fitzroy in Australia, Tarragona in Spain, Michigan in the United States, Värmland in Sweden and Powys in Wales. Cars are drawn from a wide variety of competition classes and time periods, such as the Group B cars of the 1980s, Group A and Group N cars from the 1990s and 2000s, Group R cars from the 2010s; the game does not feature World Rally Cars or any elements associated with the World Rally Championship. Dirt 4 introduces a new feature called "Your Stage" that procedurally generates rally stages based on a setting and parameters that the player defines.
As the game does not feature any licensed content for its rally mode, Your Stage is used to generate all of the stages that the player drives on in career mode. The game carries a FIA World Rallycross Championship license, it includes five rallycross circuits: Lydden Hill Race Circuit in Great Britain, Höljesbanan in Sweden, Lånkebanen in Norway, the Circuit de Lohéac in France and the Pista Automóvel de Montalegre in Portugal. Lohéac and Montalegre are new to the series. Both rallycross Supercars and RX Lites are included; the game features multiplayer and cross-platform leaderboards. Landrush mode returns, featuring stadium trucks and buggy racing, with stages from locations in California and Mexico. Just like its predecessor Dirt Rally, Dirt 4 includes Steam Workshop for the PC version. Dirt 4 sees the return of the popular Dirt 3 mode "Joyride" which features multiplayer mini games. Dirt 4 builds upon the team management systems introduced in Dirt Rally and Grid Autosport, with the player hiring personnel to repair the car, oversee the day-to-day operations, boost the team's profile to secure new sponsors.
Players are able to buy and sell new and used cars, with previous results and accident histories affecting the resale value of the car. Dirt 4 was developed by UK-based video game company Codemasters. Codemasters consulted with rally drivers Kris Petter Solberg on the game's handling model; the game features co-driver and commentator voice work from professional co-drivers Nicky Grist and Jen Horsey. The game was announced in January 2017, it was released on Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One on 6 June 2017 in North America, on 9 June 2017 in European regions. Dirt 4 received "generally favorable" reviews from critics, according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. IGN gave the game a 9.2/10, saying "Accessible yet tough and grimy yet gorgeous, Dirt 4 sets a new standard in rally racing – and its well-considered career mode and endless stages inject it with tremendous stamina. Stonking brilliant." Polygon, giving the game a 9/10, said "I've never been more charmed by a racing video game and I could not recommend any other more than Dirt 4, to anyone of any ability.
Dirt 4 is a joy." GameSpot awarded the game a 9/10 and said "If Dirt Rally's punishing difficulty alienated long-time series fans in any way, this commitment to accessibility should help to bring them back, the near-infinite possibilities of Your Stage should keep them playing. Dirt 4 is a shining example of Codemasters at their brilliant best."The game reached number 2 in the UK sales charts in its week of release, only behind Grand Theft Auto V. The game reached number 7 in Australia, number 2 in New Zealand; the game was nominated for "Best Racing Game" in IGN's Best of 2017 Awards. It won the award for the same "Best Racing Game" category in Game Informer's Best of 2017 Awards and their 2017 Sports Game of the Year Awards, in their Reader's Choice Best of 2017 Awards, it came in fourth place for the same category with only 12.5% of the votes. Polygon ranked the game 28th on their list of the 50 best games of 2017, it was nominated for "Racing Game of the Year" at the 21st Annual D. I. C. E. Awards, for "Game, Franchise Racing" and "Sound Effects" at the 17th Annual National Academy of Video Game Trade Reviewers Awards.