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Tikhvin

Tikhvin is a town and the administrative center of Tikhvinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, located on both banks of the Tikhvinka River in the east of the oblast, 200 kilometers east of St. Petersburg. Tikhvin is an industrial and cultural center of the district, as well as its transportation hub. Population: 58,459 , it was known as Predtechensky pogost, Tikhvinsky posad. The name of the town originates from a combination of two words from the Veps language: "tikh" and "vin" mean "road" and "market" respectively; the town is located on an ancient commercial river way. It was first mentioned in 1383 as Predtechensky pogost, when a chronicle reported that a wooden Church of the Dormition was built here. In 1495–1496, Y. K. Saburov, a clerk in the Novgorod Cadastre, mentioned the "... Tikhvin parish and in it, a wooden church..." Its location at the intersection of trade routes which connected the Volga River with Lake Ladoga and the Baltic Sea ensured its rapid development. At the beginning of the 16th century, it was a known commerce and trade center.

In 1507–1515, funded by prince Vasily III of Moscow, on the spot of the burned wooden church, Dmitry Syrkov of Novgorod constructed the monumental stone Cathedral of Dormition, which stands to this day. In 1560, by order of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, the Monastery of Dormition was built on the left bank of the Tikhvinka River. Management of the construction project was entrusted to the son of Dmitry Syrkov. Special importance was placed on the haste of its construction. In the spring and summer of 1560, the large Monastery of Dormition and the smaller Vvedensky convent were built, as well as two trade and industrial settlements with various buildings for residential and religious purposes; the monastery was surrounded by a stockade of sharpened poles. In the mid-17th century, it was replaced by two parallel log walls, filled in between with earth and stones. A covered walkway with arrow slits went along the top of walls and above the walls nine powerful towers were raised. Thus, on the spot of an ancient settlement, an important fortified stronghold was created, which would play a large role in the defense of the northwestern borders of Russia.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Russian state underwent a deep internal crisis. During the Swedish-Polish incursion, the Swedes devastated the region around Novgorod. In 1613, Tikhvin was captured and burned. Tradespeople, sheltering behind the fortress walls of the monastery, survived a prolonged siege and numerous attacks before routing the Swedish army; the fight ended with the expulsion of the Swedes from the area, marking the beginning of the liberation of the Novgorod region from Swedish and Polish forces. Tikhvin blossomed economically during the 18th centuries; the products of Tikhvin's blacksmiths enjoyed special demand and were bought not only in Russian cities but abroad. Tikhvin became one of the points for foreign trade in Russia and Tikhvin Fair was one of the largest in the country; the bloom in trade and crafts in the 17th century contributed to an increase of the settlement's population, which grew considerably. Stone buildings were permitted only on the territory of the monastery.

In the 16th century, in addition to the cathedral, a stone refectory was built, a church dedicated to the birth of the Mother of God was erected in 1581. In 1600, a five-roofed belfry was constructed. An intense period of stone construction took place in the second half of the 17th century, when all the wooden buildings in the monastery were replaced by ones of stone; as a result of these works, a artistic ensemble of historical and architectural monuments was created on the territory of the monastery, preserved to this day, although in the 18th and 19th centuries some of the cloister buildings underwent reconstruction which altered their original appearance. Since their construction in 1560, Tikhvin owed its allegiance to the convent. In 1723, after a prolonged fight, the inhabitants of Tikhvin were freed from monastery control and obtained their own administration, a magistrate who answered to Novgorod Province office; the settlement was not separated from the monastery until 1764, after an edict concerning the transfer of the monastery's property to the state.

In 1773, Tikhvin was granted town status. During World War II, Tikhvin was occupied by Nazi troops from 8 November 1941 to 9 December 1941. Due to counterattacks on the part of Soviet forces, it had to be abandoned after one month, but many architectural monuments were destroyed during that time; the re-capture of Tikhvin is considered to have been vital in the execution of the Road of Life during the Siege of Leningrad, thanks to its railway. It allowed the Soviets to provide much more foodstuffs in comparison to the makeshift land road used. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tikhvin serves as the administrative center of Tikhvinsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with nineteen rural localities, incorporated within Tikhvinsky District as Tikhvinskoye Settlement Municipal Formation. As a municipal division, Tikhvinskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Tikhvinsky Municipal District as Tikhvinskoye Urban Settlement. In Soviet times, the largest employer in Tikhvin was a heavy machine factory, known as Transmash up to 2001, where tractors and defense equipment were manufactured.

In its heyday, 20,000 people were employed there. Th

Teodoro Sandiko

Teodoro Sandiko y Santa Ana was a Filipino lawyer and former senator of the Philippines. Sandiko played important roles in Philippine history when he held various posts in the Aguinaldo cabinet. After the revolution, he went through different positions in local government of Bulacan until he was elected to Philippine Senate in 1919. Sandiko was born in Pandacan, Manila on March 31, 1860 to Miguel Sandiko and María Paz de Santa Ana and was educated and finished Bachelor of Arts at the University of Santo Tomas, he took two years of law but he didn't finish it, instead, he opened a Latin grammar school in Malolos. His radical nationalist ideas irritated the colonial Spanish officials so he sailed to Hong Kong and to mainland Spain where he continued his law school at the University of Madrid, he was not able to finish his course. He managed La Solidaridad on February 15, 1889; when the truce of Biak-na-Bato failed, he joined the return to the Philippines with exiles in Hong Kong. In the Philippines, he held several positions in the revolutionary republic's Aguinaldo cabinet: Minister of Foreign Affairs, Colonel of the General State, a brigadier-general of the army.

When the Americans obtained Philippines after the Spanish–American War, Sandiko became an employee of the Office of the Provost Marshal General. While being employed to the Americans, he cabled secret and valuable information to Aguinaldo government. Sandiko was the alleged author of "Sandiko order", an infamous military instruction in 1899 by him as a general of the Aguinaldo, instructing Filipino soldiers inside American-occupied Manila to rise an insurrection against to United States rule and kill all whites in the city; the "Sandiko order" was an American propaganda to search for Filipino savagery against American sovereignty over the islands and as a casus belli to declare war against insurrection. In 1900 US elections, Theodore Roosevelt used this document to his vice presidential candidacy as further justification to American occupation of the Philippines. Before the Philippine–American War erupted in June 1899, he resigned from office and became Aguinaldo's Minister of the Interior.

After the assimilation of Philippine islands, he entered politics and was elected as the governor of Bulacan in 1906. He remained in office until 1909. In 1914 Nacionalista Party's left wing under the leadership of Sandiko bolted out of the party and established Partido Democrata Nacional or the Democratas. In 1920, he became spokesperson of Kapatiran Magsasaka. From 1919–1931, he served as Senator to the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Philippine Legislatures representing the third senatorial district. In 1934, he was elected as the Second Vice President of the House of Representatives of the Philippines and was a delegate to the 1934–1935 Constitutional Convention for the drafting of the 1935 Constitution. After retiring from public service, he became the manager of Katubusan and La Paz y Buen Viaje cigar factories. Sandiko died of a heart attack on October 19, 1939. Governor Teodoro Sandiko Teodoro Sandiko: Constitution Framer Senators Profile – Teodoro Sandiko

Arifin Zakaria

Tun Arifin bin Zakaria (born 1 October 1950 is a Malaysian lawyer who served as the seventh Chief Justice of Malaysia, serving from 12 September 2011, succeeding Zaki Azmi, until 31 March 2017. After completing his secondary education at Sultan Ismail College, Kota Bahru, he went to read law at the University of Sheffield. Upon graduation, he joined the Malaysian Judicial and Legal Service in September 1974. In 1979, he pursued the Master of Laws degree at University College London and the Bar Final Course at the Council of Legal Education. In June 1980, he was called to the English Bar, in the same year he received his LL. M. from University College London. Prior to his elevation to the High Court Bench of Malaysia, he had served in various capacities in the Government of Malaysia both in the Judicial Office, as well as in the Legal Department. Among the positions held by him were Magistrate, President of the Sessions Court, Senior Assistant Registrar of the High Court, Federal Counsel and Senior Federal Counsel, Legal Advisor to Ministry of Primary Industries, Legal Advisor to the Public Services Department, Legal Advisor to Malacca and Perak, Deputy Parliamentary Draftsman and Senior Federal Counsel of the Inland Revenue Department.

On 1 March 1992, he was appointed Judicial Commissioner of the High Court of Malaya and two years after, he was appointed as a High Court Judge of Malaya. In 2002, he was elevated to the Court of Appeal of Malaysia. In 2005, he was elevated to the Federal Court of Malaysia, he was appointed to the present post of the Chief Judge of the High Court of Malaya effective 18 October 2008. His elevation as the Chief Justice of Malaysia was on 12 September 2011. During his judicial service, he had served many position like the Judge of the Special Court, the Member of the Legal and Judicial Service Commission, the Committee Member of the Higher Court Method and the Lower Court Method, the Panel Member of the Sharia Appeal Court of Kelantan and the Member of the Qualification Board. Malaysia: Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia - Tan Sri Grand Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia - Tun Kelantan: Knight Commander of the Order of the Crown of Kelantan - Dato' Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Loyalty to the Crown of Kelantan - Dato' Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Crown of Kelantan – Dato' Pahang: Grand Knight of the Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang - Dato' Sri Penang.

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